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Full text of "Popular music of the olden time : a collection of ancient songs, ballads, and dance tunes, illustrative of the national music of England : with short introductions to the different reigns, and notices of the airs from writers of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries : also a short account of the minstrels"

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[POPULAR    MUSIC 

OF    THE 

I         .OLDEN    TIME; 

A   COLLECTION    OF 

j       ANCIENT     SONGS,     BALLADS, 

AND 

4  DANCE    TUNES,       .'  ;  '      ,    ' 

ILLUSTRATIVE  OF  THE 

NATIONAL    MUSIC    OF    ENGLAND 

WITH    SHORT    INTRODUCTIONS    TO    THE    DIFFERENT     REIGNS, 

AND   NOTICES   OF   THE   AIRS   FROM   WRITERS   OF   THE 

SIXTEENTH  AND  SEVENTEENTH  CENTURIES. 

ALSO 

A  SHORT  ACCOUNT   OF  THE   MINSTRELS. 

BY 


W.  CHAPPELL,  F.S.A. 


THE  WHOLE  OF  THE  AIRS  HARMONIZED  BY  G.  A.  MACFARREN. 


VOL.    II. 


"  Prout  §tmt  ill!  Anglican!  concentus  suavissimi  quidem,  ac  elegantes." 

Thesaurus  Harmonious  LAVRENCINI,  Romani,  1603. 


LONDON  : 
CRAMER,    BEALE,    &    CHAPPELL,    20!,    REGENT    STREET. 


3652- 


CONTENTS  OF  VOL.  II. 


.Conjectures  as  to  Robin  Hood            .                                  .                .                ».  .     387 

Ballads  relating  to  the  adventures  of  Robin  Hood     .                 »                '.  391  to  400 
Puritanism  in  its  effects  upon  Music  and  its  accessories,  and  Introduction  to  the 

Commonwealth  period                v|              .                 .                 •                 •  401  to  424 

Songs  and  ballads  of  the  civil  war,  and  of  the  time  of  Cromwell             .  425  to  466 

Introduction  to  the  reign  of  Charles  II.                              .                 .                 .  .     467 

Songs  and  ballads  from  Charles  II.  to  William  and  Mary         .                 .  491  to  608 

Remarks  on  Anglo-Scottish  songs.                      ....  609  to  616 

Specimens  of  ditto      .                 .             <    »                 .                 .                 .'  617  to  620 

Introduction  to  the  reigns  of  Queen  Anne,  George  I.,  and  George  II.            .  621  to  632 

Songs  and  ballads  of  ditto          .                                  .                 .                 .  633  to  726 

Traditional  songs  of  uncertain  date               ^".  727  to  749 

Religious  Christmas  Carols         .                ».'              .                 .                .  750  to  758 

Appendix,  consisting  of  additions  to  the  Introductions,  and  of  further  remarks 

upon  the  tunes  included  in  both  volumes  .                 ....  759  to  788 

Characteristics  of  National  English  Airs,  and  summary             .                .  789  to  797 


POPULAR    MUSIC 

OF  THE  OLDEN  TIME. 


ROBIN    HOOD. 


OP  all  the  sources  from  which  the  fertile  muse  of  the  English  ballad-maker  has 
derived  its  subjects,  no  one  has  proved  more  inexhaustible,  or  more  universally 
acceptable  to  the  hearers,  than  the  life  and  adventures  of  Robin  Hood ;  and  it  is 
indeed  singular  that  an  outlaw  of  so  early  a  time  "  should  continue  traditionally 
popular,  be  chanted  in  ballads,  have  given  rise  to  numerous  proverbs,  and  still 
be  l  familiar  in  our  mouth  as  household  words,'  in  the  nineteenth  century.'  " — 

"  In  this  our  spacious  isle,  I  think  there  is  not  one 
But  he  hath  heard  some  talk  of  him  and  Little  John ; 
And,  to  the  end  of  time,  the  tales  shall  ne'er  be  done 
Of  Scarlock,  George  a  Green,  and  Much,  the  miller's  son ; 
Of  Tuck,»the  merry  friar,  which  many  a  sermon  made 
In  praise  of  Robin  Hood,  his  outlaws,  and  their  trade." 

Drayton's  Polyolbwn,  Song  26. 

The  theories,  relative  to  the  time  in  which  he  lived,  vary  greatly.  Accord- 
ing to  Ritson,  he  was  born  in  the  reign  of  Henry  II.,  about  the  year  1160,  and 
his  true  name  was  Robert  Fitzooth,  "  which  vulgar  pronunciation  easily  corrupted 
into  Robin  Hood."  M.  Thierry  looks  upon  him  as  the  chief  of  a  band  of  Saxons 
resisting  their  Norman  oppressors.  Mr.  Wright  considers  him  as  a  mere  creature 
of  the  imagination — a  Robin  Goodfellowa — "  one  amongst  the  personages  of  the 
early  mythology  of  the  Teutonic  people. " b  A  writer  in  The  Westminster 
Review*  believes  him  to  have  been  one  of  the  Exheredati,  adherents  of  Simon 
de  Montfort,  who  were  reduced  to  the  greatest  extremities  after  the  battle  of 
Eve  diam.  The  Rev.  Joseph  Hunter,d  the  last  writer  on  the  subject,  adopts 
the  account  given  of  him  in  the  earliest  ballads,  and  has  brought  forward 
much  curious  historical  evidence  to  confirm  that  account.  In  his  view,  Robin 
Hool  lived  in  the  reign  of  Edward  II.,  and  was  in  all  probability  one  of  the 
"  Contrariantes,"  supporters  of  the  Earl  of  Lancaster,  who  was  defeated  at  the 
battle  of  Borough-bridge,  in  the  month  of  March,  1321-2. 

•  Tl  e  idea  that  Robin  Hood  is  only  a  corruption  of  c  March,  1840. 

Robin  o'th'wood  was  started  by  a  correspondent  of  The  A  Critical  and  Historical  Tracts,  No.  4,  "The  Ballad- 

Gentle/ian's  Magazine  for  March,  1793.  Hero,  Robin  Hood."   By  the  Rev.  Joseph  Hunter,  Vice 

b  Efiayt  on   the  Literature,  &c.,  of  the  Middle  Ages.  Pres.  Soc.  Ants.,    8vo.,  1852. 
By  Thomas  Wright,  2  vols.,  8vo.,  1860. 

2c 


388  ENGLISH   SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 

Neither  Mr.  "Wright  nor  Mr.  Hunter  place  any  reliance  upon  the  passage  so 
often  quoted  from  the  Scoti-Qhronicon,  concerning  Robin  Hood.  They  regard  it  as 
part  of  the  addition  made  to  the  genuine  Fordun  in  the  fifteenth  century.  The 
earliest  notice,  therefore,  in  our  literature  is  contained  in  Longland's  poem, 
The  Vision  of  Pierce  Ploughman,  where  one  of  the  characters,  representing 
Sloth,  says : — 

"  I  kan  not  perfitly  my  paternoster  as  the  Preist  it  singeth, 
But  I  kan  rymes  of  Robyn  Hode,  and  Randolf,  Earl  of  Chester." 

The  date  of  this  poem  is  between  1355  and  1365,  and  proves  the  popularity 
of  the  ballads  among  the  common  people,  in  the  reign  of  Edward  HI.  "  It  seems 
also  to  prove,"  says  Mr.  Hunter,  "  that,  in  that  reign,  the  outlaw  was  regarded 
as  an  actual  person,  who  had  a  veritable  existence,  just  as  Randolph,  Earl  of 
Chester,  was  a  real  person." 

Three  of  the  ballads  of  Robin  Hood  are  contained  m  manuscripts  which  cannot 
be  of  later  date  than  the  fourteenth  century.  They  are  TJie  Tale  of  Robin  Hood 
and  the  Monk;  Rolm  Hood  and  the  Potter;  and  jRoftm  Hood  and  Grandeleyn. 
But,  "  far  above  these  in  importance,  is  the  poem — for  it  can  hardly  be  called  a 
ballad — which  was  printed  by  Winkyn  de  Worde  in  or  about  1495.  It  is  entitled 
The  Lytel  Gf-este  of  Rolyn  Hood;  and  is  a  kind  of  life  of  him,  or  rather  a  small 
collection  of  the  ballads  strung  together,  so  as  to  give  a  continuity  to  the  story, 
and  with  a  few  stanzas  here  and  there,  which  appear  to  be  the  work  of  the  person 
who,  in  this  manner,  dealt  with  such  of  the  ballads  as  were  known  to  him." 
The  language  of  the  ballads  thus  incorporated  is  the  same  as  of  the  three  ballads 
above  cited,  that  is,  of  the  fourteenth  century.  Mr.  Hunter  takes  The  Lytel 
Creste  as  a  guide,  and,  comparing  it  with  historical  evidence,  worked  out  by  his 
own  researches,  has  produced  an  account  so  probable  and  so  confirmatory,  as  to 
leave  scarcely  a  doubt  as  to  its  general  accuracy. 

Many  writers,  like  Grafton,  Stow,  and  Camden,  have  referred  to,  or  quoted, 
Major's  account  of  Robin  Hood,  in  his  history,  which  was  first  published  in  Paris, 
in  1521 ;  but,  when  Major  assigns  him  to  the  reign  of  Richard  the  First,  he 
writes  only  from  conjecture.  His  words  are,  u  Circa  haec  tempora,  ut  augur  or, 
Robertus  Hudus  Anglus  et  Parvus  Joannes,  latrones  famatissimi,  in  nemoribus 
latuerunt,"  &c.  (Historia  Majoris  Britannice,  per  Joannem  Majorem,  1521, 
fol.  lv.,  v°.) 

"We  may  therefore  revert  to  the  history  of  Robin  Hood,  as  it  was  published 
in  1495  from  materials  of  the  preceding  century;  and,  although  derived  from 
ballads,  Bayle  has  truly  said,  that  "  a  collection  of  ballads  is  not  an  unprofitable 
companion  to  an  historian ; "  while  Selden  has  gone  so  far  as  to  say  that  they  are 
often  truer  than  history. 

Without  entering  far  into  detail,  I  may  mention  a  few  of  the  points  adduced 
by  Mr.  Hunter,  in  corroboration  of  the  ballad  account,  and  refer  the  reader,  for 
the  life  of  Robin  Hood,  to  his  excellent  little  book. 

The  Lytel  G-este  lays  the  scene  in  the  reign  of  one  of  the  Edwards,  who  is 
distinguished  throughout  by  no  other  epithet  than  that  of  "  Edward  our  comely 


ROBIN   HOOD.  389 

king,"  and  who  makes  a  progress  in  Lancashire.  Edward  I.  was  never  in 
Lancashire  after  he  became  king,  nor  Edward  III.  in  the  early  years  of  his  reign, 
(to  which  only  could  the  ballads  refer),  and  probably  never  at  all.  But 
Edward  II.,  to  whom  the  term  "our  comely  king,"  so  often  applied,  would  cer- 
tainly be  more  appropriate  than  either  to  his  father  or  his  son,  made  one  progress 
in  Lancashire,  and  only  one  ;  this  was  in  the  autumn  of  the  seventeenth  year  of 
his  reign,  A.D.  1323. 

The  ballad  represents  the  king  at  this  time  as  especially  intent  on  the  state  of 
his  forests,  which  were  greatly  wasted  by  the  depredations  of  such  men  as 
Robin  Hood ;  and  we  have  historical  evidence  of  Edward  having  then  visited 
several  of  his  forests,  and  of  his  endeavour  to  reform  the  existing  abuses. 

In  the  ballad  we  are  told  that  the  king  pa/dons  Robin  Hood,  and  takes  him 
into  his  service ;  that  he  remains  at  court  a  year  and  three  months ;  at  which 
time,  his  money  being  nearly  exhausted,  and  his  men  having  left  him,  except  Little 
John  and  Scathelock,  he  becomes  moody  and  melancholy,  and  resolves  to  leave  the 
court.  He  obtains  permission  from  the  king  for  a  short  time,  under  the  plea  of 
making  a  pilgrimage  to  a  chapel  he  had  dedicated  to  Mary  Magdalene  in  Barns- 
dale  ;  he  returns  to  the  forest  and  there  passes  the  remainder  of  his  life. 

The  date  of  the  king's  progress  to  Lancashire  being  the  autumn  of  1323,  would 
fix  the  period  of  Robin's  reception  into  his  service  a  little  before  the  Christmas  of 
that  year ;  and  in  the  "  Jornal  de  la  Chambre,"  from  the  16th  April  to  the  7th 
of  July,  1324,  Mr.  Hunter  finds,  for  the  first  time,  the  name  of  "  Robyn  Hode  " 
in  the  list  of  persons  who  received  wages  as  "  vadlets  "  or  porters  of  the  chamber. 
The  entry  is  a  payment  to  nineteen  persons,  whose  names  are  specified,  from  the 
24th  of  March,  at  the  rate  of  3d.  per  day.  In  the  account  which  immediately 
precedes  this,  the  names  of  those  receiving  payment  are  not  specified,  and  that  of 
Robin  Hood  has  not  been  observed  in  any  document  bearing  an  earlier  date,  and  the 
last  payment  to  him  is  on  the  22nd  of  November,  in  the  following  year. 

Further,  the  Court  Rolls  of  the  Manor  of  Wakefield,  of  the  ninth  year  of 
Edward  II.,  shew  that,  before  the  Earl  of  Lancaster's  rebellion,  there  was  a 
Mobertus  Hood  (familiarly  Robin  Hood),  a  person  of  some  consideration,  living  at 
or  ne;tr  Wakefield,  which  is  at  no  great  distance  from  Barnsdale,  and  some  of  the 
familv  continued  there  till  1407. 


The  three  principal  reasons  for  the  excessive  popularity  of  Robin  Hood  were, 
firstly,  his  free,  manly,  warm-hearted,  and  merry  character — his  protection  of  the 
oppressed,  and  hatred  of  all  oppressors,  whether  clerical  or  lay ;  secondly,  the  en- 
couragement given  to  archery,  which  kept  his  name  alive  among  the  people ;  and, 
thirdly,  the  incorporation  of  characters  representing  Robin  Hood  and  his 
companions  with  the  May- day  games  of  the  people. 

On  che  first  point  Grafton  says,  "And  one  thing  was  much  commended  in  him, 
that  ho  would  suffer  no  woman  to  be  oppressed  or  otherwise  abused.  The  poorer 
sort  of  people  he  favoured,  and  would  in  no  wise  suffer  their  goods  to  be  touched 


390  ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 

or  spoiled,  but  relieved  and  aided  them  with  such  goods  as  he  gat  from  the  rich, 
•which  he  spared  not,  namely,  the  rich  priests,  fat  abbots,  and  the  houses  of  rich 
carles :  and  although  his  theft  and  rapine  was  to  be  contemned,  yet  the  aforesaid 
author  [Major]  praiseth  him  and  saith,  that  among  the  number  of  thieves  he  was 
worthy  the  name  of  the  most  gentle  thief."  (Chronicle,  p.  84.)  As  to  the  zeal 
with  which  Robin  Hood's  day  was  kept,  Bishop  Latimer  complains,  in  his  sixth 
sermon  before  King  Edward  VI.,  that  having  sent  overnight  to  a  town,  that  he 
would  preach  there  in  the  morning,  when  he  arrived  he  found  the  church  door 
locked,  and  after  waiting  half  an  hour  and  more  for  the  keys,  one  of  the  parish 
came  to  him,  and  said,  "  Sir,  this  a  busy  day  with  us,  we  cannot  hear  you;  it  is 
Robin  Hood's  day : "  and  he  was  obliged  to  give  place  to  Robin  Hood. 

Although  there  are  so  many  songs  about  Robin  Hood,  I  have  found  but  few 
tunes  peculiarly  appropriated  to  them.  Many  of  the  ballads  were  sung  to  one 
air ;  and  some  to  airs  which  have  already  been  printed  in  this  collection  under 
other  names. 

Dr.  Rimbault,  in  his  Musical  Illustrations  of  Robin  Hood,  appended  to  Mr. 
Gutch's  edition  of  the  ballads,  has  printed  the  air  of  The  Bailiff's  Daughter 
(ante  p.  203),  as  one  of  the  tunes  to  which  "Robin  Hood  and  the  Finder  of 
Wakefield  "  was  sung.  His  "  Robin  Hood  and  Queen  Katherine  "  is  the  tune  of 
The  Three  Ravens  (ante  p.  59).  "Robin  Hood  rescuing  the  Widow's  Son"  is 
another  version  of  Lord  Thomas  and  Fair  Ellinor  (ante  p.  145).  "  Robin  Hood 
and  Allan-a-Dale  "  is  the  first  half  of  Drive  the  cold  winter  away  (ante  p.  193). 
"  Robin  Hood  and  the  Duke  of  Lancaster  "  (a  satire  upon  Sir  Robert  Walpole)  is 
to  the  tune  of  The  Allot  of  Canterbury  (p.  350). 

When  Ophelia  sings  the  line,  "  For  bonny  sweet  Robin  is  all  my  joy,"  she 
probably  quotes  from  a  ballad  of  Robin  Hood,  now  lost ;  because  the  tune  in  one 
part  of  William  Ballet's  Lute  Book  is  entitled  Robin  Hood  is  to  the  greenwood 
gone,  and  in  another  part,  Bonny  sweet  Robin.  This  has  already  been  printed 
among  Ophelia's  songs  (ante  p.  233.) 

The  ballad  of  The. Friar  in  the  Well,  of  which  I  have  found  the  tune,  but  not 
the  original  words  (ante  p.  273),  was,  in  all  probability,  a  tale  of  Robin  Hood's 
fat  friar.  Anthony  Munday,  in  his  play,  The  Downfall  of  Robert,  Earl  of 
Huntington,  refers  to  it  as  one  of  the  merry  jests  that  had  formed  the  subject  of 
some  previous  play  about  Robin  Hood.  At  the  end  of  act  iv.,  where  Little  John 
expresses  his  doubts  as  to  the  king's  approval,  because  the  play  contains  no  "jests 
of  Robin  Hood;  no  merry  morrices  of  Friar  Tuck,"  &c.,  the  friar,  personating 
the  author,  answers — 

"  I  promised  him  a  play  of  Robin  Hood,      As  how  the  friar  fell  into  the  well, 
His  honourable  life  in  merry  Sherwood.        For  love  of  Jenny,  that  fair  bonny  belle ; 
His  majesty  himself  survey'd  the  plot,  How  Greenleaf   robb'd    the    shrieve    of 

And  bade  me  boldly  write  it,  it  was  good.  Nottingham, 

For  merry  jests  they  have  been  shewn     And  other  mirthful  matter  full  of  game. 

before,  Our  play  expresses  noble  Robert's  wrong." 

"  How  Greenleaf  robb'd  the  sheriff  of  Nottingham,"  is  told  in  the  Lytel  Creste  of 
Robin  Hood,  where  Little  John  assumes  the  name. 


ROBIN   HOOD.  391 

ROBIN  HOOD  AND  ARTHUR-A-BLAND. 

Although  a  greater  number  of  the  Robin  Hood  ballads  were  probably  sung  to 
this  tune  than  to  any  other,  I  have  not  found  earlier  authority  for  it  than  the 
ballad-operas  which  were  published  from  1728  to  1750.  It  does  not  appear  in 
Tlw  Dancing  Master,  being  unfitted  for  dancing  by  its  peculiar  metre. 

In  The  Jovial  Crew,  1731,  the  following  song  is  adapted  to  the  tune : — 

"  In  Nottinghamshire  Then  cast  away  care, 

Let  them  boast  of  their  beer  Bid  adieu  to  despair, 

With  a  hey  down,  down,  and  a  down,         With  a  down,  down,  down,  and  a  down, 

I'll  sing  in  the  praise  of  good  sack;  Like  fools,  our  own  sorrows  we  make, 

Old  sack  and  old  sherry  In  spite  of  dull  thinking, 

Will  make  your  heart  merry  While  sack  we  are  drinking, 

Without  e'er  a  rag  to  your  back.  Our  hearts  are  too  easy  to  ache." 

Frcm  the  burden,  the  tune  is  sometimes  entitled  Hey  down,  a  down;  it  is  also 
referred  to  under  the  names  of  Arthur- a- Bland,  Robin  Hood,  Robin  Hood  revived, 
Robin  Hood  and  the  Stranger,  &c. 

Among  the  Robin  Hood  ballads  sung  to  it,  besides  those  which  the  above  names 
indicate,  are  "Robin  Hood  and  the  Beggar,"  "Robin  Hood  and  the  four 
Beggars,"  "  Robin  Hood  and  the  Bishop  "  (not  the  Bishop  of  Hereford),  "  Robin 
Hood's  Chase,"  "Robin  Hood  and  Little  John,"  "Robin  Hood  and  the  Butcher," 
"  Robin  Hood  and  the  Ranger,"  and  "  Robin  Hood  and  Maid  Marian." 

Among  the  King's  Pamphlets  (Brit.  Mus.,  vol.  xv.,  fol.)  is  one  to  this  air, 
dated  Jan.  17, 1659,  "  To  the  tune  of  Robin  Hood."  It  is  entitled  "  The  Gang: 
or  the  nine  worthies  and  champions,  Lambert,"  &c.,  and  is  a  political  ballad  on 
the  nine  leading  members  of  the  Committee  of  Safety,  who  were  deprived  of  their 
commissions  and  ordered  away  from  London  by  the  Rump  Parliament,  after  the 
depression  of  Lambert's  party,  and  their  own  return  to  power.  (Reprinted  in 
Political  Ballads,  edited  by  Mr.  Wright,  for  the  Percy  Society,  p.  188.)  It 
commences  thus : — 

.  "  I&  was  at  the  birth  of  a  winter's  morn,  Johnnie  Lambert  was  first,  a  dapper  squire, 
WTith  a  hey  down,  down,  a-down,  down,  With  a  hey  down,  <fcc., 

Before  the  crow  had  hist,  A  mickler  man  of  might 

That  nine  heroes  in  scorn,  Was  ne'er  in  Yorkshire, 

Of  a  Parliament  forlorn,  And  he  did  conspire 

Walk'd  out  with  sword  in  fist.  With  Vane  Sir  Harry,  a  knight,"  (fee. 

Pepys  says  in  his  Diary,  on  the  9th  of  January,  1659,  "  I  heard  Sir  H,  Vane 
•was  this  day  voted  out  of  the  House,  and  to  sit  no  more  there,"  &c. 

The  black-letter  copy  of  the  ballad  of  "  Robin  Hood  and  Arthur-a-Bland,"  in 
the  Collection  of  Anthony  £  Wood,  is  entitled  "  Robin  Hood  and  the  Tanner  ;  or, 
Robin  Hood  met  with  his  match :  A  merry  and  pleasant  song,  relating  the  gallant 
and  fierce  combat  fought  between  Arthur  Bland,  a  tanner  of  Nottingham,  and 
Robin  Hood,  the  greatest  and  most  noblest  archer  in  England.  Tune  is  Robin 
Hood  and  the  Stranger"  As  it  consists  of  thirty-seven  stanzas,  it  is  too  long  to 
reprint.  I  therefore  refer  the  reader  to  Ritson's  Robin  Hood,  ii.  31 ;  to  Evans' 
Old  Ballads,  ii.  113 ;  or  any  other  collection  of  songs  of  this  celebrated  outlaw. 


392 


ENGLISH   SONG  AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


Jovially. 


ft 


In      Nottingham  there  lives  a      jol  -  ly  tan-ner,  With    a 


down, 


down- a- down  down,  His  name  it  is       Arthur  -  a    -     Bland  ;     There's  ne  -  ver  a  squire  in 


fottmgham  -  shire  Dare        bid       hold      Ar  -  thur  stand. 


ROBIN  HOOD  AND  THE  CURTAL  FRIAR. 

This  chant  was  found  by  Dr.  Rimbault,  written  in  a  contemporary  hand,  on  the 
fly-leaf  of  a  copy  of  Parthenia,  which  was  printed  in  1611.  The  copies  of  the 
ballad  in  Anthony  a  Wood's  and  in  the  Pepys  Collections  (vol.  i.,  No.  37)  are 
entitled  "  The  famous  battle  between  Robin  Hood  and  the  curtail  Fryer.  To  a 
new  Northern  tune" 

The  ballad  of  "  The  noble  Fisherman ;  or,  Robin  Hood's  preferment,"  is 
directed  to  be  sung  to  the  tune  of  In  Summer  time,  with  which  line  this  ballad 
begins ;  and  perhaps  both  derive  the  name  from  the  ballad  of  "  King  Edward  the 
Fourth  and  the  Tanner  of  Tamworth,"  which  commences  in  a  similar  way.  The 
last  was  entered  on  the  books  of  the  Stationers'  Company,  to  William  Griffith, 
in  1564-5.  Percy  reprints  from  a  copy  in  the  Bodleian  Library,  dated  1596, 
and  the  tune  is  mentioned  in  "  Noctes  Templarise,"  written  in  the  year  1599 
(Harl.  MSS.)  : — "  This  night  Stradilax,  in  great  pomp,  miscalled  himself  a 
Lord.  .  .  Poet  Natazonius  saluted  him  to  the  tune  of  The  Tanner  and  the  King" 
The  ballad  begins  thus : — 

"  In  summer  time,  when  leaves  grow  greene, 

And  blossoms  bedecke  the  tree, 
King  Edward  wolde  a  hunting  ryde, 

Some  pastime  for  to  see." 
Another  copy  will  be  found  in  the  Roxburghe  Collection,  i.  176. 


KOBIN    HOOD. 


393 


In  the  Pepys  Collection,  i.  463,  there  is  a  ballad  to  the  tune  of  In  Summer 
time,  but  in  quite  a  different  metre,  and  therefore  to  another  tune.     It  is  "  The 
Rh  aer's  new  Trimming.     To  the  tune  of  In  Sommer  time  ;  "  beginning— 
"  A  rimer  of  late  in  a  barber's  shop 
Sate  by  for  a  trimming  to  take  his  lot, 
Being  minded  with  mirth,  until  his  turn  came, 
To  drive  away  time  he  thus  began ; " 
in  stanzas  of  four  lines,  and  "  imprinted  at  London  by  T.  Langley." 

The  ballad  of  "  Robin  Hood  and  the  curtal  Friar "  is  reprinted  in  Ritson's 
Rooin  Hood,  ii.  59;  in  Evans'  Old  Ballads,  ii.  152  ;  &c. 

Douce  explains  "  curtal "  to  mean  "  curtailed,"  or  Franciscan  friar ;  because, 
conformably  to  the  injunction  of  their  founder,  they  wore  short  habits.  He 
quo;es  Staveley's  Romish  Horseleech  to  prove  that  Franciscans  were  so  called. 
Illustrations  of  Shakspeare,  i.  60,  8vo.,  1807. 


"         u,  Jovially. 

^                                    ill 

•r~    -ft 

-     

^_ 

!      J        1      D  

—  \  1  1       ^ 

-f\\     ft  (-*  1  1 

-i  *  • 

.      J 

-J^  *^*      ^  1(— 

~H  —  J  —  d  —  ^  —  h 

SQ                     J 

u.    !                                        »m> 

«J                                  ^ 
In     sum-mer  time,    when    let 

ives  grow  green,  And  flow  'rs  are  fresh  and 

S&EEgE 

t=T^  

-rv 

•     -.L    - 

-j  ^  J- 

S  L_sq_  

1 

L  1  —  ^j  p  1_ 

Bold    Ro 


^^  ^*    ^     £        £  *-     -T       -&• 

-  bin  Hood  and  his    mer  -  ry  men  Were  well  dis-pos'd  to      play. 


ROBIN  HOOD  AND  THE  FINDER  OF  WAEEFIELD. 

T3iis  ballad  was  entered  at  the  Stationers'  Hall  to  Mr.  John  Wallye  and  Mrs. 
Toyi ,  in  the  first  year  of  the  registers,  1557-8.  It  was  so  popular  as  to  be  twice 
alluded  to  by  Shakespeare,  in  his  Henry  IV.,  Part  H.,  act  v.,  sc.  3;  and  in 
The  Merry  Wives  of  Windsor,  act  i.,  sc.  1.  Also  in  Beaumont  and  Fletcher's 
Phihster,  act  v.,  sc.  4;  and  quoted  in  Munday's  Downfall  of  Robert,  Earl  of 
Hunington,  and  Munday  and  Chettle's  Death  of  Robert,  Earl  of  Huntington; 
both  printed  in  1601. 

It  is  sometimes  quoted  as  "  Robin  Hood,  Scarlet,  and  John ; "  sometimes  as 
"Th-3  Finder  of  Wakefield"  (a  "pinder"  being  the  pen  or  pound-keeper  for 
impo  inding  stray  cattle)  ;  and  the  tune  occasionally  entitled  Wakefield  on  a 
green,  from  the  ditty.  Two  copies  are  to  be  found,  under  that  name,  among 
the  lute  manuscripts  (said  to  be  Dowland's)  in  the  Public  Library,  Cambridge 
(D.  d.  ii.  11,  and  D.  d.  iii.  18)  ;  a  third  is  contained  in  a  manuscript  volume  of 


394 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


virginal   music   of   the  time  of   Queen  Elizabeth,   now   in   the   possession   of 
Dr.  Rimbault. 

The  two  lute  copies  seem,  like  many  others  in  the  same  manuscripts,  to  have 
no  tune  in  them.  They  are  probably  pieces  constructed  upon  the  ground  or  base 
of  the  air,  to  shew  off  the  execution  of  florid  passages  on  the  lute.  I  have  con- 
stantly found  melody  sacrificed  in  that  way,  both  in  lute  and  virginal  music.  In 
virginal  music,  the  skeleton  of  the  tune  can  generally  be  found  running  through 
the  piece,  sometimes  in  the  base,  and  sometimes  in  an  inner  part ;  although  the 
arranger  occasionally  constructs  a  wholly  different  treble.  The  tune,  in  this 
instance,  is  to  be  found  in  the  base,  and  in  the  inner  parts ;  and  I  am  indebted  to 
Dr.  Rimbault  for  extracting  it.  Such  versions  are  never  very  satisfactory,  but 
must  be  accepted  when  no  better  are  to  be  had. 

Drayton,  in  his  Polyolbion,  Song  28,  speaking  of  Robin  Hood,  says: — 
"  But  of  his  merry  man,  the  Pindar  of  the  town 
Of  Wakefield,  George-a-Green,  whose  fames  so  far  are  blown 
For  their  so  valiant  fight,  that  every  Freernaris  Song 
Can  tell  you  of  the  same^ — so  be  ye  talk'd  on  long, 
For  ye  were  merry  lads,  and  those  were  merry  days." 

If  this  be  one  of  the  Freemen's  Songs,  to  which  Drayton  alludes,  I  suppose  some 
of  the  voices  sang  the  burden. 

The  ballad  is  contained  in  Ritson's  Rolin  Hood,  ii,  16 ;  Evans'  Old  Ballads, 
ii.  100 ;  &c. 


-^    Moderate  time. 

~ET7  1  r         [ 

In  Wakefield  there  lives   a 
There's  neither  Knight  nor  Squire 

'.):.,  fl   i  ^  2= 

4=^     ^  —  p  —  t—  hi  —  f  —  ^^P~^ 

jol  -  ly     Pin  -  der,      In     Wake-field   all        on    a 
>,  says  the   Pin  -  der,     Nor    Baron  that    is               so 

if      '•      f     AM—  r-=> 

—  "2-8  ES 

| 

-  -f  E  ±4-*—.  J  =  

CHORUS. 


SOLO. 


green, 
bold, 


In    Wake  -field   all    on    a 
Nor    Baron  that    is 


Dare  make  a    tres-pass    to  the 


CHORUS. 


« 


;ownof  Wakefield,  But  his  pledge  goes  to    the  Pin  -  fold,    His  pledge  goes  to    the  Pin  -  fold. 


fe 


£ 


^n==^= 


£±£ 


^ 


r 


ROBIN   HOOD. 


395 


ROBIN  HOOD  AND  THE  BISHOP  OF  HEREFORD. 

This,  now  the  most  popular  of  the  Robin  Hood  Ballads,  is  taken  from  .a  broad- 
side, with  music,  "  printed  for  Daniel  Wright,  next  the  Sun  Tavern  in  Holborn." 
"  These  byshoppes  and  these  archebyshoppes, 

Ye  shall  them  bete  and  bynde," 

was  an  injunction  carefully  impressed  by  Robin  Hood  upon  his  followers,  and 
many  are  the  tales  of  tricks  he  played  upon  them,  and  upon  the  wealthy  abbots. 
Li  Ritson's  opinion,  "  the  pride,  avarice,  and  hypocrisy  of  the  clergy  of  that  age 
afforded  him  ample  justification ; "  but  Ritson's  pen  was  equally  dipped  in  gall 
against  the  clergy  of  every  age,  and  I  verily  believe  it  was  the  outlaw's  injunc- 
tion to  his  followers,  rather  than  any  other  motive,  that  induced  Ritson  to  make 
him  his  hero.  Dray  ton,  in  his  Polyollion,  in  the  26th  Song,  says  of  Robin  Hood — 
"  From  wealthy  abbots'  chests,  and  churls'  abundant  store, 
Which  oftentimes  he  took,  he  shared  among  the  poor ; 
No  lordly  Bishop  came  in  lusty  Robin's  way, 
To  hiin  before  he  went,  but  for  his  feast  must  pay ; 
The  widow  in  distress  he  graciously  reliev'd, 
And  remedied  the  wrongs  of  many  a  virgin  griev'd." 

The  title  of  the  ballad  is,  "  The  Bishop  of  Hereford's  entertainment  by  Robin 
Hood  and  Little  John,  &c.,  in  merry  Barnsdale." 


0,1    I—  1   1    . 

H  K^  1  1  —  1  h- 

-/  /> 

±d  c  —  «  —  *— 

—  1  Ps>  1  !  —  M  1 

T^l  1 

l(\\\  1     J 

J 

I            J      J                       ^        1  «         0 

EZ.       * 

J                                       ^ 

•      J         J            *i 

,    j  *  i 

O      some  they  will   talk      of     brave    Robin  Hood,  And  some  of 

ba  -  rons 

i)  .  /  1  —  t 

—  j»  

9  F~i  —  J  F  —  15  

_i  L 

\  j 

d            •            r 

r       • 

1 

m 


l>old;      But     I'll    tell  ye  how  he  serv'd  the  Bish- op  of  Hereford,  And  robb'd  him  of  his    gold. 


A^  it  befel  in  merry  Barnsdale, 

All  under  the  greenwood  tree, 
Tl  e  bishop  of  Hereford  was  to  come  by, 

With  all  his  company. 

Cc  me,  kill  me  a  ven'son,  said  bold  Robin  Hood, 
Come,  kill  me  a  good  fat  deer,  [day, 

Tl  e  Bishop  of  Hereford's  to  dine  with  me  to- 
,\nd  he  shall  pay  well  for  his  cheer. 

We'll  kill  a  fat  ven'son,  said  bold  Robin  Hood, 
\nd  dress  it  by  the  highway  side  ; 

Ai  id  we  will  watch  the  bishop  narrowly, 
Lest  some  other  way  he  should  ride. 


Robin  Hood  dress'd  himself  in  shepherd's  attire, 

With  six  of  his  men  also; 
And,  when  the  Bishop  of  Hereford  came  by, 

They  about  the  fire  did  go. 

O  what  is  the  matter?  then  said  the  bishop, 
Or  for  whom  do  you  make  this  ado  ? 

Or  why  do  you  kill  the  king's  venison, 
When  your  company  is  so  few  ? 

We  are  shepherds,  said  bold  Robin  Hood, 
And  we  keep  sheep  all  the  year, 

And  we  are  disposed  to  be  merry  this  day, 
And  to  kill  of  the  king's  fat  deer. 


396 


ENGLISH   SONG  AND  BALLAD  MUSIC. 


You  are  brave  fellows !  said  the  bishop, 
And  the  king  of  your  doings  shall  know  : 

Therefore  make  haste,  and  come  along  with  me, 
For  before  the  king  you  shall  go. 

O  pardon,  O  pardon,  said  bold  Robin  Hood, 

O  pardon,  I  thee  pray ; 
For  it  becomes  not  your  lordship's  coat 

To  take  so  many  lives  away. 

No  pardon,  no  pardon,  said  the  bishop, 

No  pardon  I  thee  owe ; 
Therefore  make  haste  and  come  along  with  me, 

For  before  the  king  you  shall  go. 

Then  Robin  set  his  back  against  a  tree, 

And  his  foot  against  a  thorn, 
And  from  underneath  his  shepherd's  coat 

He  pull'd  out  a  bugle  horn. 

He  put  the  little  end  to  his  mouth, 

And  a  loud  blast  did  he  blow, 
Till  threescore  and  ten  of  bold  Robin's  men 

Came  running  all  on  a  row  : 

All  making  obeysance  to  bold  Robin  Hood ; 

Twas  a  comely  sight  for  to  see. 
What  is  the  matter,  master,  said  Little  John, 

That  you  blow  so  hastily  ? 

O  here  is  the  Bishop  of  Hereford, 

And  no  pardon  we  shall  have. 
Cut  off  his  head,  master,  said  Little  John, 

And  throw  him  into  his  grave. 


O  pardon,  O  pardon,  said  the  bishop, 

O  pardon,  I  thee  pray  ; 
For  if  I  had  known  it  had  been  you, 

I'd  have  gone  some  other  way. 

No  pardon,  no  pardon,  said  bold  Robin  Hood, 

No  pardon  I  thee  owe ; 
Therefore  make  haste  and  come  along  with  me, 

For  to  merry  Barnsdale  you  shall  go. 

Then  Robin  he  took  the  bishop  by  the  hand, 
And  led  him  to  merry  Barnsdale ;     [night, 

He  made  him  to  stay  and  sup  with  him  that 
And  to  drink  wine,  beer,  and  ale. 

Call  in  a  reckoning,  said  the  bishop, 
For  methinks  it  grows  wondrous  high  ; 

Lend  me  your  purse,  master,  said  Little  John, 
And  I'll  tell  you  bye  and  bye. 

Then  Little  John  took  the  bishop's  cloak, 

And  spread  it  upon  the  ground, 
And  out  of  the  bishop's  portmantua 

He  told  three  hundred  pound. 

Here's  money  enough,  master,  said  Little  John, 

And  a  comely  sight  'tis  to  see; 
It  makes  me  in  charity  with  the  bishop, 

Tho'  he  heartily  loveth  not  me. 

Robin  Hood  took  the  bishop  by  the  hand, 
And  he  caused  the  music  to  play  ;     [boots, 

And  he  made  the  old  bishop  to  dance  in  his 
And  glad  he  could  so  get  away. 


ROBIN  HOOD  AND  GUY  OF  GISBORNE. 

This  tune  is  included  among  the  English  airs  in  Nederlandtsche  Gf-edenck- 
Clanck,  1626 ;  but  the  English  name  is  not  given.  In  The  Dancing  Master,  from 
1650  to  1690,  it  is  entitled  "  The  chirping  of  the  Lark ; "  and  in  Playford's 
Introduction  to  the  Skill  of  Music,  "  The  Lark." 

It  is  evidently  a  ballad- tune ;  but  I  have  not  found  any  ballad  having  par- 
ticular reference  to  the  song  of  the  lark,  and  of  suitable  metre,a  except  "  Robin 
Hood  and  Guy  of  Gisborne."  In  that,  the  story  hangs  upon  Robin  Hood's  being 
awakened  from  a  dream  by  the  song  of  the  woodweele,  or  woodlark ; b  and  I  have 
therefore  coupled  them. 


»  The  measure  of  the  ballad  alone  would  not  give  any 
indication:  it  is  too  common.  Any  ballads  like  "The 
Child  of  Elle ;  "  any  to  the  tune  of  Chevy  Ctiace,  or  to 
Black  and  yellow  (which  I  have  not  succeeded  in  indenti- 
fying>  might  be  sung  to  it. 

b  "Wodewall,"  and  '« woodweele,"  are  explained  by 
Jamieson,  in  his  Scottish  Dictionary,  as  synonimous 
words — "a  bird  of  the  thrush  kind;  rather,  perhaps,  a 
woodlark : "  but  then,  quoting  Sibbald's  Chronicle  of 
Scottish  Poetry,  he  adds,  "It  appears  to  be  the  green 
woodpecker."  I  imagine  the  first  to  be  the  "wood- 
pecker,"  and  the  second  the  woodter/r."  In  Adrianus 


Junius's  Nomenclator,  translated  by  John  Higins,  8vo., 
1585,  p.  58,  he  renders  "  Galgulus,  galbula,  ales  luri- 
dus,"  by  "  the  bird  that  we  call  a  witwal  or  woodwall;" 
and  according  to  Ray  (Syn.  Av.,  p.  43)  our  wit  wall  is  a 
sort  of  woodpecker.  But  the  "  -woodweele  "  of  the  ballad, 
and  the  "woodtfafe"  of  Chaucer,  are  certainly  singing- 
birds.  See  the  following  lines  from  The  Romaunt  of  the 
Rose,  in  the  folio  Chaucer  of  1542:— 

"  In  many  places  were  nyghtyngales, 

Alpes,  fynches,  and  wodwales, 

That  in  her  swete  songe  delyten 

In  thylke  places  as  they  habyten." 


ROBIN   HOOD. 


397 


The  ballad,  which  is  as  long  as  Chevy  CJiace,  has  only  hitherto  been  discovered 
in  Dr.  Percy's  folio  manuscript,  and  the  name  of  the  tune  is  not  given.     It  is 
printed  in  the  Reliques  of  Ancient  Poetry ;  in  Ritson's,  and  other  collections  of 
}>ongs  of  Robin  Hood. 
Cheerfully. 


-fa*  j—  r  j  .   J   ,[>->   J   I  «| 

=j-j=j  1  J  J  J    I  J 

When  shaws   are   sheen,   and     shrubs 
.m.     [woods  are  bright,] 

full  fair,  And  leaves    both  large   and 

—  —  r  r  r  r  r  i 

_k_l7.L  1  —  i  — 

L_l_ 

:~~l  h  ;  '  p—  f 

i  2  ff  — 

j       J        1      J    |      I         J        I  1 

J      .      I    =5= 

^  [_ 

H  m  •  •  •  m  4—  
0  _  _  It  —  m  a  — 

*            f--f- 

long,                 It's       mer 

«        f-        F           ^               LV 

r^^r    i 

-  ry    walking  in  the    fair    fo  -  rest  To     hear    the  small  birds' 

'  ~f  1  P  ^  - 

w  :  F 

-H  

_j  _|  J  L  

k_  |  1  
\~^                                  \ 

-£-d  —  j-TT""^ 

-J    J        1       j       1      |        j        J    J       1 

[  _  J  |]_J  [_^                      •         Hi  1     »-- 

song.             The     woodweele  sang,  and      would 

not     cease,  Sit  -  ting    up  -  on     the 

B—  f  I-H— 

p  —  .  

—f  —  F  f  •—      —  F  — 

4         1     £3 

I 

f 

i        '      i 

ill                     i 

»~N                           1                   1 

K    1                                1     T-J    . 

.rfm  j 

1       i 

—  1  !_,_-]  —  ,  —    

-A  :  ^~~5" 

*         *    i    • 

—  d  —  ^     j 

i                        *1           i  - 

c^                     J      • 

m         J 

r-j           '            m         J 

J         -     II    -       ~          •       M        ^  . 

^                   i                   r-^r  -)       •   - 

spray,                So    loud   he     wa  -   ken'd    Ro-bin  Hood  In  the  Greenwood  where  he    lay. 
,     ^     f      F    ,    F    *      -                     -I  *        -      r        f      m       „ 

.    i  —  ,  —  \-^—T 

?  —  p  —  J  — 

.  ,  .  ^± 

-^- 

J          • 
1  1  J 

E5 

ROBIN  HOOD,  ROBIN  HOOD,  SAID  LITTLE  JOHN. 

An   ancient  dance-tune  of  "  Roben  Hude "   is   mentioned  in  Wedderburn's 
Complainte  of  Scotland.  1549,  and  again  in  "  The  pityfull  Historic  of  two  loving 
Italians,  Gaulfrido  and  Barnado,"  &c.,  "translated  out  of  Italian  into  Englishe 
n.eeter  by  John  Drout.     Imprinted  by  Henry  Binneman,  1570  " — 
"  The  minstrell  he  was  called  in  some  pretty  jest  to  play, 
Then  Robin  Hood  was  called  for,  and  Malkin  ere  they  went  ; 
But  Barnard  ever  to  the  mayde  a  loving  look  he  lent, 
And  he  would  very  fayne  have  daunct  with  hir,"  &c. 
This  may  be  the  dance  in  question.     It  is  arranged  in  Pammelia  (1609)  as  one 


398 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


of  three  country-dances,  with  words,  to  be  sung  together,  and  entitled  "  A  Round 
for  three  country- dances  in  one." 

Gailv. 


Ko-bin  Hood,  Ro-bin  Hood,  said  lit-tle  John,  Come  dance  before  the    Queen, 


wi  r  •   *r  - 


In      a    red    pet-ti-coat    And    a  green  jack-et,  A    white   hose      and        a      green. 


^ 


Another  dance  of  Robin  Hood  is  printed  by  Dr.  Rimbault,  from  one  of  the  lute 
manuscripts  at  Cambridge,  but  the  same  tune  bears  the  name  of  Robin  Reddock 
in  William  Ballet's  Lute  Book. 


THE  LADY  FRANCES  NEVILL'S  DELIGHT. 

At  the  end  of  the  edition  of  The  Dancing  Master  printed  in  1665,  Playford 
added  some  "  new  and  pleasant  English  tunes  for  the  treble-violin,"  which  he 
afterwards  published  in  a  separate  form,  with  others,  under  the  title  of  Apollo^s 
Banquet  for  the  Treble  Violin.  The  Lady  Frances  NeviWs  Delight  is  to  be  found 
in  both  collections ;  in  MusicWs  Delight  on  the  Cithreny  1666 ;  and  in  sundry 
manuscripts. 

Some  copies  differ  in  the  second  part  of  the  tune,  therefore  the  two  versions  are 
here  printed. 

The  title  of  The  Lady  Frances  Nevilles  Delight  gives  no  clue  to  the  original 
words ;  and,  in  default  of  them,  Mr.  Oxenford  has  written  the  following  song  of 
Robin  Hood.  There  is  a  great  similarity  of  character  between  this  air  and  that 
of  The  Hunter  in  his  career  (ante  p.  256)  ;  and  in  it  the  reader  will  probably  find 
a  similar  resemblance  in  a  modern  popular  song. 
Boldly,  and  in  moderate  time. 

3^-+ 


§ 


t- 


Come,  here's  to  Ro  -  bin  Hood,  Of  the  merry   greenwood,  And  a    blessing    on   his 


1= 


KOBIN   HOOD. 


399 


name,  Tho' with  shaft  and  bow,  He  de-parted  long  a- go,  Un   -   perish-ing  shall  be  his 


fame.  Like  a      no-ble  soul  He     doated  on  the  bowl,  And  a  goblet  of  the  best  love 


—  j  —  3E3  

-e 

.  j__ 

9  —  (•- 

~v  —  '  — 

-^—  -—  IM-  

j 

^T  — 

_l  !  d— 

-f^       - 

—  -r!?^  .^i    i  i 

a 

r 

q     '    •    J     J_^=H 

J—  j-  -j-^ 

we 

i 

So,  though  bold     Ro-bin's  gone,  Still  his    heart 

lives       on,     And  we 

,         1—  i  •,  —  ,         -                &                         -fi 

—  T" 

—  F  — 

*^P=J~" 

—  P  r  —  p  hk— 

—  P  —  F  —  j 

— 

j 

-I  

=F—     d 

g 

r    —  1  \4— 

i 

^     mini 

'                                                                   «r-i         1        r^n 

i 

r   J    I  J     J    J    H      r^^ 

J                         i 

>                          J       •       1              • 

*           *     J     J 

\                            \         J       m    \ 

^         *  i    i    ^    •                •           * 

drink  to   him  with  three  times    three.                    So,  though  bold     Robin's  gone,  Still  his 

_ 

0    A 

-  1                          F 

•         *              F       r           i 

'     •     ^ 

t*                if* 

iff                r 

r    - 

J       i                      r 

/     ' 

n                     L 

-N  i               j 

-I 
-2- 

heart     lives       on,     And   we     drink  to   him  with  three  times       three 


m 


Good  Robin  oft  gave  chace 
To  the  monks  with  sullen  face, 

Till  he  made  them  drop  their  gear ; 
And  their  hearts  would  quake, 
And  their  lusty  limbs  would  shake, 

If  gallant  Robin  Hood  was  near. 


Like  that  yeoman  brave, 

We  hate  a  canting  knave, 
As  the  very  worst  of  companie  : 

So,  though  bold  Robin's  gone, 

Still  his  heart  lives  on, 
And  we  drink  to  him  with  three  times  three. 


400 


ENGLISH   SONG  AND   BALLAD  MUSIC. 


Whene'er  he  filled  his  can, 

He  would  drink  to  Marian, 
To  that  kind  and  lovely  maid ; 

And  he  vow'd  her  smile 

Would  the  worst  of  cares  beguile, 
While  tippling  in  the  greenwood  shade ; 


As  the  bowl  we  pass, 

Each  quaffs  it  to  his  lass, 
Vowing  none  to  be  so  fair  as  she : 

So,  though  bold  Robin's  gone, 

Still  his  heart  lives  on, 
And  we  drink  to  him  with  three  times  three. 


The  following  is  another  second  part  to  the  preceding  tune : — 


~^~\¥~  —  V  J 

-»  —  m  —  m  —  fr~ 

-|     J     J     J     4  1  

j    J     J     *  f- 

mV*        2      * 

_  m                       r 

1            *       '     F 

J     •                 ui.      •      J 

VsLJ 

9      L              a 

m     9     m     9     T       m 

tti             •      1 

Like  a       no  -  ble  soul,  &c. 

'  \  •     U 

ET5  1?     r 

^1                  * 

i                               f 

gT 

^ 


r 


401 


PURITANISM, 

IN    ITS    EFFECTS    UPON    MUSIC  AND    ITS    ACCESSORIES. 


PURITANISM,  which  so  long  exercised  a  pernicious  influence  upon  music  in  this 
country,  has  been  traced  to  a  division  and  separation  between  the  exiles  in  Queen 
Mary's  reign :  one  party  being  for  retaining  the  whole  order  of  service,  as  set 
forth  in  the  reign  of  Edward  VI. ;  and  the  other  for  using  only  a  part.  Accord- 
ing to  Neal,  such  of  the  clergy  as  refused  to  subscribe  to  the  Liturgy,  ceremonies, 
and  discipline  of  the  Church  of  England  in  1564,  were  then  first  called  Puritans.* 

"  Like  the  Church  of  Geneva,"  says  Hentzner,  "  they  reject  all  ceremonies 
anciently  held,  and  admit  neither  organs  nor  tombs  in  their  places  of  worship, 
and  entirely  abhor  all  difference  in  rank  among  churchmen,  such  as  bishops, 
deans,"  &c. 

This,  with  their  objections  to  the  Liturgy,  to  surplices,  copes,  and  square  caps, 
was  an  early  stage  of  that  puritanism  which,  having  once  gained  the  ascendancy, 
aimed  not  only  at  the  vices  and  follies  of  the  age,  but  also  at  the  innocent 
amusements,  the  harmless  gaieties,  and  the  elegancies,  of  life. 

Queen  Elizabeth  shewed  her  desire  for  the  retention  of  cathedral  service  in 
the  first  year  of  her  reign.  Among  the  injunctions  issued  to  the  clergy  and 
laity  in  1559,  the  forty-ninth  was  for  the  continuance  and  maintenance  of  singing 
in  the  church.b  It  recites,  also,  that "  because  in  divers  collegiate  and  some  parish 
churches,  there  have  been  livings  appointed  for  the  maintenance  of  men  and 
children,  to  use  singing  in  the  church,  by  means  whereof  the  laudable  science 
of  music  hath  been  had  in  estimation,  and  preserved  in  knowledge; "  therefore 
the  Queen's  Majesty,  not  "meaning  in  any  wise  the  decay  of  any  thing  that  might 
tend  to  the  use  and  continuance  of  the  said  science,"  commands  that  "  no  alter- 
ation be  made  of  such  assignments  of  living  as  have  been  appointed  either  to  the 
use  of  singing  or  music  in  the  church,  but  that  the  same  do  remain." 

In  her  own  chapel  the  service  was  not  only  sung  with  the  organ  and  voices, 
but  slso  "  with  the  artificial  music  of  cornets,  sackbuts,  &c.,  on  festival  days." 

•  Ac'  ording  to  Neal,  "  Puritan  is  a  name  of  reproach,  at  least,  were  ultra-Calvinists.    The  more  vehement  Puri- 

derivec  from  the  Cathari,  or  Puritani,  of  the  third  century  tans  in  Elizabeth's  reign  were  called  "  Barrowists,"  or 

after  Cl  rist,  but  proper  enough  to  express  their  desires  of  "Brownists."     They  maintained  "  that  it  is  not  lawful 

a  more  mre  form  of  worship  and  discipline  in  the  Church."  to  use  the  Lord's  prayer  publicly  in  the  church  for  a  set 

He  givt  s  no  authority  for  this  derivation,  and  if,  as  Hentz-  form  of  prayer,  and  that  all  set  and  stinted  prayers  are 

ner  saj  s  (1598),  they  were  first  called  Puritans  by  the  mere  babbling  in  the  sight  of  the  Lord,  and  not  to  be  used 

Jesuit   Sandys,  it  may  be  doubted  whether  he  sought  in  public  Christian  assemblies."    See  the  paper  drawn  up 

in  so  umote  a  period  for  a  name.    In   The  Travels  of  by  the  Lord  Keeper  Puckring,  printed  by  Strype  (iv.  202, 

Cosmo  ///.,  Grand  Duke  of  Tuscany,  in  England  in  1669,  8vo.,  Oxford,  1824).     This  was  the  sect  that  afterwards 

the  wrii  er  says, "  They  are  called  Puritans  from  considering  prevailed. 

themse  ves  pure  and  free  from  all  sin,  leaving  out,  in  the  b  This  injunction  is  imperfectly  printedin  Neal's  History, 

Lord's  i  rayer,  Etdimitte  nobisdebitanostra,"  "And forgive  of  the  Puritans  (i.  152,  Svo.,  1732).    It  will  be  found  in 

us  our  1  respasses."  This  is  a  probable  derivation,  as  some  Hawkins'  History,  ii.  543,  Svo. ;  and  Bumey,  iii.  18. 


402  PUBITANISM,   ETC. 

In  1582,  she  revoked  all  commissions  for  penal  statutes  against  concealments 
(except  where  suits  were  pending) ;  because  those  commissions  had  been  abused  by 
persons  endeavouring  to  obtain  the  property  of  churches  and  corporations.  In  a 
letter  from  Lord  Burghley,  in  1586,  we  find  that  "  Hir  majestic  is  pleased  to 
confirme  unto  the  vicars-choral  of  the  Churche  of  Hereford  the  graunt  of  their 
landes,  which  hath  been  sowght  by  divers  greedie  persons  to  have  been  gotten 
from  them  as  concealed."  (Ugerton  Papers,  p.  119,  4to.,  Camden  Soc.,  1840.) 
Nevertheless,  when  she  gave  the  control  of  the  lands  and  benefactions  intended 
for  singing  men  and  children,  together  with  other  church  property,  into  the  hands 
of  deans  and  chapters,  she  did  more  injury  to  the  cause  she  desired  to  advocate 
than  all  that  puritanism  could  effect.  Puritanism  triumphed  for  a  time, — but  the 
grasp  of  deans  and  chapters  has  never  been  removed. 

It  was  not  long  before  the  seed  thus  sown  produced  its  fruits.  During  the 
Queen's  life,  the  injunctions  she  had  issued  had  the  effect  of  restraining,  in  some 
measure,  the  misappropriation  of  the  funds  devoted  to  the  musical  service ;  but 
her  injunctions  died  with  her,  and  the  trusts  remained. 

The  misappropriation  of  these  funds  was  brought  before  the  notice  of  James  L, 
in  a  paper  entitled  "  The  Occasions  of  the  decay  of  Music  in  Cathedrall  and 
Colledge  Churches  at  this  time."  It  is  therein  stated  that,  "  whereas,  in  former 
tymes  of  poperye,  divers  benifactions  have  been  given  to  singing  men  which  have 
falne  within  the  danger  of  concealement,  and  have  been  againe  restored  to  Deanes 
and  Canons  by  newe  grauntes  by  the  late  Queene,  with  intencion  that  the  same 
should  be  imploied  as  before;  contrariwise  the  same  is  swallowed  up  by  the 
Deanes  and  Canons,  because  they  only  are  the  body  of  that  incorporation,  and 
the  singing  men  are  but  inferior  members."  Among  the  means  resorted  to, 
were — Firstly,  the  giving  the  actual  sum  at  which  the  lands  were  formerly  valued, 
"so  as  whereas  20  nobles*  a  yeare,  thirty  yeares  agone,  would  at  this  day  have 
equalled  the  worth  of  twenty  markes  a  yeare  in  the  maintenance  of  a  man,  the 
same  hath  lost  its  value  the  one  halfe,  by  reason  of  the  dearness  of  the  tyme 
present."  Secondly,  the  places  of  singing  men  were  "  bestowed  upon  Taylors,  and 
Shoemakers,  and  Tradesmen,  which  can  singe  only  so  muche  as  hath  bene  taught 
them"  [not  read  music]  ;  "and  divers  of  the  said  places  are  bestowed  upon  their 
owne  men,  the  most  of  which  can  only  read  in  the  church,  and  serve  their  master 
with  a  trencher  at  dynner,  to  the  end  that  the  founder  may  pay  the  Deanes  or 
Prebends  man  his  wages,  and  save  the  hyre  of  a  servant  in  the  master's  purse." 
Thirdly,  "  All  indeavour  for  teachinge  of  musick,  or  the  forminge  of  voices  by 
good  teachers  was  altogether  neglected,  as  well  in  men  as  children;"  and  "many 
that  go  under  the  name  of  choristers,  have  that  same  small  maintenance,  not  for 
singing,  but  beinge  dumbe  choristers,  the  said  wages  being  by  ill  governors  bestowed 
upon  them  to  keepe  and  maintaine  them  for  some  other  instruction,  which  the 
founder  never  meant;  so  that  in  Colledges  where  there  are  founded  sixteen,  twelve, 
or  ten  choristers,  scarce  four  of  them  can  singe  a  note." 

•  The  value  of  a  noble  was  6*.  8d.,  and  of  a  mark        accounts  in  marks  and  nobles  in  the  lawyers'  bills  of 
13«.  4d.    We  have  a  vestige  of  the  old  method  of  keeping        the  present  day. 


IN   ITS   EFFECTS   UPON   MUSIC,  ETC.  403 

Fourthly,  that  the  number  of  singers  had  already  been  halved  in  many  places, 
and  the  money  went  into  prebendaries'  purses;  that  half  the  lodgings  or  chambers 
appointed  by  the  founders  for  the  singing  men,  had  either  been  kept  by  preben- 
daries, or  let  at  a  yearly  rent,  they  pocketing  the  money ;  and  that  places  were 
left  open  a  year  and  a  half,  under  pretence  of  not  having  found  competent  persons. 
If,  therefore,  says  the  writer,  in  cathedrals,  where  the  original  number  of  singers 
was  forty>  "  now  diminished  to  twenty,"  they  be  again  "  lessened  to  ten,  how 
absurd  will  it  be  that  such  large  and  stately  buildings  should  be  supplied  by  so 
few,  whose  voices  will  only  sound  but  as  a  little  clapper  in  a  great  bell ! " 

It  ends  with  a  recommendation  that  the  statutes  of  every  foundation  may  be 
examined;  for,  although  deans  lived  like  deans,  and  prebendaries  and  canons 
lived  like  prebendaries  and  canons,  "  the  poor  singing  men  do  live  like  miserable 
beggars ; "  and  "  if  the  said  lands  be  not  employed  to  the  true  use  and  intention 
of  the  founder,  as  the  members  are  sworn  to  preserve  them,  the  aforesaid  oath  is 
violated  and  broken,  and  the  abuse  needeth  reformation."  a 

As  these  abuses  were  not  reformed,  it  may  be  inferred  that  the  deans  and 
chapters  were  too  powerful  for  the  singing  men,  as  they  were  in  the  late  eccle- 
siastical commission,  which  has  perpetuated  the  misappropriation  of  the  trusts 
intended  for  their  benefit  by  the  founders.  Well  might  the  poet  exclaim  that — 

"  fat  Cathedral  bodies 
Have  vef-y  often  but  lean  little  souls." b 

As  to  the  Puritans,  many  of  the  clergy  who  were  raised  to  preferments  in 
Queen  Elizabeth's  reign,  spent  the  time  of  their  exile  in  such  churches  as 
followed  the  Genevan  form  of  worship,  and  returned  much  disaffected  to  the  rites 
and  ceremonies  that  were  re-established,  and  especially  to  cathedral  service.  The 
dislike  to  cathedral  service  was  not  exclusively  acquired  in  exile,  for  Thomas 
Becon,  who  was  afterwards  made  Prebendary  of  Canterbury  by  Queen  Elizabeth, 
had  printed  his  Authorized  Rtliqiies  of  Rome  in  the  last  year  of  the  reign  of 
Edward  VI.  In  that  work  he  says,  "  As  for  the  Divine  Service  and  Common 
Prayer,  it  is  so  chaunted  and  minced  and  mangled  of  our  costly,  hired,  curious, 
and  nice  musitions  (not  to  instruct  the  audience  withall,  nor  to  stirre  up  men's 
minds  unto  devotion,  but  with  a  lascivious  harmony  to  tickle  their  ears),  that  it 
may  justly  seeme,  not  to  be  a  noyse  made  of  men,  but  rather  a  bleating  of  brute 
beasts ;  whiles  the  choristers  neigh  a  descant  as  it  were  a  sort  of  colts ;  others 
belL  >w  a  tenour  as  it  were  a  company  of  oxen ;  others  bark  a  counterpoint  as  it 
wer<>  a  kennell  of  dogs;  others  roar  out  a  treble  like  a  sort  of  bulls;  others 
grunt  out  base  as  it  were  a  number  of  hogs."  c 

In  1572,  Thomas  Cartwright,  a  violent  Puritan,  and  Margaret  Professor  of 

a  TI  e  manuscript  from  which  these  extracts  are  made  gistrum  Eleemosynaries  D.  Pauli  Londinensis,  4to.,  1827  ; 

is  in  t:ie  British  Museum  (MSS.  Reg.  18,  B.  19),  bound  and  A  Correspondence  and  Evidence  respecting  the  ancient 

up  with  James  the  First's  versification  of  the  Psalms  in  Collegiate  School  attached  to  St.  Paul's  Cathedral,   4to., 

his  ow  i  handwriting.  1832.    Also  the  various  publications  of  Pring,  the  organist 

bSe(  on  this  subject,  An  Apology  for  Cathedral  Service,  of  Bangor.    The  case  of  the  Minor  Canons  of  Canter- 

8vo.,  H39.     The  Choral  Service  of  the  United  Church  of  bury,  &c.,  &c.    The  same  tale  of  violated  trusts  is  told 

England  and  Ireland,  by  the  Rev.  John  Jebb,  8vo.,  1843.  in  all. 

Miss  Ilackett's  three  privately-printed  books,  viz.,  Brief  c  This  passage  is   quoted  by  Prynne,  in  his  Histrio- 

Accouitt  of  Cathedral  and  Collegiate  Schools,  with  an  ab-  mastix,   the  Player's  Scourge,   4to.,    1633,  as  well  as  an 

sttact  of  their  Statutes  and  Endowments,  4to.,  1827 ;    Re-  extract  already  printed  here(Note  C,  p.  18),  from  John  of 

2D 


404 


PURITANISM, 


Divinity  at  Cambridge,  attacked  cathedral  music,  and  even  the  service  of  the 
Queen's  own  Chapel,  in  a  similar  spirit.  "  In  all  their  order  of  service,"  said 
he,  "  there  is  no  edification,  according  to  the  rule  of  the  Apostle,  but  confusion. 
They  toss  the  Psalms,  in  most  places,  like  tennis-balls."  This  is  in  allusion  to 
the  verses  being  sung  alternately  by  the  choir  on  the  two  sides  of  the  dean  and 
precentor.  "As  for  organs  and  curious  singing,  though  they  be  proper  to  Popish 
dens  (I  mean  to  cathedral  churches),  yet  some  others  also  must  have  them.  The 
Queen's  Chapel,  and  these  churches,  which  should  be  spectacles  of  Christian 
reformation,  are  rather  patterns  and  precedents  to  the  people  of  all  superstition." 


Salisbury  (and  which  I  have  verified  by  a  contemporary 
manuscript,  written  for  Symon,  Abbot  of  St.  Alban's, 
who  was  installed  A.D.  1167,  and  died  in  1188.  See  MSS. 
Reg.  13,  D.  4,  British  Museum);  also  the  following, 
equally  curious  for  the  early  history  of  music  in  England, 
from  Aelredus,  Abbot  of  Rivaulx,  in  Yorkshire,  who  died 
A.D.  1166.  Prynne  prints  the  original  Latin  in  a  note,  and 
quotes  from  Speculum  Charitatia,  lib.  ii.,  cap.  23,  Bibl. 
Patrum,  vol.  xiii.,  p.  Ill,  "  Let  me  speake  now  of  those 
who,  under  the  shew  of  religion,  doe  obpalliate  the  busi- 
nesse  of  pleasure  :  who  usurpe  those  tilings  for  the 
service  of  their  vanity,  which  the  ancient  Fathers  did 
profitably  exercise  in  their  types  of  future  things. 
Whence  then,  I  pray,  all  types  and  figures  now  ceasing, 
whence  hath  the  Church  so  many  Organs  and  Musicall 
Instruments?  To  what  purpose,  I  demand,  is  that 
terrible  blowing  of  Belloes,  expressing  rather  the  crackes 
of  Thunder,  than  the  sweetnesse  of  a  voyce?  To  what 
purpose  serves  that  contraction  and  inflection  of  the 
voice  ?  This  man  sings  a  base,  this  a  small  meane,  an- 
other a  treble,  a  fourth  divides  and  cuts  asunder,  as  it 
were,  certaine  middle  notes.  One  while  the  voyce  is 
strained,  anon  it  is  remitted,  nowagaine  it  is  dashed,  and 
then  againe  it  is  inlarged  with  a  lowder  sound.  Some- 
times, which  is  a  shame  to  speake,  it  is  enforced  into 
an  horse's  neighings ;  sometimes,  the  masculine  vigor 
being  laid  aside,  it  is  sharpened  into  the  shrilnesse  of  a 
woman's  voyce  :  now  and  then  it  is  writhed,  and  retorted 
with  a  certaine  artificiall  circumvolution.  Sometimes 
thou  mayst  see  a  man  with  an  open  mouth,  not  to  sing, 
but,  as  it  were,  to  breath'out  his  last  gaspe,  by  shutting 
in  his  breath,  and  by  a  certaine  ridiculous  interception  of 
his  voyce,  as  it  were  to  threaten  silence,  and  now  againe 
to  imitate  the  agonies  of  a  dying  man,  or  the  extasies  of 
such  as  suffer.  In  the  mean  time,  the  whole  body  is 
stirred  up  and  downe  with  certaine  histrionical  gestures: 
the  lips  are  wreathed,  the  eyes  turne  round,  the  shoulders 
play,  and  the  bending  of  the  fingers  doth  answer  every 
note.  And  this  ridiculous  dissolution  is  called  religion  ; 
and  where  these  things  are  most  frequently  done,  it  is 
proclaimed  abroad  that  God  is  there  more  honourably 
served.  In  the  meane  time,  the  common  people  standing 
by,  trembling  and  astonished,  admire  the  sound  of  the 
Organs,  the  noyse  of  the  Cymbals  and  musicall  Instru- 
ments, the  harmony  of  the  Pipes  and  Cornets  :  but  yet 
looke  upon  the  lascivious  gesticulations  of  the  Singers, 
the  meretricious  alternations,  interchanges,  and  infrac- 
tions of  the  voyces,  not  without  derision  and  laughter; 
so  that  a  man  may  thinke  that  they  came,  not  to  an  Ora- 
tory, or  house  of  prayer,  but  to  a  Theatre ;  not  to  pray, 
but  to  gaze  about  them  :  neither  is  that  dreadfull  majesty 
feared  before  whom  they  stand,  etc.  Thus,  this  Church 
singing,  which  the  holy  Fathers  have  ordained  that  the 
weake  might  be  stirred  up  to  piety,  is  perverted  to  the 
use  of  unlawful!  pleasure,"  etc.  The  above  passage  is  so 


descriptive  of  the  state  of  church  music  in  England  in 
themiddleof  the  twelfth  century,  that  I  rr gret  not  having 
seen  it  in  time  for  insertion  in  the  text,  in  its  proper  place. 
It  corroborates  Dr.  Rimbault's  account,  in  his  History  of 
the  Organ,  that  at  that  time  organs  had  but  one  stop,  and 
that  Pipes,  Cornets,  and  Cymbals  (of  a  small  description, 
tuned  in  sets)  were  used  with  them.  Among  the  early 
improvements  in  the  construction,  were  the  imitations  of 
those  instruments  by  stops.  The  description  of  the  sing- 
ing in  four  parts,  and  of  the  airs  and  graces,  and  the 
singers,  have  so  modern  an  appearance,  that  they  might 
almost  have  been  written  yesterday.  Prynne  prints  the 
original  Latin,  from  Bibl.  Patrum,  but  to  ensure  that  no 
interpolations  have  been  made,  I  have  collated  that  copy 
with  a  manuscript  of  the  Speculum  Charitatis,  written  in 
the  thirteenth  century,  and  now  in  the  British  Museum. 
It  is  MSS.  Reg.  5.  B.  9,  and  belonged  to  the  Monastery  of 
St.  Mary,  at  Coggeshall,  in  Essex.  The  name  of  the 
author  is  variously  latinized,  Aelredus,  Ailredus, 
Ealredus,  &c.,  his  English  name  being  Ethelred. 
The  passage  in  question,  at  fol.  191  of  the  Manuscript,  is 
as  follows: — "  De  his  nunc  sermo  sit,  qui  specie  religionis 
negotium  voluptatisobpalliant :  quicaquae  antiqui  patres 
in  typis  futororum  salubriter  exercebant,  in  usum  vani- 
tatis  usurpant.  Unde  quaeso,  cessantibus  jam  typis  et 
figuris,  unde  in  Ecclesia  tot  Organa  totCymbala?  Ad 
quid  rogo  terribilis  ille  follium  flatus,  tonitrui  potius  fra- 
gorem  quam  vocis  exprimens  suavitatem?  Ad  quid  ilia 
vocis  contractio  et  infractio?  Hie  succinit,  ille  discinit 
alter  supercinit,  alter  medias  quasdam  notas  dividit  et 
incidit.  Nunc  vox  stringitur,  nunc  frangitur,  nunc  im- 
pingitur,  nunc  diffusiori  sonitu  dilatatur.  Aliquando, 
quod  pudet  dicere,  in  equinos  hinnitus  cogitur,  aliquando, 
virili  vigore  deposito,  in  faeminiae  vocis  gracilitate  acuitur : 
nonnunquam  artificiosa  quadam  circumvolutione  torque- 
tur  et  retorquetur.  Videas  aliquando  hominem  aperto 
ore,  quasi  intercluso  halitu  expirare,  non  cantare,  ac  ridi- 
culosa  quadam  vocis  interceptione,  quasi  minitari  silen- 
tium,  nunc  agones  morientium,  vel  extasim  patientium 
imitari.  Interim  histrionicis  quibusdam  gestibus  totum 
corpus  agitatur;  torquentur  labia,  rotant  oculi,  ludunt 
humeri  et  ad  singulas  quasque  notas  digitorum  flexus 
respondet.  Et  haec  ridiculosa  dissolutio  vocatur  religio ; 
et  ubi  haec  frequentius  agitantur,  ibi  Deo  honorabilius 
serviri  clamatur.  Stans  intere  vu'.gus,  sonitum  Follium, 
crepitum  Cymbalorum,  harmoniam  Fistularum,  tremens 
attonitusquemiratur:  sed  lascivas  Cantantium  gesticula- 
tiones,  meretricias  vocum  alternationes  et  infractiones,  non 
sine  cachinno,  risuque  intuetur ;  ut  eos  non  ad  Oratorium 
sed  ad  Theatrnm,  nee  ad  orandum  sed  ad  spectandum 
zestimes  convenisse:  nee  timetur  ilia  tremenda  majestas 
cui  assistitur,"  &c.  "  Sic  quod  sancti  Patres  instituerunt 
ut  infirmi  excitarentur  ad  affectum  pietatis,  in  usum 
assumitur  illecitae  voluptatis." 


IN   ITS   EFFECTS   UPON   MUSIC,   ETC.  405 

Even  in  Convocation,  it  was  proposed  "  that  the  use  of  organs  be  abolished,"  as 
early  as  1562. 

In  1586,  while  Parliament  was  sitting,  another  virulent  Puritan  pamphlet  was 
printed  and  industriously  circulated.  It  was  entitled  "  A  request  of  all  true 
Christians  to  the  Honourable  House  of  Parliament."  It  prays  "  that  all 
cathedral  churches  may  be  put  down,  where  the  service  of  God  is  grievously 
abused  by  piping  with  organs,  singing,  ringing,  and  trowling  of  Psalms,  from  one 
side  of  the  choir  to  another,  with  the  squeaking  of  chanting  choristers,  disguised 
(as  are  all  the  rest)  in  white  surplices ;  some  in  corner  caps  and  filthy  copes, 
imitating  the  fashion  and  manner  of  Antichrist  the  Pope,  that  Man  of  Sin  and 
Child  of  Perdition,  with  his  other  Rabble  of  Miscreants  and  Shavelings."  In 
this  book,  deans  and  canons  are  described  as  "  unprofitable  drones,  or  rather 
caterpillars  of  the  world,"  who  "  consume  yearly,  some  2500/.,  some  3000/.,  some 
more,  some  less,  wherein  no  profit  cometh  to  the  Church  of  God."  Cathedrals 
"  are  the  dens  of  idle  loitering  lubbards ;  the  harbours  of  time-serving  hypocrites, 
whose  prebends  and  livings  belong,  some  to  gentlemen,  some  to  boys,  and  some  to 
serving  men  and  others."  While  such  were  the  invectives  of  Puritans  against 
church  music,  even  in  Queen  Elizabeth's  reign,  it  could  not  be  expected  that 
secular  music,  or  any  but  their  own  "  psalms  to  hornpipes,"  should  escape  similar 
animadversion.  Accordingly,  Stephen  Gosson,  in  his  Schoole  of  Abuse  (1579), 
comparing  the  music  of  his  time  with  that  of  the  ancients,  says,  "  Homer  with 
his  musick  cured  the  sick  soldiers  in  the  Grecian  camp,  and  purged  every  man's 
tent  of  the  plague ; "  but  "  thinke  you  that  those  miracles  could  be  wrought  with 
playing  of  dances,  dumps,  pavans,  galliards,  measures,  fancies,  or  new  strains  ? 
They  never  came  where  this  grew,  nor  knew  what  it  meant.  .  . .  The  Argives 
appointed  by  their  laws  great  punishments  for  such  as  placed  above  seven  strings 
upon  any  instrument :  Pythagoras  commanded  that  no  musician  should  go  beyond 
his  diapason  "  [octave].  "  Were  the  Argives  and  Pythagoras  now  alive,  and  saw 
how  many  strings,  how  many  stops,  how  many  keys,  how  many  clefs,  how  many 
moods,  flats,  sharps,  rules,  spaces,  notes,  and  rests ;  how  many  quirks  and  corners; 
what  chopping  and  changing,  what  tossing  and  turning,  what  wresting  and  wring- 
ing, is  among  our  musicians ;  I  verily  believe  that  they  would  cry  out  with  the 
countryman,  Alas !  here  is  fat  feeding  and  lean  beasts ;  or,  as  one  said  at  the 
shearing  of  hogs,  Great  cry  and  little  wool.  Much  ado  and  small  help"  A  passage 
from  this  author  "  against  unprofitable  pipers  and  fiddlers,"  and  one  from  Thomas 
Lovell,  against  "  dauncing  and  minstralsye,"  have  already  been  quoted  under 
Queen  Elizabeth's  reign  (ante  pp.  107,  108)  ;  but  even  Thomas  Lodge,  who 
replied  to  Gosson  "in  defence  of  poetry,  musick,  and  stage  plays,"  would  not 
defend  the  merry-making  pipers  and  fiddlers.  He  says,  "  I  admit  not  of  those 
that  deprave  music :  your  pipers  are  as  odious  to  me  as  yourself;  neither  allow  I 
your  harping  merry  beggars ; "  but  "  correct  not  music  when  it  is  praiseworthy, 
lest  your  worthless  misliking  bewray  your  madness." 

Philip  Stubbes,  in  his  Anatomy  of  Abuses,  first  printed  in  1583,  (and  so  popular 
with  the  Puritans  that  four  editions  of  it  were  printed  within  twelve  years), 
devotes  an  entire  chapter  against  music.  He  says  that  from  "  a  certain  kind  of 


406 

smooth  sweetness  in  it,  it  is  like  unto  honey,  alluring  the  auditory  to  effeminacy, 
pusillanimity,  and  loathsomeness  of  life. . .  .  And  right  as  good  edges  are  not 
sharpened,  but  obtused,  by  being  whetted  upon  soft  stones,  so  good  wits,  by  hear- 
ing of  soft  music,  are  rather  dulled  than  sharpened,  and  made  apt  to  all  wanton- 
ness and  sin."  He  complains  of  music  "  being  used  in  public  assemblies  and 
private  conventicles  as  a  directory  to  fililiy  dancing ;"  and  that  "through  the 
sweet  harmony  and  smooth  melody  thereof,  it  estrangeth  the  mind,  stirreth  up 
lust,  womanisheth  the  mind,  and  ravisheth  the  heart."  Speaking  of  the  minstrels 
who  had  licenses  from  the  justices  of  the  peace,  and  lived  upon  their  art,  he  says, 
"  I  think  all  good  minstrels,  sober  and  chaste  musicians  (I  mean  such  as 
range  the  country,  riming  and  singing  songs  in  taverns,  ale-houses,  inns,  and 
other  public  assemblies),  may  dance  the  wild  morris  through  a  needle's  eye. 
There  is  no  ship  so  balanced  with  massive  matter  as  their  heads  are  fraught  with 
all  kinds  of  lascivious  songs,  filthy  ballads,  and  scurvy  rhimes,  serving  for  every 
purpose  and  every  company." 

These  specimens  of  the  Puritan  spirit  with  regard  to  music  may  suffice ;  but 
the  curious  will  find  similar  passages  in  nearly  all  their  writings.  The  arguments 
against  cathedral  music  were  ably  answered  by  Hooker  in  Book  v.  of  his  Eccle- 
siastical Polity,  and  by  others.  At  the  Restoration,  the  Rev.  Joseph  Brookbank 
published  a  book  in  favour  of  church  music,  entitled  "  The  well-tuned  Organ ;  or, 
an  Exercitation :  wherein  this  Question  is  fully  and  largely  discussed,  whether  or 
no  Instrumental  and  Organical  Musick  be  lawful  in  Holy  Publick  Assemblies." 
4to.,  1660.  There  is  little  argument  in  the  Puritan  books  against  church  music, 
they  consist  almost  entirely  of  bitter  invective  or  vulgar  abuse.  Music,  however, 
was  not  the  only  subject  of  their  attacks. 

When  James  I.  was  making  a  progress  through  Lancashire  in  1617,  he  rebuked 
the  Puritan  magistrates  for  having  prohibited  and  unlawfully  punished  the  people 
for  using  their  "  lawful  recreations  and  honest  exercises  upon  Sundays  and  other 
holidays,  after  the  afternoon  sermon  or  service ; "  and  in  the  following  year,  he 
published  a  declaration  concerning  such  sports  as  were  lawful.  These  were, 
"  dancing,  either  men  or  women ;  archery,  for  men ;  leaping,  vaulting,  or  any 
other  such  harmless  recreation ;  May-games,  Whitsun-ales,  Morris-dances,  and 
the  setting  up  of  Maypoles,  and  other  sports  therewith  used,  so  as  the  same  be 
had  in  due  and  convenient  time,  without  impediment  or  neglect  of  divine  service." 
Such  recreations  were  prohibited  to  "  any  that,  though  conform  in  religion,  are 
not  present  in  the  Church  at  the  service  of  God,  before  going  to  the  said  re- 
creations ; "  and  all  were  to  be  sharply  punished  who  abused  this  liberty  by  using 
these  exercises  before  the  end  of  all  divine  services  for  that  day ;  and  each  parish 
was  to  use  the  said  recreation  by  itself.  The  Puritan  magistrates  had  forbidden 
these  sports,  under  the  plea  of  taking  away  abuses ;  but  such  amusements  had 
always  been  held  lawful,  and  "  if,"  said  he,  "  these  times  be  taken  away  from  the 
meaner  sort,  who  labour  hard  all  the  week,  they  will  have  no  recreations  at  all  to 
refresh  their  spirits ;  and,  in  place  thereof,  it  will  set  up  filthy  tipplings  and 
drunkenness,  and  breed  a  number  of  idle  and  discontented  speeches  in  their 
ale-houses."  Also  it  will  "  hinder  the  conversion  of  many,  whom  their  priests 


IN   ITS   EFFECTS   UPON   MUSIC,   ETC.  .    407 

•will  take  occasion  hereby  to  vex,  persuading  them  that  no  honest  mirth  or 
recreation  is  lawfully  tolerable  in  our  religion."  Such  sports  as  "  bear  and  bull- 
bmting,  and  interludes,"  were  still  held  to  be  unlawful  on  Sundays.* 

A  similar  "  Declaration  to  his  Subjects,  concerning  lawful  sports  to  be  used," 
was  published  by  Charles  L,  in  1633. 

These  sports,  except,  perhaps,  archery,  leaping,  and  vaulting,  were  condemned 
by  the  Puritans,  not  only  as  unlawful  on  Sundays,  but  as  altogether  abominable. 
I  have  quoted  Philip  Stubbes  on  the  abomination  of  May-games  (ante  p.  133), 
and  subjoin  an  extract  from  Prynne's  Histriomastix,  on  dancing. 

"  Dancing  is  for  the  most  part  attended  with  many  amorous  smiles,  wanton  com- 
pl  ments,  unchaste  kisses,  scurrilous  songs  and  sonnets,  effeminate  music,  lust- 
prjvoking  attire,  ridiculous  love-pranks;  all  which  savour  only  of  sensuality,  of 
raging  fleshly  lusts.  Therefore  it  is  wholly  to  be  abandoned  of  all  good  Christians. 
Dr  ncing  serves  no  necessary  use,  no  profitable,  laudable,  or  pious  end  at  all :  it  issues 
on  y  from  the  inbred  pravity,  vanity,  wantonness,  incontinency,  pride,  profaneness,  or 
madness  of  men's  depraved  natures.  Therefore  it  must  needs  be  unlawful  unto 
Christians.  The  way  to  heaven  is  too  steep,  too  narrow,  for  men  to  dance  in  and 
keop  revel-rout :  No  way  is  large  or  smooth  enough  for  capering  roisters,  for  jump- 
ing, skipping,  dancing  dames,  but  that  broad,  beaten,  pleasant  road  that  leads  to  hell. 
The  gate  of  heaven  is  too  narrow  for  whole  rounds,  whole  troops,  of  dancers  to  march 
in  together :  Men  never  went  as  yet  by  multitudes,  much  less  by  morrice- dancing 
troops,  to  heaven  :  Alas,  they  scarce  go  two  together;  and  these  few,  what  are  they? 
Not  dancers,  but  mourners,  whose  tune  is  Lachrymal ;  whose  music  is  sighs  for  sin ; 
win  know  no  other  Cinque -pace  but  this  to  heaven ;  to  go  mourning  all  the  day  long 
for  their  iniquities;  to  mourn  in  secret  like  doves;  to  chatter  like  cranes  for  their  own 
and  others  sins."— (p.  253.) 

Another  custom  to  which  the  Puritans  had  a  real  or  pretended  aversion  was 
that  of  kissing.  Prynne  alludes  to  it  in  the  above  extract.  It  was  not  only 
customary  to  salute  a  partner  at  the  commencement  and  end  of  a  dance  (and 
there  were  many  dances  in  which  there  was  much  more  kissing),  but  also  on  first 
me(  ting  a  fair  friend  in  the  morning,  or  on  taking  leave  of  her. 

"  Kiss  in  the  ring  "  still  holds  a  place  among  the  pastimes  of  the  lower  orders ; 
but.  until  the  Puritans  gained  the  upper  hand,  the  custom "  of  kissing  was 
universal,  and  (at  least,  for  two  centuries  before)  peculiarly  English. 

Without  entering  upon  the  question  as  to  whether  it  originated,  like  the  custom 
of  drinking  healths,  from  the  introduction  of  Rowena  to  Vortigern,  when  she 
"pressed  the  beaker  with  her  little  lips,  and  saluted  the  amorous  Vortigern 
with  a  little  kiss,"  it  can,  at  least,  be  shewn  to  have  been  general  in  Chaucer's 
time.  He  alludes  to  the  custom  frequently,  and  in  the  picture  of  the  friar,  in  the 
Sompnour's  Tale,  he  touches  on  the  zeal  and  activity  with  which  the  holy  father 
perf<  >rmed  this  act  of  gallantry.  As  soon  as  the  mistress  of  the  house  enters  the 

room, —  "  he  riseth  up  full  courtisly 

And  her  embraceth  in  hie  armes  narrow, 

And  kisseth  her  sweet,  and  chirketh  as  a  sparrow 

With  his  lippes." 

a  A  c  >py  of  the  proclamation  of  James  I.  is  in  the  library        1817,  by  G.  Smeeton.     That  of  Charles  I.  is  reprinted  in 
of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries.     It  was  also  reprinted  in        Harleian  Miscellany,  vol.  5,  p.  70,  4!o. 


408 

Cavendish,  in  his  life  of  Cardinal  Wolsey,  gives  an  account  of  going  to  the 
castle  of  M.  de  Crequi,  a  French  nobleman,  "  and  very  nigh  of  blood  to  King 
Louis  XII.,"  where,  he  says,  "  I  being  in  a  fair  great  dining  chamber,  where  the 
table  was  covered  for  dinner,  I  attended  my  lady's  coming;  and,  after  she  came 
thither  out  of  her  own  chamber,  she  received  me  most  gently,  like  one  of  noble 
estate,  having  a  train  of  twelve  gentlewomen.  And  when  she  with  her  train  came 
all  out,  she  said  to  me,  *  For  as  much  as  ye  be  an  Englishman,  whose  custom  is  in 
your  country  to  kiss  all  ladies  and  gentlewomen  without  offence,  and  altkough  it 
be  not  so  here  in  this  realm  (of  France),  yet  will  I  be  so  bold  as  to  kiss  you,  and 
so  shall  all  my  maidens.'  By  means  whereof  I  kissed  my  lady,  and  all  her 
women.  Then  went  she  to  her  dinner,  being  as  nobly  served  as  I  have  seen  any 
of  her  estate  here  in  England." — (p.  171,  ed.  1827.) 

In  the  same  reign,  Erasmus  writes  to  a  friend,  describing  the  beauty,  the 
courtesy,  and  gentleness  of  the  English  ladies  in  glowing  terms,  and  this  custom 
as  one  never  sufficiently  to  be  praised.  He  tells  him  that  if  he  were  to  come  to 
England  he  would  never  be  satisfied  with  remaining  for  ten  years,  but  must  wish 
to  live  and  die  here.a 

A  Spanish  pamphlet  in  the  library  of  the  British  Museum  (4 to.,  dated  1604) 
gives  an  account  of  the  ceremonies  observed  during  the  residence  of  the  Duke  de 
Frias  (Ambassador  Plenipotentiary  from  the  Spanish  Court)  in  England,  on  the 
accession  of  James  I.  In  that  the  writer  says,  "  The  Ambassador  kissed  her 
Majesty's  hands,  craving  at  the  same  time  permission  to  salute  the  ladies  present, 
a  custom  of  which  the  non-observance  on  such  occasions  is  deeply  resented  by 
the  fair  sex  of  this  country,"  and  leave  was  accordingly  given.  (Ellis's  Letters 
on  English  History,  v.  iii.,  s.  2,  p.  211.) 

Again,  when  the  celebrated  Bulstrode  Whitelock  was  at  the  court  of  Christina, 
Queen  of  Sweden,  as  Ambassador  from  Cromwell,  he  waited  on  her  on  Mayday, 
to  invite  her  "  to  take  the  air,  and  some  little  collation  which  he  had  provided  as 
her  humble  servant."  Having  obtained  her  consent,  she,  with  several  ladies  of  her 
court,  accompanied  him ;  and  her  Majesty,  "  both  in  supper  time  and  afterwards," 
being  "  full  of  pleasantness  and  gaiety  of  spirits,  among  other  frolics,  commanded 
him  to  teach  her  ladies  the  English  mode  of  salutation ;  which  after  some  pretty 
defences,  their  lips  obeyed,  and  Whitelock  most  readily."  (G-entfs.  Mag., 
v.  xcii.,  part  L,  p.  325.)  "From  these  passages,  it  is  evident  that  the  custom 
was  as  much  admired  by  the  ladies  of  other  countries  as  it  was  peculiar  to  this." 

Whytford's  Pype  of  Perfection  has  been  quoted  to  prove  that  objection  was 
taken  to  the  custom  of  kissing  at  the  time  of  the  Reformation ;  but  Whytford 
objected  not  only  to  kissing,  but  also  to  every  sort  of  salutation,  even  to  shaking 

•"Quanquam    si    Britannia    dotes    satis   pernosses,  via:  venitur  ad  te?  propinantur  suavia:  disceditur  abs  te 

Fauste,  nae  tu  alatis'pedibus,  hue  accurreres;  et  si  pod  a-  dividunter  basia:    occuritur  alien  bi?    basiatur  affatim 

gra  tua  non  sineret,  Daedalum  te  fieri  optares.    Nam  ut  e  denique,  quocunque  te  moveas.    Suaviorum  plena  sunt 

pluribus  unum  quiddam  attingam.    Sunt  hie  nymphae  omnia.     Quae,  si  tu,  Fauste,  gustasses  semel  quam  sint 

divinis  vultibus,  blandae,  faciles,  et  quas  tu  tuis  camaenis  mollicula  quam  fragrantia,   profecto  cuperes  non  decen- 

facile  anteponas.    Est  praeterea  mos  nunquam  satis  lau-  niumsolum,  ut  Solon  fecit,  sed  ad  mortem  usque  in  Anglia 

datus  :   Sive  quo  venias  omnium  osculis  exciperis ;   sive  peregrinari." — Erasmi  Epistol,  Fausto  Andrelino,  p.  315, 

discedas  aliquo,  osculis  demitteris  :  redis  ?  redduntur  sua-  edit.  1642. 


IN   ITS   EFFECTS   UPON   MUSIC,   ETC.  409 

of  hands,  among  religious  persons.  He  says,  "  It  becometh  not,  therefore,  the 
persones  religious  to  folow  the  maner  of  secular  persones,  that  in  theyr  congresses, 
or  common  meetyngs  or  departyngs,  do  use  to  kisse,  take  hands,  or  such  other 
touchings."  (Fol.  213,  b,  1532.)  John  Bunyan  gives  an  amusing  account  of  his 
scruples  on  the  subject,  in  his  Grace  Abounding :  li  When  I  have  seen  good  men 
salute  those  women  that  they  have  visited,  or  that  have  visited  them,  I  have  made 
my  objections  against  it ;  and  when  they  have  answered  that  it  was  but  a  piece  of 
civility,  I  have  told  them  that  it  was  not  a  comely  sight.  Some,  indeed,  have  urged 
the  holy  kiss ;  but  then  I  have  asked  them  why  they  made  balks?  why  did  they 
sulute  the  most  handsome,  and  let  the  ill-favoured  go  ?  "  This  last  question  was, 
no  doubt,  rather  perplexing  to  the  good  men  to  answer  ;  but  here  Bunyan  proves 
that  very  few  were  troubled  by  his  scruples. 

The  abandonment  of  .the  custom  is  said  to  have  been  "a  part  of  that  French 
code  of  politeness,  which  Charles  II.  introduced  on  his  restoration."  The  last 
traces  of  its  existence  are  perhaps  in  one  or  two  letters  from  country  gentlemen, 
in  The  Spectator  ;  one  of  which  occurs  in  No.  240.  The  writer  relates  of  him- 
self, that  he  had  always  been  in  the  habit,  even  in  great  assemblies,  of  saluting 
all  the  ladies  round;  but  a  town -bred  gentleman  had  lately  come  into  the 
neighbourhood,  and  introduced  his  "  fine  reserved  airs."  "  Whenever,"  says  the 
writer,  "  he  came  into  a  room,  he  made  a  profound  bow,  and  fell  back,  then 
recovered  with  a  soft  air,  and  made  a  bow  to  the  next,  and  so  on.  This  is  taken 
for  the  present  fashion ;  and  there  is  no  young  gentlewoman  within  several  miles 
of  this  place  who  has  been  kissed  ever  since  his  first  appearance  among  us." 

Another  custom,  to  which  the  Puritans  objected  violently,  was  that  of  men 
wearing  long  hair.  Prynne  wrote  a  book  called  The  Unlovelinesse  of  Lovelockes, 
in  which  he  quotes  a  hundred  authorities  against  it.  Of  these,  one  will  suffice, 
from  Purchas's  Pilgrim:  "  Long  hair  is  an  ornament  to  the  female  sex,  a  token 
of  subjection,  an  ensign  of  modesty :  but  modesty  grows  short  in  men  as  their 
hair  grows  long;  and  a  neat,  perfumed,  frizzled,  powdered  bush  hangs  but  as  a 
token  of  vini  non  vendibilis,  of  much  wine,  little  wit,  of  men  weary  of  manhood, 
of  civility,  of  Christianity,  which  would  fain  imitate  American  savages,  infidels, 
barbarians,  or  women  at  the  least  and  best." — (c.  li.,  p.  490.) 

To  this,  Butler,  the  author  of  Hudibras,  retorted  by  a  song  upon  the  Kound- 
he;ids.  "  Among  other  affected  habits,"  says  Mrs.  Hutchinson  in  her  Memoirs 
of  Colonel  Hutchinson,  "  few  of  the  Puritans,  what  degree  soever  they  were  of, 
wore  their  hair  long  enough  to  cover  their  ears ;  and  the  ministers  and  many 
otliers  cut  it  close  round  their  heads,  with  so  many  little  peaks,  as  was  some- 
thi  ng  ridiculous  to  behold.  From  this  custom  of  wearing  their  hair,  that  name 
of  Roundhead  became  the  scornful  term  given  to  the  whole  Parliament  party, 
whose  army  indeed  marched  out  as  if  they  had  been  only  sent  out  till  their  hair 
was  grown."  In  A  full  and  complete  Answer  to  A  Tale  in  a  Tub,  4to.,  1642,  the 
author  says,  "  Some  say  we  are  so  termed  (Roundheads),  because  we  do  cut  our 
hair  shorter  than  our  ears,  and  the  reason  is  because  long  hair  hinders  the  sound 
of  the  Word  from  entering  into  the  heart."  The  following  is  Butler's  song  : — 


410  CAVALIERS   AND   ROUNDHEADS. 

"  What  creature's  that,  with  his  short  hairs,  What's  he  that  doth  high  treason  say, 

His  little  band  and  huge  long  ears,  As  often  as  his  yea  and  nay, 

That  this  new  faith  hath  founded  ?  And  wish  the  King  confounded ; 

The  saints  themselves  were  never  such,  And  dares  maintain  that  Mr.  Pirn 

The  prelates  ne'er  rul'd  half  so  much  ;  Is  fitter  for  a  crown  than  him  ? 

Oh  !  such  a  rogue's  a  Roundhead.  Oh  !  such  a  rogue's  a  Roundhead. 

What's  he  that  doth  the  bishops  hate,          What's  he  that  if  he  chance  to  hear 
And  counts  their  calling  reprobate,  A  little  piece  of  Gammon  Prayer, 

'Cause  by  the  Pope  propounded  ;  Doth  think  his  conscience  wounded  ; 

And  thinks  a  zealous  cobbler  better  Will  go  five  miles  to  preach  and  pray, 

Than  learned  Usher  in  ev'ry  letter  ?  And  meet  a  sister  by  the  way  ? 

Oh  !  such  a  rogue's  a  Roundhead.  Oh  !  such  a  rogue's  a  Roundhead." 

This  is  printed  in  Butler's  Posthumous  Works,  1732,  p.  105,  and  a  copy  is 
among  Ashmole's  MSS.,  No.  36,  37.  The  manuscript  contains  a  similar  song  on 
the  Cavaliers,  beginning  "  What  monster's  that,  that  thinks  it  good." 

The  closely  cut  crown  was  the  badge  of  all  the  lower  order  of  Puritans.  Wood 
says,  "  the  generality  of  Puritans  had  mortified  countenances,  puling  voices, 
and  eyes  commonly  (when  in  discourse)  lifted  up,  with  hands  lying  on  their 
breasts.  They  mostly  had  short  hair,  which  at  this  time  was  commonly  called 
the  Committee  cut."  (Fasti  Oxon.,  ii.  61.)  It  was  not  a  new  practice,  for, 
according  to  Aubrey,  in  1619,  when  Milton  the  poet  was  ten  years  of  age,  "  his 
schoolmaster  was  a  Puritan  in  Essex,  who  cut  his  hair  short."  This  carries  it 
back  to  the  reign  of  James  I.  Although  Milton  was  Latin  Secretary  to  the 
Commonwealth,  he  preserved  his  own  "  clustering  locks"  throughout  the  rule  of  the 
Roundheads.  Aubrey,  in  his  manuscript  Collections  for  the  Life  of  Milton ,  tells 
us  that  "he  had  a  delicate,  tuneable  voice,  and  good  skill  in  music."  After 
dinner  it  was  his  habit  to  "  play  on  the  organ,  and  either  he  or  his  wife  sang. 
He  made  his  nephews  songsters,  teaching  them  to  sing  from  the  time  they  were 
with  him ;  and  although,  towards  his  latter  end,  he  was  visited  with  the  gout,  he 
would  be  cheerful,  even  in  his  gout  fits,  and  sing."  (Aubrey  MSS.,  No.  10, 
Ashm.  Mus.)  In  his  Tractate  on  Education,  Milton  says,  that  after  athletic 
exercise,  "  the  interval  of  unsweating,  and  that  of  a  convenient  rest  before  meat, 
may,  both  with  profit  and  delight,  be  taken  up  in  recreating  and  composing  the 
travailed  spirits  with  the  solemn  and  divine  harmonies  of  music,  heard  or  learned. 
Either  while  the  skilful  organist  plies  his  grave  and  fancied  descant  on  lofty 
fugues,  or  with  artful  touches  adorns  and  graces  the  well-studied  chords  of  some 
choice  composer ;  sometimes  the  lute  or  soft  organ-stop  waiting  on  elegant  voices, 
either  to  religious,  martial,  or  civil  ditties ;  which,  if  wise  men  and  prophets  be  not 
extremely  out,  have  a  great  power  over  dispositions  and  manners,  to  smooth  and 
make  them  gentle  from  rustic  harshness,  and  distempered  passions.  The  like  also 
would  not  be  unexpedient  after  meat,  to  assist  and  cherish  nature  in  her  first 
concoction ;  and  send  the  mind  back  to  study  in  good  tune  and  satisfaction." 
Milton  imbibed  his  love  of  music,  in  all  probability,  from  his  father,*  who  made 

Edward  Phillips  (nephew  of  the  poet)  says  Milton's  he  followed  the  vocation  of  scrivener  for  many  years,  at 
father  was  disinherited  "  for  embracing,  when  young,  the  his  house  in  Bread  Street,  with  success  suitable  to  his 
Protestant  faith,  and  abjuring  the  Popish  tenets  :  that  industry  and  prudent  conduct  of  his  affairs.  Yet  he  did 


THE   COMMONWEALTH.  411 

it  the  relaxation  of  his  leisure  hours,  and  was  an  excellent  amateur  composer. 
En  his  time,  the  habit  of  singing  part-music  after  meals  was  general,  especially 
after  supper,  the  hour  of  which  corresponded  with  that  of  our  present  dinner. 
Although  now  more  common  in  Germany  than  in  England,  it  is  a  practice  that 
night  be  revived  with  great  advantage,  for,  while  assisting  digestion,  there  is  no 
:ime  at  which  music  is  more  thoroughly  enjoyable  to  those  who  can  take  a  part. 

It  was  said  by  A[llan]  C[unningham],  in  the  Penny  Magazine  (No.  391, 
May  6,  1838),  that  the  ballads  "were  on  the  side  of  the  parliament  in  the 
struggle  with  Charles."  .  I  think  this  can  only  apply  to  the  early  part  of  the 
contest,  for  after  the  fall  of  Archbishop  Laud,  I  doubt  whether  any  more  were 
^.vritten  on  their  side.  Laud  had  rendered  himself  extremely  unpopular  by 
his  intemperate  zeal,  and  by  his  rigorous  prosecutions  of  all  separatists,  in  the 
8tar  Chamber — imprisoning  some,  and  cutting  off  the  ears  of  others.  Moreover, 
there  was  a  general  impression  that  he  was  endeavouring  to  lead  the  country  back 
to  Popery.  It  is  said  of  one  of  the  daughters  of  William,  Earl  of  Devonshire, 
that  having  turned  Catholic,  she  was  questioned  by  Laud  as  to  the  motives  of  her 
conversion.  She  replied  that  her  principal  reason  was  a  dislike  to  travel  in  a 
crowd.  The  meaning  being  obscure,  the  Archbishop  asked  her  what  she  meant. 
"  I  perceive,"  said  she,  "  your  Grace  and  many  others  are  making  haste  to  Rome, 
and  therefore,  to  prevent  being  crowded,  I  have  gone  before  you."  It  is  an 
undoubted  fact  that  the  Pope  sent  him  a  serious  offer  of  a  Cardinal's  hat :  indeed, 
Laud  tells  us  as  much  in  his  diary.  The  dissolution  of  the  Parliament,  in  1640, 
vras  generally  attributed  to  his  instigation ;  and  two  thousand  persons  entered 
St.  Paul's  at  one  time,  exclaiming,  "  No  Bishop  !  No  high  Commission  !  "  The 
most  scurrilous  libels  were  affixed  to  the  walls  in  every  quarter  of  the  town ; 
tallads,  of  which  he  was  the  subject,  were  composed  and  sung  in  the  streets ;  and 
pictures,  in  which  he  was  exhibited  in  the  most  undignified  postures,  were  pub- 
licly displayed.  The  ale-houses  teemed  with  songs  in  which  he  was  held  up  to 
derision.  When  this  was  told  to  the  Archbishop,  "His  lot,"  he  said,  "was  not 
^orse  than  that  of  David;"  at  the  same  time  quoting  the  69th  Psalm,  "  They 
that  sat  in  the  gate  spake  against  me,  and  I  was  the  song  of  the  drunkards." 

It  is  reported  of  Archibald  Armstrong,  Charles  the  First's  jester  or  fool,  that 
ho  once  asked  permission  of  the  King  to  say  grace  when  Laud  was  present ;  which 
boing  granted,  he  said,  "  All  praise  to  the  Lord,  and  little  laud  to  the  devil." 
In  one  of  the  many  lampoons  of  the  time,  he  is  styled — 

'  One  of  Rome's  calves,  far  better  fed  than  taught.'  " 

There  are  still  many  ballads  extant  concerning  Archbishop  Laud.  Besides  those 
which,  are  to  be  found  among  the  King's  Pamphlets  in  the  British  Museum,  a 
collection,  partly  in  print  and  partly  in  manuscript,  was  a  few  years  ago  in  the 

no  so  far  quit  his  own  generous  and  ingenious  inclina-  songs  of  his  composition,  after  the  way  of  these  times 
tio  is  as  to  make  himself  wholly  a  slave  to  the  world  ;  for  (three  or  four  of  which  are  still  to  be  seen  in  old  Wilby's 
he  sometimes  found  vacant  hours  for  the  study  (which  set  of  Ayrcs,  besides  some  compositions  of  his  in  Ravens- 
he  made  his  recreation)  of  the  noble  science  of  music,  in  croft's  Psalms),  he  gained  the  reputation  of  a  considerable 
wl  ich  he  advanced  to  that  perfection,  that,  as  I  have  been  master  in  this  most  charming  of  all  the  liberal  sciences." 
tol  1,  and  as  I  take  it,  by  our  author  himself,  he  composed  One  of  the  madrigals  in  The  Triumphs  of  Oriana,  1601, 
an  In  Nomine  of  forty  parts,  for  which  he  was  rewarded  and  several  in  Sir  Christopher  Leighton's  Tears  and 
wi  h  a  gold  medal  and  chain  by  a  Polish  Prince  (Aubrey  Lamentations  of  a  Sorrowful  Soule,  were  also  composed 
?aj  s,  by  the  Landgrave  of  Hesse),  to  whom  he  presented  it.  by  Milton,  who  bore  the  same  Christian  name  as  his  cele- 
Ho  >vever,  this  is  a  truth  not  to  be  denied,  that  for  several  brated  son. 


412 


CAVALIERS   AND   ROUNDHEADS. 


possession  of  Mr.  Willis,  the  bookseller,  who  printed  the  following  in  his 
Current  Notes  for  December,  1852.  A  copy  is  also  in  MSS.  Ashmole  39  and  37. 
"  A  prognostication  on  W.  Laud,  late  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  written 
A.D.,  1641,  which  accordingly  is  come  to  pass. — Sold  at  the  Black  Ball  in  Corn- 
hill,  near  the  Exchange."  (With  a  woodcut  of  an  execution,  the  body  stretched 
on  the  scaffold,  and  the  executioner  holding  up  a  bleeding  head.) 


My  little  lord,  methinks  'tis  strange 
That  you  should  suffer  such  a  change 

In  such  a  little  space. 
You,  that  so  proudly  t'other  day 
Did  rule  the  King,  and  country  sway, 

Must  trudge  to  'nother  place. 

Remember  now  from  whence  you  came, 
And  that  your  grandsires  of  your  name 

Were  dressers  of  old  cloth  ; a 
Go,  bid  the  dead  men  bring  their  shears, 
And  dress  your  coat  to  save  your  ears, 

Or  pawn  your  head  for  both. 

The  wind  shakes  cedars  that  are  tall, 
An  haughty  mind  must  have  a  fall, 

You  are  but  low  I  see  ; 
And  good  it  had  been  for  you  still, 
If  both  your  body,  mind,  and  will, 

In  equal  shape  should  be. 


Your  cheesecake  cap  and  magpie  gown, 
That  made  such  strife  in  every  town, 
Must  now  defray  your  charge. 

Within  this  six  years,  six  ears  have 
Been  cropt  off  worthy  men  and  grave, 

For  speaking  what  was  true  ; 
But  if  your  subtle  head  and  ears 
Can  satisfy  those  six  of  theirs, 

Expect  but  what's  your  due. 

Poor  people  that  have  felt  your  rod 
Yield  Laud  to  the  devil,  praise  to  God, 

For  freeing  them  from  thrall ; 
Your  little  "  Grace,"  for  want  of  grace, 
Must  lose  your  patriarchal  place, 

And  have  no  grace  at  all. 

Your  white  lawn  sleeves  that  were  the  wings 
Whereon  you  soar'd  to  lofty  things, 
Must  be  your  fins  to  swim  ; 


The  King,  by  hearkening  to  your  charms,  Th'  Archbishop's  see  by  Thames  must    go, 
Hugg'd  our  destruction  in  his  arms,  With  him  unto  the  Tower  below, 

And  gates  to  foes  did  ope  ;  There  to  be  rackt  like  him. 


Your  mitre  would  o'ertop  the  crown, 
If  you  should  be  a  Pope. 

But  you  that  did  so  firmly  stand, 
To  bring  in  Popery  in  this  land, 

Have  miss'd  your  hellish  aim  ; 
Your  saints  fall  down,  your  angels  fly, 
Your  crosses  on  yourself  do  lie, 

Your  craft  will  be  your  shame. 

We  scorn  that  Popes  \vith  crozier  staves, 
Mitres  or  keys,  should  make  us  slaves, 

And  to  their  feet  to  bend  : 
The  Pope  and  his  malicious  crew 
We  hope  to  handle  all,  like  you, 

And  bring  them  to  an  end. 

The  silenc'd  clergy,  void  of  fear, 
In  your  damnation  will  have  share, 
And  speak  their  mind  at  large  : 


Your  oatl1  cnts  de*p'  y°ur  lies  hiirt  sore> 

Your  canons  made  Scot's  cannons  roar, 

But  now  I  hope  you'll  find 
That  there  are  cannons  in  the  Tower 
Will  quickly  batter  down  your  power, 
And  sink  your  haughty  mind. 

The  Commonalty  have  made  a  vow, 
No  oath,  no  canons  to  allow, 

No  bishops'  Common  Prayer  ; 
No  lazy  prelates  that  shall  spend 
Such  great  revenues  to  no  end 

But  virtue  to  impair. 

Dumb  dogs  that  wallow  in  such  store, 
That  would  suffice  above  a  score 

Pastors  of  upright  will  ; 
Now  they'll  make  all  the  bishops  teach, 
And  you  must  in  the  pulpit  preach 

That  stands  on  Tower  Hill. 


Laud's  father  was  a  clothier,  of  Heading. 


THE   COMMONWEALTH.  413 

When  the  young  lads  to  you  did  come        But  now  the  subtle  whirly-wind, 
You  knew  their  meaning  by  the  drum,        Debauch,  hath  left  the  bird  behind, 
You  had  better  yielded  then  ;  *  You  two  must  flock  together. 

Your  head  and  body  then  might  have  AVI      »    i      j       j 

.  ,      '  A  bishop's  head,  a  deputy's  breast, 

One  death,  one  burial,  and  one  grave  A    ^     ,,    .  Trr       /.        . 

A  Finch  s  tongue,  a  Wren  from  s  nest, 

By  boys, — but  two  by  men.  ™~n      L  ^     T     -i        /. 

J      J  '  J  \\  ill  set  the  devil  on  foot ; 

B  it  you  that  by  your  judgments  clear,  He's  like  to  have  a  dainty  dish, 

"Will  make  five  quarters  in  a  year,  At  once  both  flesh,  and  fowl,  and  fish, 

And  hang  them  on  the  gates  ;  And  Duck  and  Lamb  to  boot. 

Tliat  head  shall  stand  upon  the  bridge,  fiut  ^  j  gay  .  ^  ^  ^ 

When  yours  shall  under  traitor's  trudge,  Did  m  both  Church  and  ^  ^ 

And  smile  on  your  miss'd  fates.  And  trample  Qn  the  crown  . 

The  little  Wren  that  soar'd  so  high,  Like  a  bless'd  martyr  you  will  die 

Thought  on  his  wings  away  to  fly,  For  Church's  good ;  she  rises  high 

Like  Finch,  I  know  not  whither ;  When  such  as  you  fall  down. 

Another  of  the  ballads  against  Laud  is  named  "  The  Organ's  Echo,  to  the  tune 
of  The  Cathedral  Service."     A  third,  "  The  Bishop's  last  Good-night  :— 
"  Where  Popery  and  innovation  do  begin, 
There  treason  will  by  degrees  come  in." 

Laud  was  beheaded  in  1644 ;  and  in  the  same  year,  Sir  Edward  Dering 
brought  a  bill  unto  the  House  of  Commons  for  the  abolition  of  Episcopacy.  In 
his  "  Declaration  and  Petition  to  the  House  of  Commons,"  printed  in  that  year, 
he  asserted,  in  the  true  spirit  of  his  party,  that  "  one  single  groan  in  the  spirit 
is  worth  the  diapason  of  all  the  Church  music  in  the  world." 

"  Two  ordinances  of  the  Lords  and  Commons  assembled  in  Parliament  for  the 
speedy  demolishing  of  all  Organs,  images,  and  all  matters  of  superstitious  monu- 
ments in  all  Cathedral  and  Collegiate  or  Parish-Churches  and  Chapels  throughout 
the  kingdom,"  were  published  on  the  9th  of  May,  1644,  but  their  demolition  had 
been  nearly  accomplished  two  years  before  ;  for,  as  said  by  a  writer  of  the  time, — 
No  organ-idols  with  pure  ears  agree, 
Nor  anthems — why  ?  nay  ask  of  them,  not  me ; 
There's  new  Church  music  found  instead  of  those, 
The  women's  sighs  tuned  to  the  Preacher's  nose." 

The  account  of  their  destruction  will  be  found  in  "  Mercurius  Rusticus  ;  or  the 
Country's  Complaint  of  the  barbarous  outrages  committed  by  the  Sectaries  of  this 
nourishing  kingdom ; "  in  Culmer's  "  Cathedral  News  from  Canterbury ; "  &c. 
Ar,  Rochester,  Sir  John  Seaton,  "  that  false  traiterous  Scot,"  coming  towards  the 
church  and  hearing  the  organs,  started  back,  and  "  in  the  usual  blessing  of  some 
of  his  country,  cried  A  Devil  on  those  Bagpipes"  At  Chichester,  in  1642,  the 
rebels,  under  the  command  of  Sir  William  Waller,  "brake  down  the  organs, 
and  dashing  the  pipes  with  their  pole  axes,  scoflingly  said,  Hark  !  how  the  organs 
go ; "  and  Sir  Arthur  Haslerig,  being  told  where  the  church  plate  was  concealed, 
commanded  his  servants  to  break  down  the  wainscot  round  the  room,  and  while 

»  Five  thousand  London  apprentices  went  to  Lambeth        effect  their  purpose.    One  was  secured,  a  tailor,  who  was 
to   ake  him,  but  Laud  was  prepared,  and  they  could  not        hung  for  the  attempt. 


414  CAVALIERS   AND   ROUNDHEADS. 

they  were  doing  it,  danced  and  skipped,  crying,  "  There,  boys,  there,  boys,  hark ! 
it  rattles,  it  rattles :  "  upon  which,  says  the  writer,  "  Pray,  mark  what  musick 
that  is  to  which  it  is  lawful  for  a  Puritan  to  dance."  In  Westminster  Abbey, 
"  they  brake  down  the  organ  and  pawned  the  pipes  at  several  ale-houses  for  pots 
of  ale.  They  put  on  some  of  the  singing  men's  surplices,  and  in  contempt  of  that 
canonical  habit,  ran  up  and  down  the  church ;  he  that  wore  the  surplice  being  the 
hare  and  the  rest  the  hounds."  At  Exeter,  they  "  brake  down  the  organs,  and 
taking  two  or  three  hundred  pipes  with  them,  in  a  most  scornful  and  contemptuous 
manner,  went  up  and  down  the  street,  piping  with  them,  and  meeting  some  of 
the  choristers  of  the  church,  whose  surplices  they  had  stolen  before,  scoffingly 
told  them,  <  Boys,  we  have  spoiled  your  trade,  you  must  go  and  sing  Hot  pudding 
pyes?  r  At  Peterborough,  under  Cromwell,  after  defacing  the  tombs  of  Queen 
Catherine  and  Mary,  Queen  of  Scots,  "  when  their  unhallowed  toilings  had 
made  them  out  of  wind,  they  took  breath  afresh  on  .two  pair  of  organs,  piping 
with  the  very  same  about  the  market  place  lascivious  jigs,  whilst  their  comrades 
danced  after  them,  some  in  copes,  others  with  the  surplices,  and  they  brake  down 
the  bellows  to  blow  the  coals  of  a  bonfire  to  burn  them."  On  their  first  visit  to 
Canterbury,  they  slashed  the  service  books,  surplices,  &c.,  and  "  began  to  play 
the  tune  of  The  Zealous  Soldier  on  the  organs  or  case  of  whistles,  which  never 
were  in  tune  since."  But  on  this  occasion,  some  ran  to  the  Commander-in-Chief, 
who  called  off  the  soldiers,  "  who  afterwards  sung  cathedral  prick-song  as  they 
rode  over  Barham  Down  towards  Dover,  with  pricking  leaves  in  their  hands,  and 
lighted  their  tobacco  pipes  with  them ;  and  such  pipes  and  cathedral  music,"  in 
the  opinion  of  Culmer,  "  did  consort  well  together."  St.  Paul's  Cathedral  was 
turned  into  horse- quarters  for  the  soldiers  of  the  Parliament,  except  the  choir, 
which  was  separated  by  a  brick  wall  from  the  nave,  and  converted  into  a  preach- 
ing place.  The  entrance  to  it  was  by  a  door  which  had  formerly  been  a  window. 
The  Corinthian  portico  at  the  west  end  was  leased  out  to  a  man  who  "built  in  it  a 
number  of  small  shops,  which  he  let  to  haberdashers,  glovers,  and  sempsters  or 
milliners,  and  this  was  called  PauVs  CJiange. 

Charles  the  First's  love  of  music  is  mentioned  by  Playford,  in  his  Introduction 
to  the  skill  of  Musick,  edit.  1760.  He  says  that  he  was  not  "  behind  any  of  his 
predecessors  in  his  skill  and  love  of  this  divine  art,  especially  in  the  service  of 
Almighty  God ;"  and  that  he  "  often  appointed  the  service  and  anthems ;  being, 
by  his  knowledge  in  musick,  a  competent  judge  therein,  and  much  delighted  to 
hear  that  excellent  service  composed  by  Dr.  William  Child,  called  his  Sharp 
Service.  And  for  instrumental  music,  none  pleased  him  like  those  incomparable 
Fantasies  for  one  Violin  and  Base-viol  to  the  Organ,  composed  by  Mr.  Coperario"a 
(Cooper).  In  the  British  Museum  (Addit.  MSS.,  11,608,  fol.  59)  is  a  song 
the  music  of  which  was  composed  by  Charles  I.,  the  poetry  by  Thomas  Carew. 
It  commences  : —  "  Mark  how  the  blushful  morn,  in  vain, 
Courts  the  am'rous  marigold."1* 

"During  the  prosperous   state  of  the  King's   affairs"   (says   Lord  Orford, 

*  The  only  known  manuscript  of   these  Fancies  by        last  that  were  purchased   from  Thorpe,   the  celebrated 
Coperario  is  now  in  the  possession  of  Dr.  Rimbault.  bookseller,  for  the  British  Museum.     It  is  an  important 

b  The  manuscript  which  contains  this  song  is  one  of  the        manuscript  in  several  respects. 


THE   COMMONWEALTH.  415 

Hist.  Paint.,  ii.  147)  "  the  pleasures  of  the  Court  were  carried  on  with  much  taste 
aid  magnificence.  Poetry,  painting,  music,  and  architecture,  were  all  called  in 
to  make  them  rational  amusements;  and  I  have  no  doubt  but  the  celebrated 
festivals  of  Louis  XIV.  were  copied  from  the  shows  exhibited  at  Whitehall,  in  its 
time  the  most  polite  court  in  Europe.  Ben  Jonson  was  the  laureate  ;  Inigo 
Jones  the  inventor  of  the  decorations ;  Laniere  and  Ferabosco  "  [Dr.  Campion, 
Dr.  Giles,  W.  and  H.  Lawes,  Simon  Ives,  Dr.  Coleman,  &c.]  "  composed  the 
symphonies;  the  King,  the  Queen,  and  the  young  nobility,  danced  in  the 
interludes." 

Oliver  Cromwell  was  also  a  great  lover  of  music,  and  "  entertained  the  most 
skilful  in  that  science  in  his  pay  and  family."  Heath  compares  him  in  his  love 
for  music  to  "  wicked  Saul,  who,  when  the  evil  spirit  was  upon  him,  thought  to 
lay  and  still  him  with  those  harmonious  charms ; "  but  he  adds,  that  "  generally 
ho  respected  or  at  least  pretended  to  love,  all  ingenious  or  eximious  persons  in 
any  arts,  whom  he  procured  to  be  sent  or  brought  to  him."  (Flagellum,  p.  160, 
4th  edit.,  1669).  He  engaged  John  Kingston,  a  celebrated  musician  of  the 
time,  who  had  been  in  the  service  of  Charles,  to  instruct  his  daughters  in  music, 
and  gave  him  a  pension  of  100£.  a  year.  Kingston  gave  concerts  at  his  own 
house,  at  which  Cromwell  would  often  be  present.  At  one  of  these,  Sir  Roger 
IT  Estrange  happened  to  be  a  performer,  and  Sir  Roger  not  leaving  the  room  upon 
Cromwell's  coming  into  it,  the  Cavaliers  gave  him  the  name  of  Oliver's  Fiddler. 
In  a  pamphlet  entitled  Truth  and  Loyalty  vindicated,  4to.,  1662,  Sir  Roger  thus 
tells  the  story  : — 

"  Mr.  Edward  Bagshaw  will  have  it  that  I  frequently  solicited  a  private  conference 
with  Oliver,  and  that  I  often  brought  my  fiddle  under  my  cloak  to  facilitate  my  entry. 
Surely  this  Edward  Bagshaw  has  been  pastor  to  aGravesend  boat;  he  has  the  vein  so 
right.  A  fiddle  under  my  cloak  ?  Truly  my  fiddle  is  a  base  viol,  and  that's  somewhat 
a  1  roublesome  instrument  under  a  cloak.  'Twas  a  great  oversight  he  did  not  tell  my 
lord  to  what  company  (of  fiddlers)  I  belonged.  Concerning  the  story  of  the  fiddle, 
th's  I  suppose  might  be  the  rise  of  it.  Being  in  St.  James'  Park,  I  heard  an  organ 
touched  in  a  little  low  room  of  one  Mr.  Hickson's.  I  went  in,  and  found  a  private 
company  of  some  five  or  six  persons.  They  desired  me  to  take  up  a  viol,  and  bear  a 
part.  I  did  so,  and  that  a  part,  too,  not  much  to  advance  the  reputation  of  my  cunning. 
B}  and  by,  without  the  least  colour  of  a  design  or  expectation,  in  conies  Cromwell. 
He  found  us  playing,  and,  as  I  remember,  so  he  left  us." 

Sir  Roger  never  lost  the  name,  for  as  late  as  1683  a  pamphlet  was  printed  about 
him  under  the  title  of  u  The  Loyal  Observator ;  or  Historical  Memoirs  of  the 
Life  and  Actions  of  Roger  the  Fidler." 

Anthony  a  Wood  also  tells  a  story  of  Cromwell's  love  of  music.  He  says, 
"A.  W.  had  some  acquaintance  with  James  Quin,  M.A.,  one  of  the  senior 
students  of  Christ-Church,  and  had  several  times  heard  him  sing  with  great 
admiration.  His  voice  was  a  base,  and  he  had  a  great  command  of  it ;  'twas 
very  strong,  and  exceeding  trouling.  He  had  been  turn'd  out  of  his  place  by 
the  visitors,  but  being  well  acquainted  with  some  great  men  of  those  times  that 
loved  music,  they  introduced  him  into  the  company  of  Oliver  Cromwell  the 


416  CAVALIERS   AND    ROUNDHEADS. 

Protector,  who  loved  a  good  voice  and  instrumental  music  well.  He  heard  him 
sing  with  great  delight,  liquored  him  with  sack,  and  in  conclusion,  said,  i  Mr. 
Quin,  you  have  done  well,  what  shall  I  do  for  you  ? '  To  which  Quin  made 
answer,  c  That  your  Highness  would  be  pleased  to  restore  me  to  my  student's 
place;'  which  he  did  accordingly."  (Life  of  Anthony  a  Wood.  Oxford, 
1772,  p.  139.) 

Cromwell  treated  Oxford  much  better  than  Cambridge,  and  it  seems  to  have 
been  a  place  of  almost  peaceable  retirement  for  musicians,  during  the  Protectorate. 
Anthony  a  Wood  gives  a  glowing  account  of  the  delight  he  experienced  in  the 
weekly  music  parties  there,  and  relates  some  other  freaks,  such  as  joining  in  a 
disguise  of  country  fiddlers  and  going  to  Farringdon  Fair.  His  companions  in 
this  were  W.  Bull,  who  like  himself  played  on  the  violin;  E.  Gregory,  B.A.  and 
Gentleman  Commoner  of  Merton  College,  who  played  on  the  base-viol;  J.  Nap, 
of  Trinity,  on  the  citerne ;  and  G.  Mason,  of  the  same  College,  on  another  wire 
instrument.  They  got  on  very  well,  played  to  the  dancing  on  the  green,  and 
received  a  sufficiency  of  money  and  drink ;  but,  in  returning  home,  they  were 
overtaken  by  some  soldiers,  who  made  them  play  in  the  open  field,  and  left  them 
without  giving  them  a  penny.  He  says,  "  Most  of  my  companions  would  after- 
wards glory  in  this,  but  I  was  ashamed,  and  never  could  endure  to  hear  of  it." 
(p.  81.)  Wood's  accounts  of  the  music  parties,  and  of  the  musicians  who  were 
then  in  Oxford,  have  been  copied  into  Hawkins'  History  of  Music ;  I  will,  therefore, 
only  add  what  he  says  of  the  instruments : — "  The  gentlemen  in  these  private 
meetings  played  three,  four,  and  five  parts,  with  viols,  (as  treble-viol,  tenor,  coun- 
ter-tenor, and  base,)  with  an  organ,  virginal,  or  harpsicon,  joyn'd  with  them :  they 
esteemed  a  violin  to  be  an  instrument  only  belonging  to  a  common  fidler,  and  could 
not  endure  that  it  should  come  among  them,  for  fear  of  making  their  meetings  to 
be  vain  and  fidling.  But  before  the  restoration  of  King  Charles  II.  (and  espe- 
cially after),  viols  began  to  be  out  of  fashion,  and  only  violins  were  used,  as 
treble- violin,  tenor,  and  base-violin ;  and  the  King,  according  to  the  French  mode, 
would  have  twenty-four  violins  playing  before  him,  while  he  was  at  meals,  as  being 
more  airy  and  brisk  than  viols."  (p.  97,  8vo.,  Oxford  Edit.,  1772.)  Hence 
the  song  of  Four-and-tiuenty  Fiddlers  all  of  a  row. 

As  to  ballads,  it  was  said,  in  1641,  that  "  there  hath  been  such  a  number 
of  ballad-makers  and  pamphlet-writers  employed  this  yeare,  that  it  is  a  wonder 
that  there  was  any  room  for  that  which  was  made  in  Queen  Elizabeth's  time,  upon 
the  Northerne  Rebellion,  now  reprinted."  ( Vox  Borealis.)  In  1642,  ballads 
respecting  "  the  great  deeds  of  Oliver  Cromwell  at  Worcester  and  Edgehill,"  were 
gravely  proposed  to  Parliament  to  be  sung  at  Christmas  in  place  of  Christmas- 
carols.  (See  No.  6,  of  "  Certaine  Propositions  offered  to  the  consideration  of  the 
Honourable  houses  of  Parliament,"  reprinted  in  Antiquarian  Repertory,  iii.  34, 
4to.,  1808.) 

The  ballads  written  against  Cromwell  personally  were  principally  aimed  at  his 
fanaticism,  at  his  red  nose,  at  his  having  been  a  brewer  (which  is  not  the  fact), 
and  at  his  having  been  run  away  with  by  some  German  horses,  which  they  do 
not  fail  to  wish  had  broken  his  neck.  The  accident  is  thus  related  by  Heath, 


THE   COMMONWEALTH.  417 

in  his  Flagellum  (4th  edit.,  1669)  : — "  Cromwell  would  shew  his  skill  in  driving 
s  x  great  German  horses  in  Hyde  Park  (sent  him  as  a  present  by  the  court  of 
Oldenburgh),  but  they  no  sooner  heard  the  lash  of  the  whip,  but  away  they  ran, 
with  Thurloe  sitting  trembling  in  it  for  fear  of  his  neck,  over  hill,  over  dale,  and 
at  last  threw  down  their  inexpert  governor  from  the  box  into  the  traces.  Of  this 
some  ingenious  songs  were  made,  and  one  called  The  Jolt,  by  Sir  John  Birkenhead, 
\\hich  being  in  print  in  a  history,  in  the  Hump  Songs,  though  the  author  is 
mistaken,  is  purposely  forborn."  (p.  152.) 

In  1642,  the  first  ordinances  were  issued  for  the  suppression  of  stage  plays ; 
and  in  1643,  a  tract  was  printed,  with  the  title  of  "  The  Actor's  Remonstrance  or 
Complaint  for  the  silencing  of  their  Profession;"  which  shews,  among  other 
tilings,  the  distress  to  which  the  musicians  of  the  theatres  were  thereby  re- 
duced. The  writer  says,  "  Our  musike  that  was  held  so  delectable  and  precious 
that  they  scorned  to  come  to  a  tavern  under  twenty  shillings  salary  for  two 
houres,  now  wander  with  their  instruments  under  their  cloaks  (I  mean  such  as 
have  any),  to  all  houses  of  good  fellowship,  saluting  every  room  where  there  is 
company  with,  Will  you  have  any  musike,  gentlemen?"  (Note  to  Dodsley's  Old 
Plays,  v.  432.)  Some  of  the  shops  in  London  were  kept  open  on  Christmas-day 
in  1643,  the  people  being  fearful  of  "  a  popish  observance  of  the  day."  The 
Puritans  gradually  prevailed,  and  in  1647  some  of  the  parish  officers  of  St. 
Margaret's,  Westminster,  were  committed  to  prison  for  permitting  ministers  to 
preach  on  Christmas-day,  and  for  adorning  the  church.  On  the  3rd  of  June, 
1<347,  it  was  ordained  by  Lords  and  Commons  in  Parliament  that  the  Feast  of  the 
Nativity  of  Christ  should  no  longer  be  observed. 

The  final  ordinance  for  suppressing  all  stage  plays  and  interludes,  as 
"  condemned  by  ancient  heathens,  and  by  no  means  to  be  tolerated  among 
professors  of  the  Christian  religion,"  was  enacted  Feb.  13,  1647-8;  and  on 
Dec.  13,  1648,  Captain  Betham  was  appointed  Provost-Martial,  "  with  power 
to  seize  upon  all  ballad-singers,  and  to  suppress  stage  plays."  (Whitelock's 
Memorials,  p.  332.)  From  this  time  we  may  safely  assume  that  no  more  ballads 
wore  written  in  their  favour,  and  that  the  majority,  at  least,  had  long  been  against 
them.  Loyal  songs  were  printed  secretly,  in  spite  of  this  ordinance;  and, 
in  one  by  Sir  Francis  Wortley ,  Bart,  (to  the  tune  of  Tom  of  Bedlam) ,  printed 
A.D.  1648,  are  the  following  concluding  lines: — 

"  Bless  the  printer  from  the  searcher  Those  who  have  writ  for  the  King,  for 

And  from  the  Houses'  takers.  the  good  King, 

Bless  Tom  from  the  slash ;  from  Bride-          Be  it  rhime  or  reason, 

well's  lash,  If  they  please  but  to  look  through  Jenkins 

Bless  all  poor  ballad-makers.  his  book,"  (Lex  Terrce,  1647) 

41  They'll  hardly  find  it  treason." 

In  1649,  while  the  King  was  still  in  prison,  Marchamont  Needham  wrote  these 
lines,  but  did  not  then  dare  to  print  them  : — 

"  Here's  a  health  to  the  King  in  sack,  In  vinegar  to  the  crabbed  pack 

To  the  Houses  in  small  beer,  Of  priests  at  Westminster." 

The  last  is  an  allusion  to  the  "  synod  of  divines." 


418  CAVALIERS   AND    ROUNDHEADS. 

An  extraordinary  collection  of  the  political  songs  and  ballads  from  the 
commencement  of  the  Long  Parliament  (Nov.,  1640),  to  the  restoration  of 
Charles  II.,  is  contained  in  what  are  termed  the  King's  Pamphlets,  now  in  the 
British  Museum.  These  Pamphlets  were  secretly  collected  by  a  bookseller,  named 
George  Thomason,  and  were  intended  for  the  use  of  Charles  I.  They  were  pre- 
sented to  the  national  library  by  George  III.,  who  is  said  to  have  purchased  them 
for  three  or  four  hundred  Pounds,  although  the  original  collector  refused  4,000/. 
for  them.  They  consist  of  about  30,000  pieces  uniformly  bound  in  2,000  volumes, 
and  the  day  of  the  month  and  year  in  which  each  was  issued  are  noted  upon 
them.  One  of  the  volumes  was  borrowed  by  Charles  I.,  while  at  Hampton  Court, 
and  he  dropped  it  in  the  mud  in  his  flight  to  the  Isle  of  Wight.  The  accident  is 
commemorated  by  a  memorandum  in  the  book  (vol.  100,  small  4to.),  and  the 
edges  still  show  the  stains  of  dirt — some  to  more  than  an  inch  in  depth. 

The  collections  of  songs  which  were  printed  at  the  Kestoration,  are,  as  might  be 
supposed,  wholly  on  the  side  of  the  King.  "  Rats  rhymed  to  death ;  or,  The 
Rump  Parliament  hang'd  up  in  the  Shambles,"  was  one  of  the  first.  This  was 
printed  in  1660,  and  in  the  same  year  "The  Rump;  a  collection  of  Songs  and 
Ballads,  made  upon  those  who  would  be  a  Parliament,  and  were  but  the  Rump  of 
an  House  of  Commons,  five  times  dissolved."  This  was  enlarged  in  1662,  and 
printed  as  "  Rump  ;  or  an  exact  collection  of  the  choicest  poems  and  songs 
relating  to  the  late  times,  by  the  most  eminent  wits  from  anno  1639  to  anno 
1661."  The  last  includes  all  in  Rats  rhymed  to  death,  except  two  at  the  close  of 
the  volume.  The  most  voluminous  writer  of  songs  on  the  King's  side  was 
Alexander  Brome ;  but  by  far  the  most  useful  and  important  to  the  Royal  cause 
was  Martin  Parker,  of  ballad  fame.  His  "  The  King  shall  enjoy  his  own 
again,"  did  more  to  support  the  failing  spirits  of  the  Cavaliers  throughout  their 
trials  than  the  songs  of  all  other  writers  put  together,  and  contributed  in  no  small 
degree  to  the  restoration  of  Charles  II.  Monk,  the  general  who  brought  him 
back,  was  a  mere  follower  of  the  times. 

Martin  Parker  is  a  writer  who  has  certainly  been  under-valued.  Ritson  pro- 
nounces him  "  a  Grub-street  scribbler,  and  great  ballad-monger  of  Charles  the 
First's  time,"  but  he  did  not  know  that  he  was  the  author  of  the  poem,  "  The 
Nightingale  warbling  forth  her  own  disaster ;  or,  the  Rape  of  Philomela," — 
of  "  Robin  Conscience,"21 — or  of  this  song  which  he  eulogises  so  highly. 

In  Vox  Borealis,  1641,  he  is  described  as  "  one  Parker,  the  Prelates'  Poet, 
who  made  many  base  ballads  against  the  Scots,"  for  which  he  was  "  like  to  have 
tasted  of  Justice  Long's  liberality,  and  hardly  he  escaped  his  Powdering-Tub, 
which  the  vulgar  people  call  a  prison."  In  an  anti-episcopal  pamphlet,  called 
"  Laws  and  Ordinances,  forced  to  be  agreed  upon  by  the  Pope  and  his  Shavelings 
for  the  disposing  of  his  adherents  and  the  Popish  Rites  he  sent  into  England,"  he 

a  Mr.  Gutch,  in  his  account  of  Martin  Parker  (Robin  the  Ashmolean  Library,  dated  1686,  and  another  in  the 

Hood,  ii.  84),  does  not  mention  his  Robin  Conscience,  a  Bodleian,  without  date);  of  A  Garland  of  Withered  Roses, 

copy  of  which  is  in  the  Bodleian  Library  (1635).    In  Sam.  1656;  of  The  Poet's  Blind-Man's  Bough  [buff],  or  Have 

Holland's  Romancio-Maslix,  or  a  Romance  on  Romances,  among  you,  my  blind  Harpers,  1641;   of  The  King  and  a 

mention  is  made  of  "  Martin  Parker's  Heroic  Poem  called  poor  Northern  man,  1640  (the  story  of  which  seems  to  have 

Valentine  and  Orson."    He  was  also  the  author  of  A  true  been  taken  from  an  old  play) ;  and  of  many  of  the  ballads 

Tain  of  Robin  Hood,  printed  for  T.  Cotes,  1631  (a  copy  in  in  this  collection.     See  Index. 


THE   COMMONWEALTH.  419 

is  mentioned  with  two  others, — Taylor,  the  Water-poet,  and  Thomas  Herbert.* 
"  Article  2. — We  appoint  John  Taylor,  Martin  Parker,  and  Herbert,  all  three 
English  poetical,  papistical,  atheistical  ballad-makers,  to  put  in  print  rhyme- 
doggery  from  the  river  of  Styx,  against  the  truest  Protestants,  in  railing  lines ; 
and,  in  the  end,  young  Gregory"  [Gregory  Brandon,  the  common  hangman] 
"  .shall  be  their  paymaster."5 

Martin  Parker  was  probably  at  one  time  an  alehouse-keeper,  for  the  author  of 
Vox  Borealis  says,  "  But  now  he  swears  he  will  never  put  pen  to  paper  for  the 
prelates  again,  but  betake  himself  to  his  pitcht "  [spouted]  "  can  and  tobacco 
pipe,  and  learn  to  sell  his  frothy  pots  again,  and  give  over  poetry." 

In  the  "  Actor's  Remonstrance  or  Complaint  for  the  silencing  of  their  profes- 
sion, and  banishment  from  their  several  Play-houses,"  1643,  the  author  expresses 
his  fear  that  "  some  of  our  ablest  ordinary  Play-Poets,  instead  of  their  annual 
stipends  and  beneficial  second-days,  being  for  mere  necessity  compelled  to  get  a 
living,  .  .  .  will  shortly  (if  they  have  not  been  forced  to  do  it  already)  be  incited 
to  enter  themselves  into  Martin  Parker's  Society,  and  write  ballads."  This 
sounds  like  a  covert  threat  to  the  puritan  magistrates,  or,  at  least,  as  intended  to 
let  them  understand  that  their  pens  would  be  employed  in  a  manner  which  might 
be  less  agreeable  to  them.  Martin  Parker's  ballad-writing  society  is  again  men- 
tioned in  "  The  Downefall  of  Temporizing  Poets,  unlicenst  Printers,  upstart 
Booksellers,  trotting  Mercuries,  and  bawling  Hawkers,"  1641. — "  You  [ballad- 
writers]  are  very  religious  men  ;  rather  than  you  will  lose  half-a-crown,  you  will 
write  against  your  own  fathers.  You  will  make  men's  wills  before  they  be  sicke, 
han^  them  before  they  are  in  prison,  and  cut  off  heads  before  you  know  why 
or  wherefore.  You  have  an  indifferent  strong  corporation  ;  twenty-three  of  you 
sufficient  writers,  besides  Martin  Parker  ! "  Twenty-four  able  ballad-writers  ! 
and  yet  all  their  productions  are  now  so  scarce  as  to  be  marketably  worth  their 
weight  in  gold. 

"  Inspired  with  the  spirit  of  laMaiing"  says  Flecknoe,  in  a  whimsey  printed  at 
the  end  of  his  Miscellanea,  1653,  "  I  shall  sing  in  Martin  Parker's  vein : — 
'  0  Smithfielrl,  thou  that  in  times  of  yore, 
With  thy  ballets  did  make  all  England  roar,'  "  &c. 

*  In   Brand's   Sale-Catalogue,    Part   2,    No.   2923,    is  sempsters,  that  they  may  have  handkerchers  in  readiness 

"  Merci.rie's  Message  defended  against  the  vain,  foolish,  to  wipe  their  eyes  when  they  shall  weep  for  their  j ust- 

simple,  and  absurd  cavils  of  Thomas  Herbert,  ridiculous  deserved  downfall." 

Ballad- naker.     Portraits,  4to.,   1041."     Several  of  Her-  "6.  Whereas  the  English   Prelates  and   prestigious" 

bert's  p  eductions  are  mentioned  by  Lowndes.  [juggling]  "  Priests,  being  well  affected  to  Popish  rites, 

b  As  ;his  pamphlet  is  very  scarce,  and  exhibits  an  at-  vested  their  black  insides  with  white  Rochets  and  Stir- 
tempt  tt  humour,  not  usual  in  puritanical  pamphlets,  a  plices,  if  they  can  procure  them,  let  them  be  turned  into 
few  spe<  imens  are  subjoined.  shirts  for  them  ;  we  counsel  them  henceforth  to  vest  them- 

"  Article  1.   We  leave  the  great  Archbishop's  cause"  selves  outwardly  in  mourning  black." 

[Laud's     "to  the  mercy  of  the  parliament,  because  it  is  "7.  We  advise  the  Bishops  to  stuff  their  Cater-caps 

not  in  01  .r  power  to  help  him."  with  feathers,  to  serve  them  for  cushions  in  their  closets, 

"3.  I  counsel  the  English  Bishops  to  send  their  Mitres  that  they  may  sit  at  ease  after  they  are  driven  to  study 

to  the  b(  ok-binders'  shops,  and  bespeak  them  bibles  well  thither." 

bossed  therewith,  because  we  apprehend  no  means  to  keep  "  8.  It  is  our  provident  care  that  their  scarlet  robes  be 

them  lot  ger  from  their  studies."  given  to  their  eldest  daughter,  wife,  or  nearest  kinswoman, 

"  4.  \Ve  advise  them  to  send  their  crosier  staves  to  the  to  be  worn  in  a  petticoat  for  posterities,  as  an  emblem  of 

joiners,     o  be  translated  into  crutches  ;    for  we  see  that  the  predecessor's  crimes." 

(with  gre  it  sorrow)  they  must  be  forced  to  stoop."  "  14.  We  censure  the  Organ-pipes  to  be  burned  in  the 

"5.  "W  =  advise  them  to  send  their  lawn  sleeves  to  the  founder's  melting  pot,  because  we  cannot  help  it." 

2E 


420  CAVALIERS  AND   ROUNDHEADS. 

In  TJie  Joviall  Crew  ;  or  The  Devitt  turned  Ranter,  4to.,  1651,  after  a  catch 
has  been  sung,  "  the  best  and  newest  in  town," — "  Excellent  (says  a  Ranter) 
did  this  Minerva  take  flight  from  John  Taylor's  or  Martin  Parker's  vein  ?"  In 
Naps  upon  Parnassus,  1658,  Martin  Parker  is  styled  "  the  Ballad-maker 
Laureat  of  London,"  but  in  Part  2  of  The  Night  Search,  1646,  his  works  are 
not  very  respectfully  treated  : — 

"  A  box  of  salve,  and  two  brass  rings, 

With  Martin  Parker's  works,  and  such  like  things." 

Two  of  his  ballads  are  quoted  by  Izaak  Walton  in  his  charming  book  The  Angler, 
1653  (ante  pp.  295  and  297)  ;  and  perhaps  the  latest  contemporary  notice  of 
him  is  contained  in  Dryden's  comedy  of  Sir  Martin  Mar-all,  which  was  acted  at 
the  Duke's  Theatre,  1668.— act  v.,  sc.  1 : — 

Sir  Martin. — There's  five  shillings  for  thee.  What  ?  we  must  encourage  good  wits 
sometimes." 

Warn. — "  Hang  your  white  pelf :  sure,  Sir,  by  your  largess,  you  mistake  me  for 
Martin  Parker,  the  Ballad-maker." 

John  Wade  was  another  of  the  many  ballad-writers  employed  on  the  King's 
side.  He  was  the  author  of  "  The  Royall  Oak,  or  the  wonderfull  Travells,  mira- 
culous Escapes,  strange  Accidents  of  his  Sacred  Majesty  King  Charles  the 
Second,"  which  has  been  reprinted,  from  a  cotemporary  black-letter  copy  in 
Mr.  Halli well's  Collection,  in  Notes  and  Queries  (vol.  x.,  p.  340). 

Thomas  Weaver,  who  had  been  turned  out  of  the  University  of  Oxford  by  the 
Presbyterians,  was  the  author  of  a  collection  of  songs,  in  which  he  ridiculed  the 
Puritans  so  effectually  that  the  book  was  denounced  as  a  seditious  libel  against 
the  government,  and  a  capital  indictment  founded  upon  it.  He  escaped  with  his 
life  (according  to  Anthony  a  Wood)  in  consequence  of  a  very  humane  charge 
from  the  judge.  He  afterwards  "  sank  into  the  office  of  an  exciseman  at  Liver- 
pool, where  he  was  called  Captain  Weaver,  and  where  he  died  in  inglorious 
obscurity."  His  book  of  songs  is  not  contained  in  the  King's  Pamphlets,  nor 
have  I  been  able  to  see  a  copy. 

The  first  who  came  forth  as  champion  of  the  royal  cause,  in  English  verse 
(according  to  Wood),  was  John  Cleveland,  or  Cleiveland,  then  a  fellow  of  St. 
John's  College,  Cambridge.  His  lines  on  "  The  Rebel  Scot,"  "The  Scot's 
Apostacy;"  "On  the  Death  of  His  Royal  Majesty,  Charles,  late  King  of 
England,"  &c. ;  and  his  song,  "  The  Puritan  "  (to  the  tune  of  The  Queen's  Old 
Courtier),  and  others,  prove  him  to  have  been  a  powerful,  and  often  dignified,  yet 
most  sarcastic  writer.  He  adhered  to  the  royal  cause  till  its  ruin.  At  last,  in 
1655,  after  having  led  for  some  years  a  fugitive  life,  he  was  arrested  in  Norwich, 
and  taken  before  the  Commissioners,  who  imprisoned  him  at  Yarmouth.  Having 
been  confined  there  for  three  months,  he  petitioned  Cromwell,  who  ordered  his 
release.  The  transaction  was  honourable  to  both  parties.  Cleveland's  spirit  is 
shown  in  his  petition.  He  thus  addresses  the  Protector :  "  I  am  induced  to 
believe  that,  next  to  my  adherence  to  the  royal  party,  the  cause  of  my  confine- 
ment is  the  narrowness  of  my  estate ;  for  none  stand  committed  whose  estates  can 
bail  them.  I  only  am  the  prisoner,  who  have  no  acres  to  be  my  hostage.  Now, 
if  my  poverty  be  criminal  (with  reverence  be  it  spoken),  I  implead  your  Highness 


THE   COMMONWEALTH.  421 

whose  victorious  arms  have  reduced  me  to  it,  as  accessory  to  my  guilt.  Let  it 
suffice,  my  Lord,  that  the  calamity  of  the  war  hath  made  us  poor :  do  not  punish 
us  for  it.  ...  I  beseech  your  Highness,  put  some  bounds  to  the  overthrow,  and 
do  not  pursue  the  chase  to  the  other  world.  Can  your  thunder  be  levell'd  so  low 
as  our  grovelling  condition  ?  Can  your  towering  spirit,  which  hath  quarried  upon 
kingdoms,  make  a  stoop  at  us,  who  are  the  rubbish  of  these  ruins  ?  Methinks 
I  hear  your  former  achievements  interceding  with  you  not  to  sully  your  glories 
with  trampling  upon  the  prostrate ;  nor  clog  the  wheel  of  your  chariot  with  so 
degenerous  a  triumph.  The  most  renowned  heroes  have  ever  with  such  tender- 
ness cherished  their  captives,  that  their  swords  did  but  cut  out  work  for  their 
courtesies.  .  .  .  For  the  service  of  his  Majesty,  if  it  be  objected,  I  am  so  far  from 
excusing  it,  that  I  am  ready  to  alledge  it  in  my  vindication,  I  cannot  conceit 
that  my  fidelity  to  my  prince  should  taint  me  in  your  opinion ;  I  should  rather 
expect  it  should  recommend  me  to  your  favour. .  .  .  You  see,  my  Lord,  how  much 
I  presume  upon  the  greatness  of  your  spirit,  that  dare  present  my  indictment 
with  so  frank  a  confession,  especially  in  this,  which  I  may  so  safely  deny  that  it 
is  almost  arrogancy  in  me  to  own  it ;  for  the  truth  is,  I  was  not  qualified  enough 
to  serve  him :  all  I  could  do  was  to  bear  a  part  in  his  sufferings,  and  to  give 
myself  to  be  crushed  with  his  fall.  .  .  .  My  Lord,  you  see  my  crimes ;  as  to  my 
defence,  you  bear  it  about  you.  I  shall  plead  nothing  in  my  justification  but 
your  Highness's  clemency,  which  as  it  is  the  constant  inmate  of  a  valiant  breast, 
if  you  graciously  be  pleased  to  extend  it  to  your  suppliant,  in  taking  me  out  of 
this  withering  durance,  your  Highness  will  find  that  mercy  will  establish  you 
more  than  power,  though  all  the  days  of  your  life  were  as  pregnant  with  victories 
as  your  twice  auspicious  third  of  September. — Your  Highness's  humble  and  sub- 
missive Petitioner."  After  his  release,  Cleveland  came  to  London,  "  where  he 
found  a  generous  Maecenas,"  and  being  much  admired  among  all  persons  of  his 
own  party,  became  a  member  of  a  club  of  wits  and  loyalists,  which  Butler,  the 
author  of  Hudibras,  frequented.  He  died  a  little  before  the  Protector,  from  an 
epidemic  intermitting  fever. 

To  show  how  much  Cromwell  forgave  in  Cleveland,  two  extracts  from  his  works 
are  subjoined.  The  first  from  The  Character  of  a  London  Diurnal.  "  This 
Cromwell  is  never  so  valorous  as  when  he  is  making  speeches  for  the  Association ; 
which,  nevertheless,  he  doth  somewhat  ominously,  with  his  neck  awry,  holding  up 
his  ear  as  if  he  expected  Mahomet's  pigeon  to  come  and  prompt  him.  He  should 
be  a  bird  of  prey,  too,  by  his  bloody  beak,"  &c.  The  second  is  Cleveland's 
Definition  of  a  Protector : — 

"What's  a  Protector  ?  He's  a  stately  thing,  An  echo  whence  the  royal  sound  doth  come, 
That  apes  it  in  the  nonage  of  a  king ;  But  jnst  as  barrel-head  sounds  like  a  drum  : 

A  tragic  actor — Caesar  in  a  clown  :  Fantastic  image  of  the  royal  head,  [tered  : 

He's  a  brass  farthing  stamped  with  a  crown  ;   The  brewer's  with  the  King's  arms  quar- 
A  bladder  blown,  with  other  breaths  puff'd   He  is  a  counterfeited  piece,  that  shows 
Not  the  Perillus,  but  Perillus'  bull :   [full;  Charles  his  effigies  with  a  copper  nose : 
^Esop's  proud  ass  veil'd  in  the  lion's  skin ;   In  fine,  he's  one  we  must  Protector  call, — 
An  outward  saint  lin'd  with  a  devil  within  :  From  whom  the  King  of  kings  protect  us 

Cleaveland's  Revived  Poems,  p.  343,  8vo.,  1687.      all.] 


422  CAVALIERS   AND   ROUNDHEADS. 

George  Wither  is  said  to  have  got  "  The  Statute  Office"  from  Cromwell,  "  by 
rhyming,"  but  I  have  not  found  any  song  written  by  him  in  his  favour.  Wither 
was  a  loser,  rather  than  a  gainer,  by  his  advocacy  of  the  cause  of  the  Parliament, 
for  having  been  the  first  person  of  any  note  in  the  county  of  Surrey  who  took  up 
arms  for  the  parliament,  his  house  was  destroyed,  and  his  property  injured  to  the 
uttermost,  when .  the  Cavaliers  were  there,  and  he  could  never  obtain  adequate 
redress.  His  muse  had  been  employed  for  some  time  before  upon  sacred  subjects, 
and  he  appears  then  to  have  given  up  song-writing  altogether.  The  Rev.  Robert 
Aris  Willmott,  in  his  Lives  of  Sacred  Poets,  dates  Wither' s  accession  to  the 
Statute  Office  between  1655  and  1656,  and  concludes  that  the  appointment  was, 
in  other  words,  to  the  Record  Office,  which  was  bestowed  upon  Prynne  after 
the  Restoration.  The  passage  from  which  I  derived  the  information  of  his  having 
held  the  office  is  in  "  The  last  Speech  and  dying  words  of  Thomas  (Lord,  alias 
Colonel)  Pride,  being  touched  in  conscience  for  his  inhuman  murder  of  the  Bears 
in  the  Bear  garden,  when  he  was  High-Sheriff  of  Surrey,"  4to.,  1680.  (Re- 
printed in  Harl.  Miscellany,  4to.,  iii.  135.)  "  I  do  not  mean  Mr.  George 
Withers,  for  he  got  the  Statue-office  by  rhyming,  but  when  will  he  sell  his 
verses  ?  A  statue  lies  upon  them,  so  as  no  body  will  buy  them." 

I  have  said  that  the  "  remonstrance"  of  the  "  play-poets  "  that  they  should  be 
compelled  to  enter  Martin  Parker's  society  seemed  to  convey  a  covert  threat  to 
those  who  closed  the  theatres,  that  they  would  become  the  subjects  of  ballads. 
A  few  quotations  from  plays  will  perhaps  best  show  how  general  was  the  fear  of 
being  "  balladed  "  in  the  seventeenth  century. 
"  Good  Master  Sheriff,  your  leave  too  ; 
This  hasty  work  was  ne'er  well  done  :  give  us  so  much  time 
As  but  to  sing  our  own  ballads,  for  we'll  trust  no  man, 
Nor  no  tune  but  our  own  ;  'twas  done  in  ale  too, 
And,  therefore,  cannot  be  refus'd  in  justice ; 
Your  penny -pot  poets  are  such  pelting  thieves, 
They  ever  hang  men  twice." 

This  is  from  an  unfinished  play  of  Fletcher's,  The  lloody  Brother  ;  or,  Rolla, 
Duke  of  Normandy,  which  was  one  of  those  secretly  performed  "  in  the  winter 
before  the  King's  murder."     Again,  in  The  Lover's  Progress,  act  v.,  sc.  3,  he 
makes  Malfort  say : —     "  I  have  penn'd  mine  own  ballad 
Before  my  condemnation,  in  fear 
Some  Rhymer  should  prevent  me." 
In  the  Humourous  Lieutenant,  act  ii.,  sc.  2 — 

"  Now  shall  we  have  damnable  ballads  out  against  us, 
Most  wicked  Madrigals ;  and  ten  to  one,  Colonel, 
Sung  to  such  lamentable  tunes." 
In  The  Pilgrim,  act  iii.,  sc.  4 —     "I  shall  be  taken 
For  their  commander  now,  their  General, 
And  have  a  commanding  gallows  set  up  for  me 
As  high  as  a  May  pole,  and  nasty  songs  made  on  me, 
Be  printed  with  a  pint  pot  and  a  dagger." 


THE   COMMONWEALTH.  423 

In  Rowley's  A  Woman  never  vext  (1632),  act  i.,  sc.  1 — 
"  And  I'll  proclaim  thy  baseness  to  the  world, 
Ballads  I'll  make,  and  make  'em  tavern  music 
To  sing  thy  churlish  cruelty." 
In  Ford's  Tlie  Lady's  Trial,  act  ii.,  sc.  2— 

"  You  are  grown  a  tavern  talk 

Matter  for  fiddlers'  songs." 
In  Ford's  Lovers  Sacrifice,  act  iii.,  sc.  1 — 

"  Ballad  singers  and  rhymers 

Shall  jig  out  thy  wretchedness  and  abominations 
To  new  tunes." 
In  Shirley's  The  Court  Secret,  act  v.,  sc.  1 — 

"  I  have  prepar'd  a  ballad,  Sir, 
Before  I  die,  to  let  the  people  know 
How  I  behav'd  myself  upon  the  scaffold. 
With  other  passages  that  will  delight 
The  people,  when  I  take  my  leave  of  the  world, 
Made  to  a  Pavan  tune." 
In  Davenport's  T/ie  City  Night-cap,  act  i.,  sc.  1 — 

"  Let  ballad-mongers  crown  him  with  their  scorns." 
In  Killegrew's  Parson's  Wedding,  act  i.,  sc.  1 — 

*'  I'll  put  the  cause  in  print  too ;  I'm  but  a  scurvy  poet,  yet  I'll  make  a  ballad  shall 
tell  how,  &c." 

The  political  importance  of  songs  and  ballads  in  aiding  great  changes,  whether 
reformatory,  revolutionary,  or  otherwise,  has  been  proved  not  only  in  our  own 
country,  but  in  almost  every  other.  A  well-known  passage  in  Andrew  Fletcher 
of  Saltoun's  Political  Works  (often  quoted,  but  not  always  correctly  given),  is 
so  peculiarly  to  the  purport,  that  I  hope  to  be  excused  for  again  citing  it. — 
"  3  knew  a  very  wise  man  so  much  of  Sir  Christopher  [Musgrave]'s  sentiment," 
[a^  to  the  effect  of  songs  and  ballads,  both  in  a  political  and  moral  sense],  "  that 
he  believed  if  a  man  were  permitted  to  make  all  the  ballads,  he  need  not  care 
who  should  make  the  laws  of  a  nation."  (p.  266,  12mo.,  Glasgow,  1749.) 

It  was  during  the  Commonwealth  that  "  honest  John  Play  ford "  commenced 
publishing  music,  and  The  Miglish  Dancing  Master,  or  plaine  and  easie  rules 
for  the  dancing  of  Country  Dances,  with  the  tune  to  each  dance,  appears  to  have 
been  his  first  musical  publication. a  Thomason  has  marked  the  date  on  the  copy 
among  the  King's  pamphlets,  as  10th  of  March,  1650,  which,  according  to  the 
ne\\  style,  would  be  1651.  In  the  preface,  Play  ford  speaks  of  "the  sweet  and 
air}  activity  of  the  Gentlemen  of  the  Inns  of  Court,  which  has  crowned  their 

B  I  find  entries  of  books  printed  by  Playford,  as  early  In  1652,  besides  a  second  edition  of  The  Dancing  Master, 

as  164?,  in  the  Registers  of  the  Stationers' Company,  but  he    published    Mustek's    Recreation  on  the    Lyra    Viol, 

no  mi,  nc  before  1650,  old  style.      In  1651,  he  published  Hilton's  Catch  that  Catch  can  (of  which  a  second  edition 

"  A  M  usical  Banquet,  in  three  books,  consisting  of  Les-  was  printed  in  1658),  and  Choice  Ayres,  &c.     His  musical 

sons  f..r  the  Lyra  Viol,  Allmains,  and  Sarabands,  Choice  publications  after  this  date  are  (with  the  exception  of  the 

Catch<  s  and  Rounds,"  &c.    A  copy  of  this  rare  work  is  Court  Ayres,  referred  to   in   the  text)    more  generally 

in  the  Douce  Collection,  Bodleian  Library.  Playford  was  known, 
not  on  y  a  printer,  but  also  Clerk  of  the  Temple  Church. 


424  CAVALIERS   AND   ROUNDHEADS. 

grand  solemnities  with  admiration  to  all  spectators."  Some  allusion  has  already 
been  made  to  their  masques  and  dances,  (ante  p.  328,  and  note),  to  which  I  may 
add,  that  the  author  of  "  Round  about  our  Coal  Fire,  or  Christmas  Entertain- 
ments," says,  "the  dancing  and  singing  of  the  Benchers,  in  the  great  Inns  of 
Court,  in  Christmas,  is  in  some  sort  founded  upon  interest ;  for  they  hold,  as 
I  am  informed,  some  privilege,  by  dancing  about  the  fire,  in  the  middle  of  their 
Hall,  and  singing  the  song  of  Round  about  our  coal  fire,  &c.  Leaving  to  the 
gentlemen  of  the  bar  to  determine  what  this  privilege  was,  I  will  only  add,  that 
the  eulogy  of  their  sweet  and  airy  activity,  is  contained  in  every  edition  of  The 
Dancing  Master  to  1701  inclusive,  but  omitted  in  and  after  that  of  1703. 

A  large  proportion  of  the  tunes  in  the  first  edition  of  The  Dancing  Master,  are 
contained  in  the  present  collection,  because  they  are  ballad  tunes.  Sir  Thomas 
Elyot,  in  his  Grovernour,  1531,  after  describing  many  ancient  modes  of  dancing, 
says :  "  And  as  for  the  special  names  [of  those  dances],  they  were  taken,  as  they  be 
rioiv,  either  of  the  names  of  the  first  inventors,  or  of  the  measure  and  number  they 
do  contain ;  or,  of  the  first  words  of  the  ditty  which  the  song  comprehendeth,  whereof 
the  dance  was  made."  If  this  custom  of  naming  them  after  the  ditty  had  not  been 
retained  in  Playford's  time,  it  would  have  been  almost  impossible  now  to  identify 
the  tunes  of  our  old  ballads,  for  the  words  and  music  are  very  rarely  to  be  found 
together. 

In  1655,  Playford  published  "Court  Ayres;  or,  Pavins,  Almaines,  Corants, 
and  Sarabands,  Treble  and  Basse,  for  Viols  or  Violins ; "  and  reprinted  them  in 
1662,  with  additions,  under  the  title  of  "  Courtly  Masquing  Ayres,  containing 
Almanes,  Ayres,  Corants,  Sarabands,  Moriscos,  Jiggs,"  &c.  In  the  preface  to 
the  latter,  he  says,  "  About  seven  years  since,  I  published  a  collection  of  ayres  of 
this  nature,  entitled  Court  Ayres,  containing  245  lessons  ;  it  being  the  first  of  that 
kind  extant,  I  printed,  therefore,  but  a  very  small  impression,  yet  when  it  was 
once  abroad,  it  found  so  good  acceptance  both  in  this  kingdom  and  beyond  seas, 
that  there  it  was  reprinted  to  my  great  damage,  and  was  the  chief  reason  that 
I  publish' d  it  no  more  till  now."  The  composers  of  this  collection  are  William 
Lawes,  Dr.  Charles  Colman,  John  Jenkins,  Benjamin  Rogers,  Davis  Mell,  John 
Banister,  William  Gregory,  Matthew  Lock,  and  Thomas  Gibbes.  The  republica- 
tion  abroad  of  the  music  of  the  English  Court  Masques,  confirms,  in  some  degree, 
Lord  Orford's  view,  that  the  Court  of  Charles  I.  was  looked  upon  as  "  THE  MOST 
POLITE  COURT  IN  EUROPE." 


IN  searching  for  the  songs  and  tunes  of  this  particular  period,  the  reader  will 
find  it  necessary  to  refer  to  the  first  volume,  as  many  of  the  oldest  tunes  were  still 
in  use,  such  as  John  Dory,  Old  Sir  Simon  the  King,  Tom  a  Bedlam,  &c.  A  very 
small  proportion  of  the  songs  now  possess  sufficient  interest  for  republication;  and 
some  are  necessarily  excluded,  by  their  coarseness. 


THE   COMMONWEALTH.  425 

HEY,  THEN,  UP  GO  WE. 

This  song,  which  describes  with  some  humour  the  taste  of  the  Puritans,  might 
pass  for  a  Puritan  song  if  it  were  not  contained  in  The  Shepherd's  Oracles,  by 
Francis  Quarles,  1646.  Quarles  was  cup-bearer  to  Elizabeth,  Queen  of  Bohemia, 
the  daughter  of  James  I.;  was  afterwards  Secretary  to  Archbishop  Usher  (Primate 
of  Ireland),  and  Chronologer  to  the  city  of  London.  He  died  in  1644,  and  The 
Shepherd's  Oracles  were  a  posthumous  publication. 

Other  copies  of  the  words  will  be  found  in  MSS.  Ashmole,  36  and  37,  fol.  96 ; 
ir  Loyal  Songs  written  against  the  Rump  Parliament,  i.  14 ;  in  Ellis's  Specimens  ; 
and  in  Stafford  Smith's  Musica  Antiqua.  The  music  in  the  last  named  is  not  a 
popular  tune,  but  the  work  of  some  composer  unknown.  It  is  there  printed  from 
a  manuscript  once  in  the  possession  of  Dr.  William  Boyce. 

Some  differences  will  be  found  in  the  various  copies ;  for  instance,  in  The  Shep- 
htrd's  Oracles,  the  line,  "  Then  Barrow  shall  be  sainted,"  is,  in  Musica  Antiqua, 
"  Then  Burton  shall  be  sainted,"  and  in  Loyal  Songs,  "  Then  Burges,"  &c.  In 
the  last,  there  are  two  additional  stanzas,  and  the  tune  is  changed  to  one  already 
printed  (ante  p.  341).  In  Ashmole's  manuscript,  the  song  is  entitled  "The 
Triumph  of  the  Roundheads ;  or  the  Rejoicing  of  the  Saints." 

D'Urfey  calls  this  "  an  old  ballad  tune  of  forty-one" — i.e.,  1641.  He  wrote  a 
soag  to  the  air,  for  his  play  of  The  Royalist,  which  was  acted  at  the  Duke's 
Theatre  in  1682.  D'Urfey  borrowed  about  five  of  the  seven  verses  of  Quarles' 
song,  making  only  a  few  verbal  alterations.  The  last  line  of  each  stanza  is, 
"  Hey,  then,  up  go  we,"  both  in  his  play  and  in  Quarles'  song ;  but  in  Pills  to 
purge  Melancholy,  and  some  other  copies,  uHey,  hoys,  up  go  we."  Hey,  then,  up 
go  we  is  quoted  in  A  Satyr  against  Hypocrites,  4to.,  1661. 

Two  other  names  for  the  tune  are  The  clean  contrary  way,  and  The  good  old 
cause.  "  The  good  old  cause  "  meant  the  maintenance  of  the  rights  of  the  subject 
against  the  encroachments  of  the  king. 

[n  A  Choice  Collection  of  120  Loyal  Songs,  &c.,12mo,,  1684,  is  "  An  excellent 
new  Hymn,  exalting  the  Mobile  to  Loyalty,"  &c.,  "  To  the  tune  of  Forty-one; " 
commencing — 
"  Let  us  advance  the  good  old  cause,  'Tis  we  must  perfect  this  great  work, 

Fear  not  Tantivitiers,  And  all  the  Tories  slay, 

"Whose  threat' nings  are  as  senseless  as          And  make  the  King  a  glorious  Saint — 

Our  jealousies  and  fears.  The  clean  contrary  way." 

This  is  a  mere  alteration  of  a  song  by  Alexander  Brome,  entitled  "  The  Saint's 
Encouragement;  written  in  1643,"  and  printed  in  his  Songs  and  other  Poems, 
12mo.,  1644,  (p.  164).     It  commences  thus: — 
"  F  ght  on,  brave  soldiers,  for  the  cause,        'Tis  you  must  perfect  this  brave  work, 

Fear  not  the  Cavaliers ;  And  all  malignants  slay, 

Their  threat' nings  are  as  senseless  as          You  must  bring  back  the  King  again — 

Our  jealousies  and  fears.  TJie  clean  contrary  way." 

In  che  collection  of  Loyal  Songs  written  against  the  Rump  Parliament,  instead  of 
"  The  Saint's  Encouragement,"  &c.,  Brome's  song  is  headed  "  On  Colonel  Venne's 
Encouragement  to  his  Soldiers:  A  Song"  (i.  104,  edit.  1731.) 


426  ENGLISH   SONG  AND  BALLAD  MUSIC. 

The  dean  contrary  way  is  a  very  old,a  and  was  a  very  popular  burden  to  songs. 
Some  of  the  songs,  however,  like  that  on  the  Duke  of  Buckingham,  reprinted  by 
Mr.  Fairholt  for  the  Percy  Society  (No.  90,  p.  10)  are  in  another  metre,  and 
were  therefore  written  to  other  tunes. 

It  appears,  from  some  lines  in  Ohoyce  Poems,  $c.,  by  the  Wits  of  both  Univer- 
sities (printed  for  Henry  Brome,  1661),  that  some  ballad- singers  had  been 
committed  to  prison,  and  threatened  to  be  whipped  through  the  town,  for  singing 
one  of  these  songs. 

"  The  fiddlers  must  be  whipt,  the  people  say, 
Because  they  sung  The  clean  contrary  way ; 
Which,  if  they  be,  a  crown  I  dare  to  lay, 
They  then  will  sing,  the  clean  contrary  way. 
And  he  that  did  those  merry  knaves  betray, 
Wise  men  will  praise  (the  clean  contrary  way) ; 
For  whipping  them  no  envy  can  allay, 
Unless  it  be  the  clean  contrary  way ; 
Then,  if  they  went  the  people's  tongues  to  stay, 
Doubtless  they  went  the  clean  contrary  way." 

One  of  the  songs  was  remembered  in  Walpole's  time,  for  in  a  letter  to  Sir  Horace 
Mann,  dated  October  1,  1742,  he  says,  "  As  to  German  news,  it  is  all  so  simple 
that  I  am  peevish :  the  raising  of  the  siege  of  Prague,  and  Prince  Charles  and 
Marechal  Maillebois  playing  at  Hunt  the  Squirrel,  have  disgusted  me  from 
enquiry  about  the  war.  The  Earl  laughs  in  his  great  chair,  and  sings  a  bit  of  an 
old  ballad :  « They  both  did  fight,  they  both  did  beat, 

They  both  did  run  away  ; 
They  both  did  strive  again  to  meet — 

The  clean  contrary  way. ' ' 

Walpoles  Letters,  1840,  i.  231. 

Among  the  numerous  songs  and  ballads  to  this  air  the  following  may  be 
named : — 

1.  "  A  Health  to  the  Royal  Family;  or,  The  Tories'  Delight :  To  the  tune  of 
Hey,  boys,  up  go  we"  (Pepys  Coll.,  ii.  217.)  Commencing — 

"  Come,  give's  a  brimmer,  fill  it  up,  Let  rebels  plot,  'tis  all  in  vain, 

'Tis  to  great  Charles  our  King,  They  plot  themselves  but  woe, 

And  merrily  let  it  go  round,  Come,  loyal  lads,  unto  the  Queen, 

Whilst  we  rejoice  and  sing.  And  briskly  let  it  go." 

»  The  clean  contrary  way,  as  a  burden,  may  be  traced,  liol  College,  Oxford  (No.  105,  p.  250).    Among  the  corn- 
in  Latin,  to  the  fifteenth  century,  if  not  earlier,  as,  for  plimentary  verses  prefixed  to  The  Wife,  by  Sir  Thomas 
instance,  in  a  highly  popular  song—  Overbury,  1616,  one  set  is  "  To  the  clean  contrary  wife;" 
"  Of  all  creatures  women  be  best,  and  the  clean  contrary  way  occurs  among  lines,  signed 
Cujus  contrarium  verum  est."  W.  S.,   upon  the  death  of  Overbury,   prefixed  to  his 
Copies  of  that  are  contained  in  the  Minstrels'  Book,  re-  Characters,  1616. 

printed  by  Mr.  Wright  for  the  Percy  Society  (Songs  and  There  are  many  ballads  to  the  tune,  as  "  Half  a  dozen 

Carols,  p.  88),  and  in  a  Collection  of  Romances,  Songs,  of  good  Wives,  all  for  a  Penny,"  &c.    Roxburge,  i.  152 ; 

Carols,  &c.,  in  the  hand  writing  of  Richard  Hill,  merchant,  another,  ii.  571  ;  &c. 
of  London,  from  1483  to  1535,  now  in  the  Library  of  Bal- 


THE   COMMONWEALTH.  427 

2.  A  satirical  song  by  Lord  Rochester  (Harl.  MSS.,  6913,  p.  267)— 
'  Send  forth,  dear  Julian,  all  thy  books       Let  all  the  ladies  read  their  own, 

Of  scandal,  large  and  wide,  The  men  their  failings  see, 

That  ev'ry  knave  that  in  'em  looks  From  Nell  to  him  that  treads  the  throne, 

May  see  himself  describ'd.  Then  Hey,  boys,  up  go  we" 

3.  "  The  Popish  Tory's  Confession ;    or,  An  Answer  to  the  Whig's  Exalta- 
tion," &c.     "  A  pleasant  new  song  to  the  tune  of  Hey,  boys,  up  go  we"     (Douce 
Coll.,  182)  ;  beginning— 

'• '  Down  with  the '  Whigs,  we'll  now  grow    We'll  make  the  Roundheads  stoop  to  us, 

Let's  cry  out  "  Pull  them  down,"  [wise,        For  we  their  betters  be, 
By  that  we'll  rout  the  Good  old  cause,         We'll  pull  down  all  their  pride  with  speed, 

And  mount  one  of  our  own.  Such  Tories  now  are  we." 

This  is  on  Papists  calling  themselves  Tories  (printed  by  J.  Wright,  J.  Clarke, 
W.  Thackeray,  T.  Passinger,  and  M.  Coles,  B.L.,  temp.  Charles  II.)  ;  and  is  pre- 
coded  by  eleven  long  lines,  of  which  the  following  six  contain  the  usual  derivation 
of  "  Tory  "  : —    "  No  honest  man,  who  king  and  state  does  love, 
Will  of  a  name  so  odious  approve, 
Which^/iw/i  the  worst  of  Irish  thieves  at  first 
Had  its  beginning,  and  with  blood  was  nurst. 
Which  shews  it  is  of  a  right  Popish  breed, 
As  in  their  own  confession  you  may  read." 

4  and  5.  The  last  line  perhaps  alludes  to  "The  Tories'  Confession;  or, 
A  merry  song  in  Answer  to  the  Whig's  Exaltation :  To  the  tune  of  Forty-one." 
A  copy  of  this  (London,  T.  H.,  1682)  is  in  Mr.  Halliwell's  Collection,  Cheetham 
Library  (No.  3010),  as  well  as  "A  new  ballad  from  Whig-land,"  to  the  same 
air  (No.  1045). 

6.  "  The   City's   thankes   to   Southwarke   for   giving   the   army  entrance " 
(Sep.  1,  1647) —       "  We  thank  you  more  than  we  can  say, 

But  'tis  the  cleane  contrary  way." 

Tlds  is  among  the  King's  Pamphlets,  and  reprinted  in  Wright's  Political  Ballads, 
Percy  Soc.,  No.  90,  p.  70. 

7.  "  The  Thames  uncas'd ;  or,  The  Waterman's  Song  upon  the  thaw.     To  the 
tune  of  Hey,  boys,  up  go  we"     Commencing — 

"  Come,  ye  merry  men  all,  of  Waterman's  Hall," 

Sec  Old  Ballads  illustrating  the  Great  Frost  of  1683-4,  Percy  Soc.,  No.  42,  p.  30. 
3.  "Advice  to  Batchelors;  or,   The  Married  Man's  Lamentation."      Com- 
mencing—  "  You  batchelors  that  single  are, 

May  lead  a  happy  life." 

J).    "The  good  Fellow's   Consideration;    or,   The  bad  Husband's  Amend- 
ment," &c. —  "  Lately  written  by  Thomas  Lanfiere, 
Of  Watch  at  town  in  Somersetshire." 
(Roxburghe  Coll.,  ii.  195.     "  Printed  for  P.  Brooksby.") 

10.  "  The  good  Fellow's  Frolick;  or,  Kent  Street  Club.     To  the  tune  of  Hey, 
boy*,  up  go  we  ;  Seaman's  mournful  bride;  or  The  fair  one  let  me  in.   Beginning — 
"  Here's  a  crew  of  jovial  blades 

That  lov'd  the  nut-brown  ale."—  (Rax.  Coll.,  ii.  198,) 


428 


ENGLISH   SONG   AND  BALLAD  MUSIC. 


11.  "All  is  ours  and  our  Husband's;  or,  The  Country  Hostess's  Vindication: 
To  the  tune  of  The  Carman's  Whistle,  or  Heigh,  boys,  up  go  we"  (Roxburghe 
Coll.,  ii.  8.) 

12  and  13.  "  A  Farewell  to  Gravesend ; "  and  "  The  merry  Boys  of  Christmas, 
or,  The  Milkmaid's  New  Year's  Gift."  (Roxburghe,  vol.  4.) 

It  would  be  no  difficult  task  to  add  fifty  more  to  the  above  list,  but  it  is  already 
sufficiently  lengthy. 

The  tune  is  contained  in  The  Dancing  Master  of  1686,  and  in  every  subsequent 
edition;  in  180  Loyal  Songs,  1685  and  1694;  in  Pills  to  purge  Melancholy, 
ii.  286  (1719)  ;  and  in  the  following  ballad  operas  -.—Beggars'1  Opera,  1728 ;  The 
Patron,  1729 ;  TJie  Lover's  Opera,  1629 ;  Quaker's  Opera,  1728 ;  Silvia,  1731 ; 
The  Devil  to  pay,  1731 ;  and  Love  and  Revenge,  N.D.  In  some  copies  it  is  in 
common  time,  in  others  in  |  or  §• 


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THE   COMMONWEALTH. 


429 


We'll  break  the  windows  which  the  whore 

Of  Babylon  hath  painted, 
And  when  the  Popish  Saints  are  down, 

Then  Barrow  shall  be  sainted ; 
There's  neither  cross  nor  crucifix 

Shall  stand  for  men  to  see, 
Rome's  trash  and  trumpery  shall  go  down, 
And  hey,  then  up  go  we. 

Whate'er  the  Popish  hands  have  built, 

Our  hammers  shall  undo, 
We'll  break  their  pipes,  and  burn  their  copes, 

And  pull  down  churches  too  j 
We'll  exercise  within  the  groves, 

And  teach  beneath  a  tree, 
We'll  make  a  pulpit  of  a  cask, 
And  hey,  then  up  go  we. 

We'll  put  down  Universities, 

Where  learning  is  profest, 
Because  they  practise  and  maintain 

The  language  of  the  beast ; 
We'll  drive  the  doctors  out  of  doors, 

And  all  that  learned  be ; 
We'll  cry  all  arts  and  learning  down, 
And  hey,  then  up  go  we. 

We'll  down  with  deans,  and  prebends,  too, 

And  I  rejoice  to  tell  ye 
W  e  then  shall  get  our  fill  of  pig, 

And  capons  for  the  belly  ; 
We'll  burn  the  Fathers'  weighty  tomes, 

And  make  the  school-men  flee ; 
We'll  down  with  all  that  smells  of  wit, 
And  hey,  then  up  go  we. 

The  two  last  stanzas  are  not  contained 


If  once  the  antichristian  crew 

Be  crush'd  and  overthrown, 
We'll  teach  the  nobles  how  to  stoop, 

And  keep  the  gentry  down  : 
Good  manners  have  an  ill  report, 

And  turn  to  pride,  we  see, 
We'll  therefore  put  good  manners  down, 
And  hey,  then  up  go  we. 

The  name  of  lords  shall  be  abhorr'd, 

For  every  man's  a  brother, 
No  reason  why  in  church  and  state 

One  man  should  rule  another ; 
But  when  the  change  of  government 

Shall  set  our  fingers  free, 
We'll  make  these  wanton  sisters  stoop, 
And  hey,  then  up  go  we. 

What  though  the  King  and  Parliament 

Do  not  accord  together, 
We  have  more  cause  to  be  content, 

This  is  our  sunshine  weather ; 
For  if  that  reason  should  take  place, 

And  they  should  once  agree, 
Who  would  be  in  a  Roundhead's  case, 
For  hey,  then  up  go  we. 

What  should  we  do,  then,  in  this  case, 

Let's  put  it  to  a  venture, 
If  that  we  hold  out  seven  years'  space, 

We'll  sue  out  our  indenture. 
A  time  may  come  to  make  us  rue, 

And  time  may  set  us  free, 
Except  the  gallows  claim  his  due, 
And  hey,  then  up  go  we. 

in  Quarles'  copy. 


VIVE  LE  ROY. 

A  copy  of  this  song,  which  may  be  termed  the  u  God  save  the  King"  of 
Chades  L,  of  Charles  II.,  and  James  II. ,  is  to  be  found,  both  words  and  music, 
in  Additional  MSS.,  No.  11,608,  p.  54,  British  Museum.  The  tune  is  in  MusicKs 
Recreation  on  the  Viol,  Lyra-way,  1661 ;  and  in  MusicKs  Delight  on  the  Cithren, 
166<>.  The  words  in  Loyal  Songs,  i.  102,  1731. 

The  copy  among  the  Additional  Manuscripts  is  in  three  parts  (treble,  tenor, 
and  bass),  but  without  a  composer's  name.  The  title,  Vive  le  Roy,  is  derived 
fron^  the  burden  of  each  stanza. 

It  is  frequently  alluded  to,  as  in  the  song  entitled  "  A  la  Mode :  The  Cities 
profound  policie  in  delivering  themselves,  their  cittie,  their  works,  and  ammu- 
nition, unto  the  protection  of  the  Armie"  (August  27, 1647),  King's  Pamphlets, 
vol.  v.,  folio;  and  Wright's  Political  Ballads,  p.  64 — 

"  And  now  the  Royalists  will  sing  The  Commons  will  embrace  their  King 

Aloud  Vice  le  Roy;  With  an  unwonted  joy." 


430 


ENGLISH   SONG  AND  BALLAD  MUSIC. 


And  in  "  He  that  is  a  clear  Cavalier,"  the  first  stanza  ends — 
"  Freeborn  in  liberty  we'll  ever  be, 

Sing  Vive  le  Roy." 

Again,  in  A  Joco-serious  Discourse,  by  George  Stuart,  1686,  a  welcome  to 
James  II., — "  the  harmonious  spheres  sound  Vive  le  Roy"  (p.  3). 

Among  Mr.  HalliwelPs  Collection  of  Ballads  is  "England's  Honour  and 
London's  Glory,  with  the  manner  of  proclaiming  Charles  the  Second  King  of 
England,  this  eighth  of  May,  1660,  by  the  Honourable  the  two  Houses  of  Par- 
liament, Lord  Generall  Monk,  the  Lord  Mayor,  Aldermen,  and  Common  Counsell 
of  the  City.  The  tune  is  Vive  la  Roy."  London,  printed  for  William  Gilbertson. 
It  begins —  "  Come  hither,  friends,  and  listen  unto  me, 

And  hear  what  shall  now  related  be ; " 

and  the  burden  is — "  Then  let  us  sing,  boyes,  God  save  the  King,  boyes, 
Drink  a  good  health,  and  sing  Vive  le  Roy" 

^    Moderate  time. 


nij-JH-'jijJhh-j-t* 

^_  m       —i,^      *    •  n      H — *— 


What  tho'  the 
Shall    we   then 


zea  -    lots 
ne    -    ver 


pull  down  the       pre  -  lates,    Push     at 
once  more  en   -    dea  -  vour     And  strive 


the 
to 


m 


i~'/  i 

1 

J            1 

1               k. 

•  —  v^ 

-J- 

-J- 

"I— 

-«!  i 

.   r 

9^—f  f- 

=f  — 

•       .       M  i— 

-1 

—  S_ 

-J  

1  .  * 

:   E      E 

3  &—  9—  \- 

pul 
pur 

-  pit, 
-  chase 

1          1 
and     kick       at          the    crown,         9    .   Shall     not 
our      an  -  cient        re  -  nown?    *           Then  we'll 

r     i         i 

the          Round  -  head 
be         mer  -  ry,   drink 

1  •  1  •- 

b= 

f— 

=J=( 

—  I  

—  J  

—  Q,  -  M:    J       j       j 

*    \ 

*\ 

1  

i            "  -  -    L  "  '•      L 

—  9 

J 

!                  , 

" 

3* 

1  

-^  

•i     .     J      J  

_d  

•     J       J  

8  ^  i—i^  —  -^  1—  ^  :  m  -^-  i__i^  ^  

soon       he    con  -    found    -    ed?        Sa,        sa,     sa,         Say         boys, 
cla   -    ret    and       sher    -     ry,      Then      we    will      sing,         boys, 

i              ^                                                          •*» 

Ha,      ha,     ha, 
God  bless    the 

• 

l 

i                           i 

r 

A          J  J 

• 

^-j             J    ! 

m 

f^ 

1  

o           94 

a  F  — 

-4  r—  | 

1 

-j  .  J    4   M 

-^1   J  —  H  —  d  —  - 

td  —  |  [EE 

_ 

2               J 

a                   t     •    m 

H 

1 

3              •     i  j 

*          \    f          i            • 

P    ^i                 * 

p 

-0- 

"^"       • 

ha,          boys,  Then     we'll    re     -     turn          with          tri  -  umph  'and      joy. 
king,        boys,    Cast       up    your       caps,          and          cry    Vive         le       Roy. 

J-T— 

~  __j__\_±=±-= 

—  T-CT  =  TT— 

\=\ 

J  1 

_l  —  ill_ 

THE   COMMONWEALTH.  431 

What  though  the  wise  make  Alderman  Isaac      If  you  will  choose  them,  do  not  refuse  them, 

Put  us  in  prison  and  steal  our  estates,  Since  honest  Parliament  never  made  thieves, 

Though  we  be  forced  to  be  unhorsed,  Charles  will  not  further  have  rogues  dipt  in 

And  walk  on  foot  as  it  pleaseth  the  fates ;  murder, 

In  the  King's  army  no  man  shall  harm  ye,  Neither  by  leases,  long  lives,  nor  reprieves. 

Then  come  along,  boys,  valiant  and  strong,  'Tis  the  conditions  and  propositions 

boys,  [enjoy ;       Will  not  be  granted,  then  be  not  daunted, 

Fight  for  your  goods,  which  the  Roundheads  We  will  our  honest  old  customs  enjoy ; 

And  when  you  venture  London  to  enter,  Paul's  not  rejected,  will  be  respected, 

And  when  you  come,  boys,  with  fife  and  drum,  And  in  the  Quier  voices  rise  higher, 

boys,  Thanks  to  the  heavens  and  [cry]   Vive    le 

Isaac  himself  shall  cry,  Vive  le  Roy.  Roy. 

LOVE  LIES  BLEEDING. 

This  tune  is  referred  to  under  the  various  names  of  Love  lies  bleeeding,  Law 
lies  bleeding,  The  Cyclops,  The  Sword,  and  The  power,  or  The  dominion,  of  the 
Sword. 

In  The  Loyal  G-arland,  fifth  edition,  1686,  is  "  The  Dominion  of  the  Sword : 
A  Song  made  in  the  Rebellion."  Commencing — 

"  Lay  by  your  pleading,  Law  lies  a  bleeding, 

Burn  all  your  studies,  and  throw  away  your  reading,"  &c. 

It  is  also  in  Loyal  Songs,  i.  223,  1731  (there  entitled  "The  power  of  the 
Sword");  in  Merry  Drollery  complete,  1661  and  1670;  in  Pills  to  purge 
Melancholy,  vi.  190 ;  &c. 

In  the  Bagford  Collection,  a  song,  "  printed  at  the  Hague,  for  S.  Browne, 
165'.),"  is  named  "Chips  of  the  old  Block;  or  Hercules  cleansing  the  Augean 
Stable.  To  the  tune  of  The  Sword"  It  commences — 

"  Xow  you,  by  your  good  leave,  sirs,  shall  see  the  Rump  can  cleave,  sirs, 
And  what  chips  from  this  treacherous  block  will  come,  you  may  conceive,  sirs." 

Other  copies  of  this  will  be  found  in  King's  Pamphlets,  vol.  xvi. ;  in  Rats 
rhyned  to  death,  1660;  and  in  Loyal  Songs,  ii.  53. 

" Love  lies  a  bleeding ;  in  imitation  of  Law  lies  a  Heeding"  is  contained  in 
Merry  Drollery  complete,  1661  and  1670.  There  are  also  copies  in  ballad  form 
in  which  the  tune  is  entitled  The  Cyclops. 

"  A  new  Ignoramus :  Being  the  second  new  song  to  the  same  old  tune,  Law 
lies  a  bleeding,"  was  printed  by  Charles  Leigh  in  1681,  and  included  in  Rome 
rhym'd  to  death,  8vo.,  1683.  It  commences — 

"  Since  Popish  plotters  joined  with  bog-trotters, 
Sham  plots  are  made  as  fast  as  pots  are  form'd  by  potters." 

This  is  included  in  180  Loyal  Songs,  1685  and  1694,  with  several  other  political 
songs  to  the  same  tune.  Among  them,  another  "  Ignoramus,"  beginning — 

"  Since  Reformation  with  Whigs  is  in  fashion." 

The  tune  of  Love  lies  bleeding  is  contained  in  every  edition  of  The  Dancing 
Master,  from  and  after  1686  ;  in  180  Loyal  Songs,  1685  and  1694  ;  in  Walsh's 
Dancing  Master;  in  Pills  to  purge  Melancholy;  &c. 


432 


ENGLISH   SONG  AND   BALLAD  MUSIC. 


Li  Shadwell's  Epsom  Wells,  1673,  Clodpate  sings  "  the  old  song,  Lay  ly  your 
pleading,  Law  lies  a  Ueeding  ;  "  and  perhaps  Whitlock  had  the  other  song  in  his 
mind  when  he  said,  "  Both  truth  and  love  lie  a  bleeding."  (Zootomia,  or  Present 
Manners  of  the  English,  1654.) 

The  title  of  the  ballad  is  "  Love  lies  a  bleeding  : 

By  whose  mortal  wounds  you  may  soon  understand, 
What  sorrow  we  suffer  since  love  left  the  land. 
To  the  tune  of  The  Cyclops." 


Smoothly ',  and  with  marked  accent. 


? 


'^m 


I 

Lay    by  your  pleading,     Love  lies  a  bleed-ing,    Burn     all  your  po  -  e-try,  And 


throw  a-way  your  read  -  ing, 


Pie  -  ty      is   paint  -  ed,  And 

4 


truth 


is    taint  -  ed, 


^ 


Love    is  call'd    a     re  -  pro-bate,  And     schism  now      is     saint  -  ed. 


When  we  love  did  nourish,  England  did  flourish, 
Till  holy  hate  came  in  and  made  us  all  so  currish ; 
Now  every  widgeon  talks  of  religion, 
But  do.th  as  little  good  as  Mahomet  and  his  pigeon. 

Each  coxcomb  is  suiting  his  words  for  confuting, 
But  heaven's  sooner  gain'd  by  suff'ring  than  disputing; 
True  friendship  we  smother,  and  strike  at  our  brother, 
Apostles  never  went  to  God  by  killing  one  another. 

He  that  doth  know  me,  and  love  will  shew  me, 

Finds  the  nearest  and  the  noblest  way  to  overcome  me ; 

He  that  hattfRbound  me,  or  that  doth  wound  me, 

Winneth  not  my  heart,  he  doth  but  conquer,  not  confound  me. 

In  such  condition,  love  is  physician, 

True  love  and  reason  make  the  purest  politician  ; 

But  strife  and  confusion,  deceit  and  delusion, 

Though  they  seem  to  thrive  at  first,  will  make  a  sad  conclusion,  &c. 


THE   COMMONWEALTH. 


PRINCE  RUPERT'S  MARCH. 


433 


This  is  contained  in  the  first  and  subsequent  editions  of  The  Dancing  Master  ; 
in  Elizabeth  Rogers'  MS.  Virginal  Book;  in  Gresangh  der  Zeeden,  12mo.,  Amster- 
dam, 1648 ;  &c. 

Prince  Rupert  commanded  the  Royalists  at  the  battle  of  Edgehill,  in  1642. 
He  died  and  was  interred  with  great  magnificence  in  Henry  the  Seventh's 
Chapel,  Westminster  Abbey,  in  1682.  He  was  a  nephew  of  Charles  I.,  and  the 
discoverer  of  mezzotinto,  the  hint  of  which  he  is  said  to  have  taken  from  seeing 
a  soldier  scraping  his  rusty  musket.  The  first  mezzotinto  print  ever  published 
was  the  work  of  his  hands,  and  may  be  seen  in  the  first  edition  of  Evelyn's 
Sculptura. 

The  commencement  of  this  march  resembles  The  British  G-renadiers,  but  is  in 
a  minor  instead  of  a  major  key.  In  G-esangh  der  Zeeden,  there  are  words  adapted 
to  it ;  but  I  have  not  found  any  English  ballad  name.  As  "  The  Lawyers' 
Lamentation  for  the  loss  of  Charing  Cross "  (Loyal  Songs,  i.  247)  suits  the 
measure,  I  have  adapted  the  words  to  the  tune. 


/T     t*                           _i             1                        m 

fl    •           P       * 

(fh  *  '                    '  m    ~               9\       4+8 

tZ—  3                   i 

j      *l      *     itJ 

E2             M              «          J                  «S 

2         '             J 

«J                         -1               -i- 

"Un  -  done!    un  -done!  "the 

law  -  yers  cry,    And 

ram  -  ble      up     and 

r-H  1        •   I 

t  ).—  /i  M  1  *  m  — 

--5  =•  j  — 

-J  •  d  

J 

n                       1 

<ra 

•~C              •                  m 

J 

k         i      r  f 

r^_j  .  —  .  1  

n               1 

V    J    -^ 

1  —  I  i  1  1  r 

—  H  1  d  1  —  d  —  ^ 

'  —  t  a  •  r  —  P  —  i 

m  —  d  —  d  

-  *y           •                         m                    m    .  f« 

IP     j        * 

m        KZjE 

-d                      «           2         J                 "l 

1    a           "                 • 

•          J           9      "^ 

9      •             -»-          * 

down,             "We   know  not  the  way    to 
J 

i 

West  -  min  -  ster  No\ 

-J- 

v       Charing  Cross   is 

1      !       1 

1  —  r^—  i  *u       -i  —       P  1 

t  d  —  •  d 

~  d  —  d~Td  —  ^  r  —  f 

«  =  ca  

4       i  ••   9                     ?2 

ol               •                a 

! 

TTm      ^      r  f 

"     ^       •       -i 

t     J-    J    ^L 

•"'i                     i       k_    ^  1 

!       1        ^      ^ 

n         J  J 

1           n       1           1 

J          J          •     P     m      • 

,          J        J      J  *    i 

•         0L       P 

J    •     •       J         J 

i         P 

2     •       *  !        3        '     ?-""'  ? 

S                      5 

J         J         r           p 

.§_    •        J.       4             99 

• 

dawn."       Then     fare    thee  well,  old 

—                       m                                              P 

Char  -  ing  Cross,  Then    fa 

~®r       •        * 

re    thee      well,      old 

.                   J            , 

-  ^1      *       "    r   "        ^                m 

~        P        P          * 

r 

i 

^         '                  P                 0)                          Ll 

r 

•      L       J        « 

Ui      I  r    °     r  r 

•    is  n-j 

I 

s   .    1     I 

P 

^  .  9  J-V—   ^-^~^— 

—  d^  —  —  d  —  •  — 

d  —  ^  —  hd  —  H 

—  ^  ;  g  1  *       |^/      J  1 

h^-J!  —  J      ?—    J 

1  9  §9  \-^-^-\ 

stump;    Thou     wast       a  thing  set     up 

i    j  n    —  c  P  —  j  

i  ^  —  1_«  — 

by  a  king,  And     so  pu 
k, 

H  1  , 

'     i  ^-^ 

11  'd  down  by  the  Rump. 

_*_^i_^_       IL     5 
•^    -Sii:i-i                            ' 

1    '     VI 

^  i  

434  ENGLISH   SONG  AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 

When  at  the  bottom  of  the  Strand,  The  Whigs  they  do  affirm  and  say 

They  all  are  at  a  loss ;  To  Popery  it  was  bent ; 

"That's  not  the  way  to  Westminster,  For  aught  I  know,  it  may  be  so, 

We  must  go  by  Charing  Cross."  For  to  church  it  never  went. 

Then  fare  thee  well,  &c.  Then  fare  you  well,  &c. 

The  Parliament  did  vote  it  down,  The  lawless  Rump — rebellious  crew  — 
A  thing  they  thought  most  fitting,  They  were  so  damn'd  hard-hearted, 

For  fear  its  fall  should  kill  them  all,  They  pass'd  a  vote  that  Charing  Cross 
In  the  House  as  they  were  sitting.  Should  be  taken  down  and  carted. 

Then  fare  thee  well,  &c.  Then  fare  thee  well,  &c. 

Some  letters  about  this  Cross  were  found,  Now,  Whigs,  I  will  advise  you  all 
Or  else  it  had  been  freed ;  What  I  would  have  you  do  : 

But  I'll  declare,  and  even  swear,  For  fear  the  King  should  come  again, 
It  could  not  write  nor  read.  Pray  pull  down  Tyburn,  too  ! 

Then  fare  thee  well,  &c.  Then  fare  thee  well,  &c. 

A  different  version  of  the  above  song  will  be  found  in  Pills  to  purge  Melancholy, 
entitled  "A  Song  made  on  the  Downfall  or  pulling  down  of  Charing  Cross, 
An.  Dom.  1642  "  (a  wrong  date, — it  should  be  1647)  ;  and  in  Percy's  Reliques 
of  Ancient  Poetry.  The  music  in  the  Pills  is  not  a  popular  tune,  but  a  compo- 
sition by  Mr.  Farmeloe. 

WHEN  THE  KING  ENJOYS  HIS  OWN  AGAIN. 

This  tune  is  in  Elizabeth  Rogers'  Virginal  Book  (Add.  MSS.,  10,337,  Brit. 
Mus.)  ;  in  Musictfs  Recreation  on  the  Lyra  Viol.  1652 ;  in  Musictfs  Delight  on 
the  Cithren,  1666 ;  in  A  Choice  Collection  of  180  Loyal  Songs,  1685  and  1694 ; 
and  in  the  third  volume  of  The  Dancing  Master,  n.d. 

The  words  are  ascertained  to  be  Martin  Parker's,  by  the  following  extract 
from  The  Gossips'  Feast;  or  Morall  Tales,  1647: — "The  gossips  were  well 
pleased  with  the  contents  of  this  ancient  ballad,  and  Gammer  Gowty-legs  replied, 
'  By  my  faith,  Martin  Parker  never  got  a  fairer  brat :  no,  not  when  he  penn'd 
that  sweet  ballad,  When  the  King  injoyes  his  own  again.''  "  In  The  Poet's 
Blind  Man's  Bough,  1641,  Martin  Parker  says — 
"  Whatever  yet  was  published  by  me, 

Was  known  by  '  Martin  Parker/  or  '  M.  P. ; '" 

but  this  song  was  printed  at  a  time  when  it  would  have  been  dangerous  to  give 
either  his  own  name  or  that  of  the  publisher.  Ritson  calls  this  "  the  most  famous 
and  popular  air  ever  heard  of  in  this  country."  Invented  to  support  the  de- 
clining interest  of  Charles  L,  "  it  served  afterwards,"  he  says,  "  with  more 
success,  to  keep  up  the  spirits  of  the  Cavaliers,  and  promote  the  restoration 
of  his  son, — an  event  it  was  employed  to  celebrate  all  over  the  kingdom.  At 
the  Revolution"  [of  1688]  "it  of  course  became  an  adherent  of  the  exiled 
family,  whose  cause  it  never  deserted.  And  as  a  tune  is  said  to  have  been 
a  principal  mean  of  depriving  King  James  of  the  crown,"  [see  Lillilurlero~] 
"  this  very  air,  upon  two  memorable  occasions,  was  very  near  being  equally  in- 
strumental in  replacing  it  on  the  head  of  his  son.  It  is  believed  to  be  a  fact, 
that  nothing  fed  the  enthusiasm  of  the  Jacobites,  down  almost  to  the  present 
reign,  in  every  corner  of  Great  Britain,  more  than  The  King  shall  enjoy  his  own 


THE   COMMONWEALTH.  .  435 

again ;  and  even  the  great  orator  of  the  party,  in  that  celebrated  harangue  (which 
furnished  the  present  laureat  with  the  subject  of  one  of  his  happiest  and  finest 
poems),  was  always  thought  to  have  alluded  to  it  in  his  remarkable  quotation 
from  Virgil —  '  Oarmina  turn  melms  cum  venerit  ipse  canemus  ! '  " 

Martin  Parker  probably  wrote  his  song  to  the  tune  of  Marry  me,  marry  me, 
quoth  the  bonny  lass,  for  the  air  is  to  be  found  under  that  name  in  the  Skene 
Manuscript  (time  of  Charles  I.)  ;  and  the  song  was  evidently  one  familiar  at  the 
timo.  The  following  lines  are  quoted  in  Brome's  play,  The  Northern  Lass, 
activ.,  sc.  4  (4to.,  1632):— 

"  Constance.  Marry  me,  marry  me,  quoth  the  bonny  lass, 

And  when  will  you  begin  ? 

Widow.        As  for  thy  wedding,  lass,  we'll  do  well  enough, 
In  spight  o'  the  best  of  thy  kin." 

In  the  third  volume  of  The  Dancing  Master,  the  tune  is  entitled  The  Resto- 
ration of  King  Charles. 

The  words  of  When  the  King  enjoys  his  own  again,  are  in  the  Roxburghe 
Collection  of  Ballads,  iii.  256 ;  in  Mr.  Payne  Collier's  Collection ;  in  The  Loyal 
Garland,  containing  Choice  Songs  and  Sonnets  of  our  late  Revolution,  London, 
167],  and  fifth  edit.,  1686  (Reprinted  by  the  Percy  Society) ;  in  A  Collection 
of  Loyal  Songs,  1750 ;  in  Ritson's  Ancient  Songs  ;  &c. 

Among  the  almost  numberless  songs  and  ballads  that  were  sung  to  the  tune, 
I  will  only  cite  the  following : — 

1.  "  The  World  turn'd  upside  down,"  1646.     King's  Pamphlets,  No.  4,  fol. 

2.  "  A  new  ballad  called  A  Review  of  the  Rebellion,  in  three  parts.     To  the 
tune  of  When  the  King  enjoy es  his  rights  againe"  dated  June  15,  1647.     See 
King's  Pamphlets,  vol.  v.,  fol.,  and  Wright's  Political  Ballads,  p.  13. 

3.  "  The  last  news  from  France ;  being  a  true  relation  of  the  escape  of  the 
King  of  Scots  from  Worcester  to  London,  and  from  London  to  France ;  who  was 
conveyed  away  by  a  young  gentleman  in  woman's  apparel ;  the  King  of  Scots 
attending  on  this  supposed  gentlewoman  in  manner  of  a  serving-man.     The  tune 
is  When  the  King  injoyes,  £c."     Printed  by  W.  Thackeray,  T.  Passenger,  and 
W.  Whitwood.     Rox.  Collection,  iii.  54.     It  commences  thus : — 

"  All  you  that  do  desire  to  know  His  Highness  away, 

What  is  become  of  the  King  of  Scots,    And  from  all  dangers  set  him  free, 
I  unto  you  will  truly  show,  In  woman's  attire, 

-After  the  flight  of  Northern  rats.  As  reason  did  require, 

Twas  I  did  convey  And  the  King  himself  did  wait  on  me." 

4.  "The  Glory  of  these  Nations;  Or  King  and  People's  Happiness:  Being 
a  brief  relation  of  King  Charles's  royall   progresse  from  Dover  to  London, 
how  tie  Lord  Generall  and  the  Lord  Mayor,  with  all  the  nobility  and  gentry  of 
the  laiid,  brought  him  thorow  the  famous  city  of  London  to  his  Pallace  at  West- 
minster, the  29  of  May  last,  being  his  Majesties  birth-day,  to  the  great  comfort 
of  his  loyall  subjects.     The  tune  is  When  the  King  enjoys  his  own  again.77     This 
is  one  of  six  ballads  of  the  time  of  Charles  II.,  found  in  the  lining  of  an  old 

2F 


436  ENGLISH   SONG  AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 

trunk,  and  now  in  the  British  Museum.     Also  reprinted  in  Wright's  Political 
Ballads,  p.  223. 

5.  "  A  Countrey  Song,  intituled  The  Restoration,  May,  1661.  King's  Pamph., 
vol.  xx.,  fol. ;  and  Wright's  Political  Ballads,  p.  265.     Commencing — 

"  Come,  come  away,  The  vicar  is  glad, 

To  the  temple  and  pray,  The  clerk  is  not  sad, 

And  sing  with  a  pleasant  strain ;  And  the  parish  cannot  refrain 

The  schismatick's  dead,  To  leap  and  rejoice, 

The  Liturgy's  read,  And  lift  up  their  voice, 

And  the  King  enjoyes  his  own  again.         That  the  King  enjoy es  his  own  again." 

6.  "The  Jubilee ;  or  The  Coronation  Day,"  from  Thomas  Jordan's  Royal  Arbor 
of  Loyal  Poesie,  12mo.,  1664.     As  this  consists  of  only  two  stanzas,  and  the 
copy  of  the  book,  which  is  now  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  Payne  Collier,  is  probably 
unique,  they  are  here  subjoined : — 

"  Let  every  man  with  tongue  and  pen  All  that  do  tread  on  English  earth 

Rejoice  that  Charles  is  come  agen,  Shall  live  in  freedom,  peace,  and  mirth ; 

To  gain  his  sceptre  and  his  throne,  The  golden  times  are  come  that  we 

And  give  to  every  man  his  own :  Did  one  day  think  we  ne'er  should  see  : 

Let  all  men  that  be,  Protector  and  Rump 

Together  agree,  Did  put  us  in  a  dump, 

And  freely  now  express  their  joy  :  When  they  their  colours  did  display ; 

Let  your  sweetest  voices  bring  But  the  time  is  come  about, 

Pleasant  songs  unto  the  King,  We  are  in,  and  they  are  out, 

To  crown  his  Coronation  day.  By  King  Charles  his  Coronation  day." 

7.  "  The  Loyal  Subject's  Exultation  for  the  Coronation  of  King  Charles  the 
Second."     Printed  for  F.  Grove,  Snow  Hill. 

8.  "  Monarchy  triumphant ;  or,  The  fatal  fall  of  Rebels,"  from  120  Loyal 
Songs,  1684  ;  or  180  Loyal  Songs,  1685  and  1694.     Commencing— 

"  Whigs  are  now  such  precious  things,    All  roar,  '  God  bless  and  save  the  King/ 
We  see  there's  not  one  to  be  found  ;        And  the  health  goes  briskly  all  day  round." 
In  Dr.  Dibdin's  Decameron,  vol.  iii.,  a  song  called  "  The  King  enjoys  his 

right,"  is  stated  to  be  in  the  folio  MS.,  which  belonged  to  Dr.  Percy. 

Ritson  mentions  another,  of  which  he  could  only  recollect  that  the  concluding 

lines  of  each  stanza,  as  sung  by  "  an  old  blind  North-country  crowder,"  were — 

"  Away  with  this  cursed  Rebellion  !  It  was  a  happy  day, 

Oh !  the  29th  of  May,  When  the  King  did  enjoy  his  own  agaan." 

In  the  novel  of  Woodstock,  Sir  Walter  Scott  puts  the  last  three  lines  into  the 

mouth  of  Wildrake,  who  is  represented  as  perpetually  singing,  "  The  King  shall 

enjoy  his  own  again." 

It  was  not  used  exclusively  as  a  Jacobite  air,  for  many  songs  are  extant  which 

were  written  to  it  in  support  of  the  House  of  Hanover ;  such  as — 

1.  "An  excellent  new  ballad,  call'd  Illustrious  George  shall  come,"  in  A  Pill 
to  purge  State  Melancholy,  vol  i.,  3rd.  edit.,  1716. 

2.  "  Since  Hanover  is  come :  a  new  song."     And — 

3.  "  A  song  for  the  28th  of  May,  the  birth-day  of  our  glorious  Sovereign, 


THE   COMMONWEALTH. 


437 


King  George,"  in  A  Collection  of  State  Songs,  Poems,  £c.,  that  have  been  pub- 
lished since  the  Rebellion,  and  sung  at  the  several  Mug-houses  in  the  cities  of  London 
and  Westminster,  1716. 

The  copy  of  the  ballad  in  Mr.  Payne  Collier's  Collection  is  entitled  "  The  King 
enjoys  his  own  again.  To  be  joyfully  sung  with  its  own  proper  sweet  tune."  The 
burthen  of  that,  and  of  the  Roxburghe  copy,  is  "  When  the  King  comes  home  in 
peace  again,"  instead  of  "enjoys  his  own  again,"  as  in  The  Loyal  Garland. 
Neither  of  the  ballads  has  any  date  or  publisher's  name ;  and  therefore  both  were 
in  all  probability,  privately  printed  during  the  civil  war.  The  Roxburghe  copy 
has  "  God  save  the  King,  Amen,"  in  large  letters  at  the  end. 


What  BOOKER  canprog-nos  -  ti-cate     Con  -  cerning  kings  or  kingdoms'  fate  ?  I 


m 


i 


—  —  :  —  d  —  1  — 

1    ^mff\  ^    1    p  

—  i  —  j  —  H  h  —  |- 

think  my-self   to 

.  be     as    wise     As       he       th 

at    ga  -  zeth      on      the  skies 

u  j  —  |  

!.  My 

—  ^  CJ.  

E-M-^—  f 

7      1    1  J—  '  r 

—  f*  

skil   goes  be-yond  the     depths  of  a  POND,  Or     RI-VERS    in      the    great- est      .     Where- 


P5 


PPS 


n  u\ 


^ 


-by     I  can  tell     A.11    things   will  be  well,  When  the   king  en -joys  his    own      a  -  gain. 


i 


There's  neither  Swallow,  Dove,  nor  Dade,a 
Can  s  >ar  more  high,  or  deeper  wade  ; 
Nor  shew  a  reason  from  the  stars, 
What  causeth  peace  or  civil  wars : 

•  Booker,  Pond,  Rivers,  Swallow,  Dove,  Dade,  and 
HamiiK  nil,  whose  names  are  mentioned  in  the  ballad, 
were  ali  astrologers  and  almanack-makers.  Ritson  copies 
his  nott  j  about  Booker  and  others  from  a  small  pamphlet 


The  man  in  the  moon  may  wear  out  his  shoon, 
By  running  after  Charles  his  wain  : 
But  all's  to  no  end,  for  the  times  will  not  mend 
Till  the  King,  &c. 

printed  in  1711,  entitled  "The  ballad  of  The  King  shall 
enjoy  his  own  again  ;  with  a  learned  comment  thereupon." 
The  account  there  given  of  Booker  does  not  agree  with 
that  of  William  Lilly,  quoted  in  a  note  to  Dodsley's  Old 


438  ENGLISH   SONG  AND  BALLAD  MUSIC. 

Though  for  a  time  we  see  Whitehall  [Did  Walker6  no  predictions  lack 

With  cobwebs  hanging  on  the  wall,  .  In  Hammond's  bloody  almanack? 

Instead  of  silk  and  silver  brave,  Foretelling  things  that  would  ensue, 

Which  formerly  it  us'd  to  have,  That  all  proves  right,  if  lies  be  true  ; 

With  rich  perfume  in  every  room,  But  why  should  not  he  the  pillory  foresee, 

Delightful  to  that  princely  train,  [shall  be  Wherein  poor  Toby  once  was  ta'en  ? 
Which  again  you  shall  see,  when  the  time  it  And  also  foreknow  to  the  gallows  he  must  go, 
That  the  King,  &c.  When  the  King,  &c. d  ] 

Full  forty  years  the  royal  crown  Till  then  upon  Ararat's  hill 

Hath  been  his  father's  and  his  own  ; b  My  Hope  shall  cast  her  anchor  still, 

And  is  there  any  one  but  he  Until  I  see  some  peaceful  dove 

That  in  the  same  should  sharer  be  ?  Bring  home  the  branch  I  dearly  love ; 

For  who  better  may  the  sceptre  sway  Then  will  I  wait  till  the  waters  abate, 

Than  he  that  hath  such  right  to  reign  ?  Which  now  disturb  my  troubled  brain, 

Then  let's  hope  for  a  peace,  for  the  wars  will  Else  never  rejoice  till  I  hear  the  voice, 
Till  the  King,  &c.  [not  cease  That  the  King  enjoys  his  own  again. 

The  following  stanzas  are  not  contained  in  The  Loyal  Garland,  from  which 
Kitson  reprinted  the  song  : — 

Oxford  and  Cambridge  shall  agree  And  then  all    our  trade  shall  flourishing  be 

With  honour  crown'd,  and  dignity  ;  To  which  ere  long  we  shall  attain ;         [made, 

For  learned  men  shall  then  take  place,  For  still  I  can  tell  all  things  will  be  well, 

And  bad  be  silenc'd  with  disgrace :  When  the  King  comes  home  in  peace  again. 

They'll  know  it  to  be  but  a  casualty  Maideng  ^  enjoy  their  mates> 

That  hath  so  long  disturb'd  their  brain  ;  And  nonegt  men  thdr  logt  ^^ 

For  I  can  surely  tell  that  all  things  will  go  well  Women  ghaU  baye  what  ,        do  ^ 
When  the  King  comes  home  in  peace  again.       ^^  husbands>  who  are  coming  back> 

Church  Government  shall  settled  be,  When  the  wars  have  an  end,  then  I  and  my 

And  then  I  hope  we  shall  agree  All  subjects'  freedom  shall  obtain;        [friend 

Without  their  help,  whose  high-brain'd  zeal        By  which  I  can  tell  all  things  will  be  well, 
Hath  long  disturb'd  the  common  weal ;  When  we  enjoy  sweet  peace  again. 

Greed  out  of  date  and  cobblers  that  do  prate     ^       h          le  now  ^  .„  fear 

Of  wars  that  still  disturb  their  brain  ;  [be  ^  £    *  ^ 

The  which  you  shall  see,  when  the  time  it  shall  ^.^  ^  th<m  tremble  at  ^  j 
That  the  King  comes  home  in  peace  again.         And  jusfcice  ghall  keep  ^  in  awe  . 

Tho'  many  now  are  much  in  debt,  The  Frenchies  shall  flee  with  their  treacherie, 

And  many  shops  are  to  be  let,  And  the  foes  of  the  King  asham'd  remain  :  [be 

A  golden  time  is  drawing  near,  The  which  you  shall  see,  when  the  time  it  shall 

Men  shops  shall  take  to  hold  their  ware  ;  That  the  King  comes  home  in  peace  again. 

Plays,  vol.  xi.,  p.  469.  Booker  is  mentioned  by  Killegrew,  instrument-maker  to  them  ;  and  having,  with  much  ado, 

in  The  Parson's  Wedding,  act  i.,  sc.  2  ;  by  Pepys,  in  his  got  knowledge  of  their  place  of  abode,  was  judged  by  the 

Diary,  Feb.  3,  1666-7;  by  Cleveland,  in  his  Dialogue  be-  Roundheads  fit  for  their  purpose,  and  had  a  pension  as- 

tween  two  Zealots;  and  by  Butler,  in  Hudibras.    One  of  signed  him  to  make  the  stars  speak  their  meaning,  and 

his  almanacks  for  1661  was  sold  in  Skegg's  sale.    Pond's  justify  the  villanies    they  were  putting   in    practice." 

almanack  is  mentioned  in  Middleton's  play,  Nowit,  no  help  Hammond's  almanack  was  called  "bloody,"  because  he 

like  a  woman's;  and  the  Rev.  A.  Dyce,  in  a  note  upon  the  always  put  down  in  a  chronological  table  when  such  and 

passage,  quotes  the  title  of  one  by  Pond,  for  the  year  such  a  Royalist  was  executed,  by  way  of  reproach  to 

1607.   An  almanack  for  the  year  1636,  "  by  William  Dade,  them. 

gent.,  London,  printed  by  M.  Dawson,  for  the  Company  i>  This  fixes  the  date  of  the  song  to  the  year  1643.  The 

of  Stationers,"  was  once  in  my  possession.    According  to  number  was  changed  from  time  to  time,  as  it  suited  the 

the  pamphlet  which  Ritson  quotes,  Dade  was  "a  good  circumstances  of  the  party. 

innocent  fiddle-string  maker,  who,  being  told  by  a  neigh-  «  Walker  was  a  colonel  in  the  army  of  the  Parliament, 

bouring  teacher  that  their  music  was  in  the  stars,  set  him-  and  afterwards  a  member  of  the  Committee  of  Safety, 

self  at  work  to  find  out  their  habitations,  that  he  might  be  *  This  stanza  is  not  in  the  ballad  copies. 


THE   COMMONWEALTH. 


439 


The  parliament  must  willing  be 

T;iat  all  the  world  may  plainly  see 

How  they  will  labour  still  for  peace, 

That  all  these  bloody  wars  may  cease. 

For  some  will  gladly  spend  their  lives  to  defend 

The  King  in  all  his  right  to  reign  ; 

So  then  1  can  tell  all  things  will  go  well, 

When,  we  enjoy  sweet  peace  again. 


When  all  these  things  to  pass  shall  come, 
Then  farewell  musket,  pike,  and  drum : 
The  lamb  shall  with  the  lion  feed, 
Which  were  a  happy  time  indeed. 
O  let  us  all  pray  we  may  see  the  day 
That  peace  may  govern  in  his  name : 
For  then  I  can  tell  all  things  will  be  well 
When  the  King  comes  home  in  peace  again. 


BY  THE  BORDER'S  BIDE  AS  I  DID  PASS. 

A  border-song,  entitled  "  Ballad  on  a  Scottish  Courtship,"  from  Ashmolean 
MSS.,  Nos.  36  and  37,  Article  128.  The  tune  is,  in  character,  like 
CavalUly  man. 

Ashmole  held  a  captain's  commission  under  Charles  I.,  in  the  civil  war,  and 
probably  noted  it  down  from  hearing  it  sung. 


-    jrast. 

/fi    j=j 

J          >    J_J*_ 

p|  f  1 

—  i  —  |  —  -j  —  i  —  f—i. 

€>-*-*—  *- 

hep           -J  '— 

k^*  .      —  j£* 

By    the 
He 

bor-  der'sside     as 
court  -  ed     her     in 

f        f  p  

I       did  pass, 
Scot-tish  words,  Like 

i  r    £   J       ] 

All   in    the   time      of 
Ian  -  guage  as       the 

^F—  '  —  ^  —  :H- 

.-#      '       . 

-1  1  p  

-[-  —  k!—  *  —  *— 

-r  r  —  *-!- 

j  K  J      JN 

—  d 

—  J5"" 

-1  K- 

hj    *    \    -K- 

1          | 

—  |  —  -K- 

^--    j—  4  —  4— 

*  

H  P  

—  d  d— 

—  *j  —  ?•  ^ 

^-ej.    ^  .                 -Q 

V^_    " 

^-<Sr 

^^      p                   m-  •  -* 
ss  Were    talk  -  ing  love  and         lee. 
rdsMy     Joe,  and  'gang'  with      me. 

J     :     J    :         .^. 

Lentonit  was,   I      heard  a   Scotchman  and  his  las 
land   affords,  Wilt  thou  not  leave  these  lairds  andlo 

F  —  B±P=2  

—P  —  —  — 

9  m  — 

_p  H— 

1  

P  f;  ^S  —  r  

-'  F  HI 

c  r 

r 

IX     1 

t 

•ii 

1 

1 

E   •   >« 

•M 

^ 

^r 

The  song  consists  of  forty  lines,  but  I  did  not  transcribe  further. 
FAIN  I  WOULD  IF  I  COULD. 

In  The  Dancing  Master,  from  1650  to  1665,  this  is  entitled  Fain  I  would  if 
I  coild;  and  in  the  editions  from  1670  to  1690  (with  a  trifling  difference), 
Parti >,enia,  or  Fain  I  would.  In  Elizabeth  Rogers'  MS.  Virginal  Book,  the  same 
air  is  called  The  King's  Complaint. 

On-3  of  the  ballads  among  the  King's  Pamphlets,  which  bears  the  date  of  the 
23rd  Ipril,  1649,  is  "A  Coffin  for  King  Charles :  A  Crown  for  Cromwell :  A  Pit 
for  the  People;"  and  the  direction  is  that  "  you  may  sing  this  to  the  tune  of 
Fain  I  would"  (vol.  viii.,  fol.,  and  reprinted  in  Wright's  Political  Ballads,  8vo., 
p.  117).  It  is  a  dialogue  between  Cromwell  on  the  throne,  King  Charles  in  his 
coffin,  and  the  people  in  the  pit.  The  date  proves  it  to  have  been  printed  within 
three  months  after  the  King's  execution.  It  consists  of  fifteen  stanzas,  of  which 
three  are  subjoined.  The  first  is— 


440 


ENGLISH   BONG  AND  BALLAD  MUSIC. 


CROMWELL  ON  THE  THRONE. 


,  moderate  urns. 

0  ^_   *.    1     >  --J 

h  1     J     .  —  1 

j-.  J  h  m   i   i  ^ 

/fk  fi 

r+  •—  #*— 

-*—      • 

-  — 

•     t^T  * 

^  .  j  —  -cars 

rrtv  '      f 

g            .        TTJ 

1     P     • 

-  r    •     i 

2.2       «     ( 

Se     D     F 

2        •        C 

b     •      i 

2    .     i 

J     \>    i       r 

So,        so,     the  deed 

1 

is     done,  The       Roy  -  al    head    is       se  -  ver'd,  As   I 

tf         • 

ilLO    . 

—  «  :  

-t  —  ^~ 

9    . 

|  J  

:  1  

—  "ft  C  — 

-N.                        " 

—*  1  

B  — 

^ 


'*    •»  •      j:    ;     ^'-T-'j:  i  i 

meant  when   I   first    be  -  gun,     And       strong -ly      have      en  -  dea-vour'd.       Now 


f=MJ.  J.IJ- 


^ 


K-^-.f  ,  —      r  J  ....     J. 

>  r  s— 

...j^-x^  r 

hr   *    t     S 

•i              J                   F 

r« 

m              m 

r  r  **  •       ' 

scep-tre,   wear    the     crown,     Nor            for 

-f—  ^  —  P  —  ^  *-  -  •£•-.  .-..  Jfc  . 

C     I—  1 

Je  -   ho    -  van           care. 

•  1     9  ^"^-9  n  

—  r  —  •  —  t  —  *  — 

g  H  ;  hH  

""ar^"^  — 



~ 

• 

F             II 

V 

P  v       ,  F 

i          r     L 

M        •        1                   1 

1    ^  —  '  1            1 

k       r  ^  -  1 

I                t 

KINO  CHARLES  IN  HIS  COFFIN. 
Think 'st  thou  base  slave,  though  in  my  grave, 

Like  other  men  I  lie  ? 
My  sparkling  fame  and  royal  name 

Can,  as  thou  wishest,  die  ? 
Know,  caitiff,  in  my  son  I  live 

(The  Black  Prince  call'd  by  some), 
And  he  shall  ample  vengeance  give 

On  those  that  did  me  doom. 


THE  PEOPLE  IN  THE  PIT. 
Suppress'd,  depress'd,  involv'd  in  woes, 

Great  Charles,  thy  people  be, 
Basely  deceiv'd  with  specious  shows 

By  those  that  murther'd  thee. 
We  are  enslav'd  to  tyrants'  bests, 

Who  have  our  freedom  won  : 
Our  fainting  hope  now  only  rests 

On  thy  succeeding  son,  &c. 


CAVALILLY  MAN. 

This  tune  is  contained  in  The  Dancing  Master  of  1670,  and  in  every  subsequent 
edition;  in  180  Loyal  Songs,  1G85  and  1694;  in  Pitts  to  purge  Melancholy 
(ii.  18,  and  iii.  65,  1707)  ;  in  The  Village  Opera,  and  other  ballad-operas. 

A  copy  of  the  ballad  from  which  the  tune  derives  its  name  is  in  Mr.  BalliwelFl 
Collection,  and  the  first  stanza  is  here  printed  to  the  tune.  "  Cavalilly  "  means 
"  Cavalier." 


THE   COMMONWEALTH. 


441 


In  Harl.  MSS.,  No.  6,913,  is  a  satirical  song  by  Lord  Rochester,  to  this  tune; 
commencing —  "  Have  you  heard  of  a  Lord  of  noble  descent, 

Hark  I  how  the  bells  of  Paradise  ring ; 
As  a  mask  of  his  valour,  to  Tangier  he  went,"  &c. 
In  120  Loyal  Songs,  1684,  are  the  following  : — 

P.  196.  "  A  new  Litany  to  be  sung  in  all  Conventicles,  for  instruction  of  the 
Whigs.  Tune,  Oavalilly  man.7'  Commencing — 

"  From  councils  of  six,  when  treason  prevails." 

P.  213.  "  A  song  of  The  Light  of  the  nation  turn'd  into  darkness.  Tune  called 
Cavalilly  man"  Commencing — 

"  Come,  all  you  caballers  and  parliament  votes." 

In  the  editions  of  1685  and  1694  are  several  other  songs,  and  the  tune  is,  in 
one  instance,  entitled  Which  nobody  can  deny.  The  song  is  on  Titus  Gates. 
"  Gates  well  thrashed;  being  a  dialogue  between  a  country  farmer  and  his  man, 
Jack."  The  first  stanza,  and  one  other,  end  with  the  line,  "  Which  nobody  can 
deny,  sir;"  from  which,  I  assume,  the  name  is  (improperly)  given  to  the  tune.- 

The  original  ballad  is  entitled  "  The  North -country  Maid's  Resolution,  and 
Love  to  her  Sweetheart:  To  a  pleasant  new  Northern  tune"  " Printed  for 
F.  Grove  on  Snow  hill."  It  consists  of  eleven,  stanzas  of  eight  lines,  besides  the 
following  burthen  of  four,  to  each  verse: — 

"  G  my  dainty  Cavalilly  man,  For  God's  cause  and  the  Protestants', 

My  finnikin  Cavalilly  man,  I  prithee  le*  me  gang  with  thee,  man." 

I  imagine  that  there  must  have  been  longer  versions  of  the  tune  than  any 
I  have  found,  because,  if  only  consisting  of  eight  bars,  it  would  be  necessary  to 
sing  these  three  times  over  for  every  stanza,  including  the  burthen. 


Cheerfully,  and  rather  fast. 


As   from  Newcastle         I     did  pass,   I 
Un  -to      a    jol-ly     Cavalier  blade,  As 


heard  a  blithe  and      bon  -  ny  lass     That 
I    sup  -pose,  her     moan  she  made,  For 


e?5 


m 


Ml 


in        the  Scot  -  tish         ar  -  my  was,  Say,  "  Prithee  let    me   gang         with   thee,  man." 
ev   -  er-more  these    words  she  said,  "I'll     fol-low  my  Cav   -a  -    -  '  lil    -  ly    Man." 

^ . •— \-t        »     I       -M-   .         =          1  M       .  =i= 


442 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


THE  GLORY  OF  THE  NORTH. 

This  tune  is  contained  in  Elizabeth  Rogers'  MS.^ Virginal  Book;  in  Hawkins' 
Transcripts  of  Virginal  Music;  in  MusicKs  Recreation  on  the  Lyra-viol;  in 
MusicJis  Delight  on  the  Oithren;  and  is  among  the  violin  tunes  at  the  end  of 
The  Dancing  Master  of  1665. 

Boldly,  and  rather  fast. 




Come,  Tom,  foot  it  now,  Troth,  1  long  to    dance,  Strike  up  then,  and  let     it  go,   And 


—  1     -1    1     -1  * 

k—  *  —  J^i    p  —  £ 

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*   *         -*-  "  -m-     -&• 

• 

*       * 

Jone  do  thou  ad  -  vance. 

Hey,  how  we    ca  -  per, 
Hobb,  Nell,  a  -  bout  skip, 

Udz    foot, 
That    they 

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who 

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Span  -  ish  Don,   with    ra  -  pier,  Can 
take    the    in      and     out     trip,  May 


take       steps  like  mine, 
think      none   like     we. 


I 


THE  DEVIL'S  PROGRESS. 

In  the  Collection  of  Loyal  Songs  written  against  the  Rump  Parliament,  i.  50,  is 
"  The  Sense  of  the  House ;  or  the  reason  why  those  Members  who  are  the 
remnant  of  the  two  families  of  Parliament  cannot  consent  to  Peace,  or  an 
Accommodation.  To  the  tune  of  The  New-England  Psalm,  Huggle-duggle,  ho,  ho, 
ho,  the  Devil  he  laugh? d  aloud"  It  begins — 

"  Come,  come,  beloved  Londoners,  fie,  fie,  you  shame  us  all! 
Your  rising  up  for  peace  will  make  the  close  Committee  fall : 
I  wonder  you  dare  ask  for  that,  which  they  must  needs  deny, — 
There's  thirty  swear  they'll  have  no  peace,  and  bid  me  tell  you  why." 
The  ballad  of  The  Devil's  Progress  on  Earth,  or  Ifuggle-duggle  (which  is  thus 
proved  to  be  as  old  as  the  time  of  Charles  L),  is  contained  in  Pills  to  purge 
Melancholy,  vol.  i.,  1699  and  1707  ;  or  vol.  iii,  1719,  with  the  tune.     The  words 
of  the  first  stanza  are  very  imperfectly  printed  in  all  editions.      Three  or  four 
words  have  here  been  added  or  altered  from  conjecture.      "  Airing "    stands 
"Airidg,"  in  the  Pills ;  the  word  after  "Pluto"  is  deficient;  "And  many  a 


THE    COMMONWEALTH. 


443 


goblin  more "  is  here  changed  to  "O'er  many  a  gobling  crew"  because  a  rhyme 
is  required  to  "  too." 

It  was  no  doubt  this  ballad  which  suggested  to  Southey  his  DeviVs  Walk. 


—^         Gracefully. 

K 

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255 

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Hug-gle,  dug-gle,        ha,    ha,  ha,     The      De-vil  laugh'd   a  -   loud. 


Why  think  you  that  he  laugh'd  ? 

Forsooth  he  came  from  court ; 
And  there,  amongst  the  gallants, 

Had  spied  such  pretty  sport : 
There  was  such  cunning  juggling, 

And  ladies  grown  so  proud — 
Huggle,  duggle,  &c. 

With  that  into  the  City 

Away  the  devil  went, 
To  view  the  merchants'  dealings 

It  was  his  full  intent; 
And  there,  along  the  brave  Exchange, 

He  crept  into  the  crowd — 
Huggle,  duggle,  &c. 

He  went  into  the  City, 

To  see  all  there  was  well ; 
Their  scales  were  false,  their  weights  were 

Their  conscience  fit  for  hell ;          [light, 


And  '  bad  men  '  chosen  Magistrates, 

And  Puritans  allow'd — 
Huggle,  duggle,  &c. 

With  that  into  the  country 

Away  the  devil  goeth, 
For  there  is  all  plain  dealing, 

And  that  the  devil  knoweth  : 
But  the  rich  man  reaps  the  gains, 

For  which  the  poor  man  plough'd — 
Huggle,  duggle,  &c. 

With  that  the  devil  in  haste, 

Took  post  away  to  hell, 
And  told  his  fellow  furies 

That  all  on  earth  was  well ; 
That  falsehood  there  did  flourish, 

Plain-dealing  was  in  a  cloud — 
Huggle,  duggle,  ha,  ha,  ha, 

The  devils  laugh'd  aloud. 


444 


ENGLISH   SONG  AND  BALLAD  MUSIC. 


THE  GLORY  OF  THE  WEST. 

This  is  contained  in  The  Dancing  Master  from  1650  to  1686 ;  in  MusicKs 
Delight  on  the  Cithren,  1666 ;  and  in  Musictts  Handmaid,  1678. 

In  a  copy  of  The  Dancing  Master  for  1665  (now  in  my  possession),  "  Shall  I, 
mother,  shall  I,"  is  written  under  The  Glory  of  the  West,  as  another  name  for  the 
tune.  I  have  not  succeeded  in  finding  the  words  of  either. 

In  the  Bagford  Collection,  and  in  the  Collection  of  Loyal  Songs,  is  "  The  Glory 
of  the  West ;  or  the  tenth  renowned  worthy  and  most  heroic  Champion  of  the 
British  Islands:  Being  an  unparalleled  Commemoration  of  General  Monk's  coming 
towards  the  city  of  London  ;"  but  this  cannot  have  been  written  in  1650,  and  the 
words  do  not  suit  the  measure  of  the  tune.  Nor  does  a  later  ballad,  "  The  Glory 
of  the  West ;  or  the  Virgins  of  Taunton-Dean,  who  ript  open  their  silk  petticoats 
to  make  colours  for  the  late  D[uke]  of  M[onmouth]'s  army,  when  he  came  before 
the  town."  The  tune  of  that  was  the  The  Winchester  Wedding. 

Quickly,  and  marked. 


Shall  I,  mother,  shall  I, 


NONESUCH. 

Two  copies  of  this  tune  are  contained  in  The  Dancing  Master  of  1650 ;  the 
first  as  Nonesuch,  the  second  as  A.  la  mode  de  France.  The  second  name  is 
derived  from  the  ditty  of  a  song  which  is  here  printed  to  the  air. 

A  la  mode  de  France  is  to  be  found  in  every  edition  of  The  Dancing  Master 
(sometimes  in  a  major  key  and  sometimes  in  a  minor)  ;  in  Musictfs  Recreation 
on  the  Lyra  Viol,  1661;  MusicVs  Delight  on  the  Cithren,  1666;  and  Youth's 
Delight  on  the  Flagelet,  1697. 

In  A  short  History  of  the  English  Rebellion,  by  Marchamont  Needham,  printed 


THE   COMMONWEALTH. 


445 


in  1661,  but  written  while  Charles  I.  was  in  prison,  the  author  twice  quotes  the 
burden,  and  perhaps  wrote  the  whole  poem  to  the  tune.      The  metre  is  quite 
suitable,  as  will  be  shown  by  the  following  stanzas,  93  and  97 : — 
"  Never  such  rebels  have  been  seen  Then  let  us  what  our  labours  gain 

As  since  we  led  this  dance  ;  Enjoy,  and  bless  our  chance : 

So  we  may  feast,  let  prince  and  queen         Like  kings  let's  domineer  and  reign, 

Beg,  &  la  mode  de  France,  &c.  Thus,  a  la  mode  de  France.1' 

In  Tlie  Second  Tale  of  a  Tub,  8vo.,  1715,  one  of  the  tunes  called  for  by  the 
company  is  A  la  mode  de  France.  In  the  Collection  of  Loyal  Songs,  i.  25,  1731, 
the  song  is  entitled  "  The  French  Report." 


0  tt 

•  I  q  —  |  , 

XI         ^J 

•  

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~~p  —  •  —  h 

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-9     '     «  —  «'        ^  l-is  

£     '     t 

Me       have      of     late     been     in       England,  Vere       me     have    seen  much 
De        rais  -  ing      of       de      Par    -   liament  Have     quite  pull'ddown    de 

4                -It                  -1                                       -«-                -*- 
m~-  •—  S  •—  IS  **  r- 

tJ  *ir  ^5          •" 

a  3-  sr- 

~TT  "5I  F*  TT  

*i           *i 

A 

B 

1        b          1 

1  >                                 NX 

L*        J 

sport, 
Court,   .   ' 


^  *V  V*  ^  ^ 

De     King    and  Queen  dey       se  -   pa -rate,  And    rule  in      i  -  gno    - 


ranee,       Pray  judge,  ye    gen -tie  -    men,  if  dis     Be        a      la  mode  de  France. 


i  r 


AL  vise  man  dere  is  like  a  ship 

Dat  strike  upon  de  shelves, 
Oey  prison  all,  hehead,  and  vip 

All  viser  dan  demselves ; 
Oey  send  out  men  to  fetch  deyr  king, 

Who  may  come  home,  perchance  : 
O  fy,  fy,  fy,  it  is,  be  gar, 

Not  a  la  mode  de  France. 

Oey  raise  deyr  valiant  prentices 

To  guard  deyr  cause  vith  clubs ; 
Oey  turn  deyr  Bishops  out  of  doors, 

And  preash  demselves  in  tubs : 
De  cobler  and  de  tinker,  too, 

Dey  vill  in  time  advance ; 
Gar  take  dem  all,  it  is  (mort  Dieu) 

Not  a  la  mode  de  France. 


Instead  of  bowing  to  deyr  king, 

Dey  vex  him  vith  epistles ; 
Dey  furnish  all  deyr  souldiers  out 

Vith  bodkins,  spoons,  and  vhistles ; 
Dey  bring  deyr  gold  and  silver  in, 

De  Brownists  to  advance, 
And  if  dey  be  cheat  of  it  all, 

Tis  a  la  mode  de  France. 

But  if  ven  all  deyr  vealth  be  gone, 

Dey  turn  unto  deyr  king, 
Dey  vill  all  make  amends  again, 

Den  merrily  ve  vill  sing, 
Vive  le  Roy,  vive  le  Roy, 

Ve'll  sing,  carouse,  and  dance, 
De  English  men  have  done^br^  bon, 

And  a  la  mode  de  France. 


446  ENGLISH   SONG  AND  BALLAD  MUSIC. 

MY  FATHER  WAS  BORN  BEFORE  ME. 

In  the  fourth,  and  all  subsequent  editions  of  The  Dancing  Master,  this  tune  is 
entitled  Jamaica.  The  island  of  Jamaica  was  taken  from  the  Spaniards  in  1655, 
and  the  tune  probably  took  the  name  from  some  song  on  that  event. 

The  following  were  sung  to  it : — 

1.  "  The  Prodigal's  Resolution ;  or.  My  Father  was  born  before  me  "  (Pills 
to  purge  Melancholy,  vol.  i.,  1699  and  1707).      This  is  taken  from  Thomas 
Jordan's  London  Triumphant,  4to.,  1672.     Jordan  was  the  "  professed  pageant- 
writer  and  poet  laureat  for  the  City,  and  if  author  of  this  song,"  says  Ritson, 
who  includes  it  in  his  Ancient  Songs,  "  he  seems  to  have  possessed  a  greater  share 
of  poetical  merit  than  usually  fell  to  the  lot  of  his  profession."     It  begins 
with  the  line,   "  I  am  a  lusty,  lively  lad,"  which  was  probably  suggested  by, 
and  the  tune  taken  from,  an  earlier  song,  beginning — 

"  Heigh  for  a  lusty,  lively  lad  ;  Heigh  for  a  lad  that's  seldom  sad, 

Heigh  for  a  lad  lacks  kissing ;  But  when  " — 

These  lines  are  from  a  medley  of  songs  at  p.  30  of  Sportive  Wit :  The  Muses' 
Merriment,  8vo.,  1656.  I  have  not  seen  it  complete,  and  it  breaks  off  at  the 
words,  "  But  when,"  into  another  song. 

2.  " Two  Toms  and  Nat  in  council  sat.     To  the  tune  of  Jamaica"     (State 
Poems,  continued,  p.  140,  1697.) 

4.  "  Slow  men  of  London ;  or  The  Widow  Brown  "  (Pills,  vi.  93).     This  is  a 
song  of  three  Londoners  being  outwited  by  a  Welshman,  in  a  competition  for 
the  Widow  Brown.     It  consists  of  twelve  stanzas,  and  commences  thus : — 
"  There  dwelt  a  widow  in  this  town  In  truth  it  has  of  late  been  told 

That  was  both  fair  and  lovely ;  That  many  strove  to  have  her. 

Her  face  was  comely,  neat  and  brown :  There  were  three  young  men  of  this  town, 

To  pleasure  she  would  move  thee.  Slow  men  of  London, 

Her  lovely  tresses  shone  like  gold,          And  they'd  go  woo  the  Widow  Brown, 
Most  neat  was  her  behaviour ;  Because  they  would  be  undone." 

The  last  four  lines  form  the  subject  of  another  song,  which  is  printed  in  Watts' 
Musical  Miscellany,  ii.  74,  1729.  It  consists  of  only  sixteen  lines,  and  is  said  to 
have  been  sung  in  the  play  of  Wit  without  Money ;  I  suppose  on  the  revival  of 
Beaumont  and  Fletcher's  play,  about  the  year  1708,  with  alterations  and,  as  the 
title-page  modestly  asserts,  "  with  amendments,  by  some  persons  of  quality. "  It 
suggests  the  possibility  of  the  longer  song  having  been  introduced  in  1639 
or  1661.  There  is  a  situation  for  one  near  the  end  of  the  play,  but  (according 
to  the  Rev.  A.  Dyce)  it  is  not  printed  either  in  the  quartos  or  in  the  folio. 

Three  other  songs  are  printed  to  the  tune  in  Pills  to  purge  Melancholy,.™., 
"  The  Angler's  Song,"  beginning,  "  Of  all  the  recreations,"  iii.  126  ;  "  Of  the 
Downfall  of  one  part  of  the  Mitre  Tavern  in  Cambridge,  or  the  sinking  thereof 
into  the  cellar,"  iii.  136 ;  and  "  The  Jolly  Tradesmen,"  beginning,  "  Some  time 
I  am  a  tapster  new,"  vi.  91.  Others  will  be  found  in  the  ballad-operas  of  Polly, 
1729 ;  Love  and  Revenge,  n.d. ;  &c. 

"  The  Prodigal's  Resolution "  consists  of  eleven  stanzas,  of  which  three  are 
subjoined. 


THE    COMMONWEALTH. 


447 


Moderate  time. 


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1      i      1       h      ' 

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r\     f?    K     f  *  -        TS       1 

j  j  i 

I        J        m    >    m 

j 

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«j 

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i        a       lus    -    ty      live  -  ly      lad,  Now    come     to      one  -  and  - 

]  .  —  L-LL 

i  1  1  

-^^t 

....     ^  _| 

-  twen  -    ty,      My        fa  -  ther      left       me      all      he      had,  Both   gold  and     sil  -  ver 


^-         J  •-  j  n  '      j 

rr  —  r  —  Cr  g  i 

plen   -  ty  ;    Now  he's     in  grave,     I       will     be     brave,  The 

-^)-                m        m           _. 

—  3E  —  ^  1  —  i  1  —  rr  i  ^  r  —  P  — 

- 

a  -  dies      shall     a    - 

i  —  r  i    J  i 

_«  m  j  =  — 

J=U 


-  dore  me,  I'll  court  and  kiss,  What  hurt's  in  this?  My      dad  did    so       be  -  fore      me. 


^ 


I 


My  father  was  a  thrifty  sir, 

Till  soul  and  hody  sundred  : 
Some  say  he  was  a  usurer, 

For  thirty  in  the  hundred : 
H(  scrap'd  and  scratch'd,  she  pinch'd  and 

That  in  her  hody  bore  me ;         [patch'd 
Bu~,  I'll  let  fly, — good  reason  why, — 

My  father  was  born  before  me. 


My  daddy  has  his  duty  done, 

In  getting  so  much  treasure ; 
I'll  be  as  dutiful  a  son, 

For  spending  it  at  pleasure  : 
Five  pound  a  quart  shall  cheer  my  heart, 

Such  nectar  will  restore  me ; 
When  ladies  call,  make  love  to  all, — 

My  father  was  born  before  me,  &c. 


THE  CLEAR  CAVALIER. 

Tliis  is  the  "  effusion  of  loyal  enthusiasm"  which  Sir  Walter  Scott  puts  into 
the  riouth  of  the  worthy  cavalier,  Sir  Geoffrey  Peveril,  in  his  novel,  Peveril  of 
the  Peak.  The  same  lines  are  quoted  by  Shadwell  in  his  Epsom  Wells,  where 
Fribble  says  to  the  fiddlers,  "  Can't  you  sing — 

'  Hey  for  Cavaliers,  ho  for  Cavaliers, 
Dub-a-dub-dub,  have  at  old  Beelzebub, 
Oliver  quakes  for  fear.' " — Act  v.,  sc.  1. 
The  song  is  attributed  to  Samuel  Butler,  author  of  Hudibras,  and  is  printed  in 


448 


ENGLISH   SONG  AND  BALLAD  MUSIC. 


his  Posthumous  Works;  also  in  Westminster  Drollery,  part  ii.,  p.  48,  1672;  in 
Loyal  Songs  written  against  the  Rump  Parliament,  i.  249 ;  in  Pills  to  purge 
Melancholy;  &c. 

The  music  is  in  a  manuscript,  once  the  property  of  Charles  Morgan,  of 
Magdalen  College,  and  bearing  the  date  of  1682 ;  in  John  Banister's  Division 
Violin,  MS. ;  in  Apollo's  Banquet  for  the  Treble  Violin  ;  and  in  the  ballad-opera 
of  Love  in  a  Riddle,  1729 ;  &c.  It  was  introduced,  as  "  The  Card  Dance,"  in 
Mrs.  Behn's  farce,  The  Emperor  of  the  Moon,  1687. 


n  »    -oolMy. 

ft  tf(* 

—  i  —  i  —  n 

—  rj  1       j  - 

He 

For  - 

that       is      a     clear 
tune      is      a     lass 

_J  J_     j  

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Ca  -  va  -  lier  .  . 
will     em-brace, 

> 

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will  not       re  -  pine,     Al   - 
but  soon    des  -  troy,  Born 

—  ^  —  ~  —  F  1  g 

tw1 

i  j   i  i 

^P 

^=?=?=F= 

^d  1  —  "j  —  '  —  ^  — 

"^"    •      ~T 

-  though    his      substance  grow     so 
free,        in         li  -  her  -  ty      will 

F1^^ 

ve    -    ry     low 
e    -    ver    be, 

^*9               ~&~                                       "P*"        Ji*~ 

that       he      can  -  not    drink 
and      still     sing  Vive     ie 

J      •      J  f 

—  F  —  E  —  •—  h 

*  1  1  1  — 

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wine.           .   • 
7%.    .    • 

Q     •  —        •                  . 

own       re-ward, 
lus   -    ty     Ro   - 

<o 

And      For  -tune    is        a 
ger,      And    will  serve    his 
*         m        P 

Vir  -  tue     is        its 
He    that   is         a 

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_T  —  JA  *  —  •        J  — 

4^^d  *— 

jade     Whom 
king,        Al   - 

*T"                        "*  J^   ± 

none   but  fools     and  knaves     re  -  gard,    Or       e'er        im-plore  for 
though  he    be         a       tat    -  ter'd    sol  -  dier,      Yet      will  skip    and 

w                           1 

• 

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n.  —  »  —  r  —  r 

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Q 

p                   a 

fii 

tt      ~b    ~     !>       b  •  -  •* 

«        r 

b                  L     **^       1 

aid.              .  While   we     who  fight    for           fame,    Shall     the     ways  of      ho  -  nour 
sing.    •    "         And  though  an    ho  -  nest           man      May                now  be    quite  un   - 

h-H*  f= 

"^  —  ra  ^  — 

aT    1   ,«'^=^g 

—  p-ff    '  -f-^-j 

V  ,1    I                  1                L 

THE   COMMONWEALTH. 


449 


—  hlj~ 

~|    ,     -,-=]  1 

-__ 



—  r  N  —  1        J 

T-4- 

prove  All 
-done  He'll 

^Hh-ti^    Jj.jj'4    '    *-^*± 

they  who  make  sport  of  us     Shall    fall  short  of  us,     Fate     will  flat  -  ter  them 
shew  his     al-le-  giance  Love  and  o  -  be-  dience,  They     will  raise    him  up, 

-  -j  -£--]  N  —  i  1  !  —  1- 

1"       1  — 

J- 

ni 

• 

_j  1  

-+ 

And  will  scat-ter  them,  Whilst  our  loy  -  al-ty  Looks  to 
Ho  -  nour  stay  him  up,    Vir  -  tue  keep  him  up,  We  will 


Royal-ty,    We  that  live   peaceful  -  ly 
ise  him  up,While  the  vain  courtiers  dine 


May  he   sue  -  cess-ful -  ly    Crown'dwith    a  crown       at 
With  hot-ties    full  of  wine,       Ho  -  nour  will  hold      him 


last, 
fast. 


j 

•       J     • 

c                    s 

k 

i 

• 

i 

H 

n    J 

j 

v  i3 

!*              J 

J 

—  i  — 

-- 

Freely  let's  he  then  honest  men,  and  kick  at  Fate, 

For  we  shall  live  to  see  our  loyalty  be  valued  at  high  rate ; 

He  that  bears  a  sword,  or  says  a  word  against  the  throne — 

That  doth  profanely  prate  against  the  state,  no  loyalty  can  own. 

What  though  plumbers,  painters,  players,  now  be  prosperous  men, 

Let  us  but  mind  our  own  affairs,  and  they'll  come  round  again. 

Treach'ry  may  in  face  look  bright,  and  lech'ry  clothe  in  fur; 

A  traitor  may  bo  made  a  knight,  'tis  fortune  de  la  guerre. 

But  what  is  that  to  us,  boys,  that  are  right  honest  men  ? 

We'll  conquer  and  come  again,  beat  up  the  drum  again, — 

Hey  for  Cavaliers,  ho  for  Cavaliers,  drink  for  Cavaliers,  fight  for  Cavaliers, 

Dub-a-dub,  dub-a-dub,  have  at  old  Beelzebub,  Oliver  quakes  for  fear. 

Fifth  Monarchy  must  down,  boys,  and  every  sect  in  town ; 

We'll  rally  and  to't  again,  give  'em  the  rout  again ;  [our  own  again  : 

Fly,  like  light  about,  face  to  the  right  about,  charge  'em  home  again,  seize 

Tantara,  rara,  and  this  is  the  life  of  an  honest,  bold  Cavalier. 

OLD  NOLL'S  JIG. 

This  does  not  appear  in  The  Dancing  Master  before  the  eleventh  edition 
(1701)  ;  but  it  is  included  in  all  later  editions.  The  song,  "  When  once  Master 
Love  gets  into  your  head,"  was  sung  to  it. 

It  is  scarcely  necessary  to  say  that  "  Old  Noll "  was  the  nickname  given  to 
Oliver  Cromwell  by  the  Cavaliers;  just  as  "  Tumble-down  Dick"  was  that  of  his 
son  Richard,  and  "  Rowley,"  or  "  Old  Rowley,"  that  of  Charles  II. 

Some  wag  named  this  jig  after  the  Protector,  for,  although  Cromwell  delighted 
in  music,  both  vocal  and  instrumental,  and  skill  in  the  art  was  a  sure  passport  to 


450 


ENGLISH   SONG  AND  BALLAD   MUSIC. 


his  favour,  he  certainly  was  not  addicted  to  dancing.  His  manner  of  entertaining 
the  Ambassadors  of  Holland,  on  the  occasion  of  the  peace  between  the  two 
Commonwealths,  would  now  be  thought  somewhat  peculiar.  After  the  repast, 
during  which  there  was  music  as  usual,  the  Lord  Protector  took  them  "  into 
another  room,  where  the  Lady  Protectrice  and  others  came  to  us,"  says  the 
writer,  "  and  there  also  we  had  music  and  voices,  and  a  psalm  sung  which  his 
Highness  gave  them."  (Thurloe's  State  Papers.  The  letter  dated  April 
12th,  1654.) 


f-.f.fr— fc^ff  f.f 


MY  NAME  IS  OLD  HEWSON  THE  COBBLER, 

This  is  one  of  the  tunes  introduced  in  the  ballad-operas,  The  Jovial  Crew,  and 
The  G-rul  Street  Opera,  both  printed  in  1731. 

The  Jovial  Crew  of  1731  was  an  alteration  of  Richard  Brome's  comedy  of  the 
same  name. 

The  words  of  the  song  have  not  been  recovered ;  but  there  appears  little  doubt 
of  their  having  been  a  political  squib  upon  Colonel  Hewson,  who  was  one  of 
Charles  the  First's  judges,  and  of  those  who  signed  his  death-warrant. 

John  Hewson  was  originally  a  cobbler,  and  had  but  one  eye.   He  took  up  arms 


THE   COMMONWEALTH. 


451 


on  the  side  of  the  Parliament,  and  being  a  man  of  courage  and  resolution,  soon 
roso  to  be  a  colonel  in  their  army.  He  was  knighted  by  Cromwell,  and  after- 
wards made  one  of  his  Lords.  He  quitted  England  immediately  before  the 
Restoration,  and  died  at  Amsterdam  in  1662, 

There  are  numerous  allusions  to  his  former  trade,  and  to  his  one  eye,  in  the 
Cavalier  songs.     For  instance,  in  "  A  Quarrel  betwixt  Tower  Hill  and  Tyburne" 
(to  be  found  in  Merry  Drollery  Complete ;  Loyal  Songs;  &c.) — 
"  There  is  single-eyed  Hewson,  the  Cobbler  of  Fate, 

Translated  into  buff  and  feather ; 
But  bootless  are  all  his  seams  of  state, 

When  the  soul  is  ript  from  the  upper  leather." 

Two  complete  songs  about  him  are  in  the  Bagford  Collection  (643,  m.  9,  Brit. 
Mus.)  ;  and  in  Loyal  Songs,  vol.  ii. 

The  first,  "A  Hymn  to  the  Gentle  Craft;  or,  Hewson' s  Lamentation.     To  the 
tune  of  The  Blind  Beggar ; "  but  the  name  of  the  tune  is  intended  as  a  joke 
upon  his  one  eye ;  the  words  are  not  in  a  metre  that  could  be  sung  to  it. 
"  Listen  awhile  to  what  I  shall  say 
Of  a  blind  cobbler  that's  gone  astray, 
Out  of  the  Parliament's  highway : 

Good  people,  pity  the  blind,"  •&& 

The  second  is    "The  Cobbler's   Last  Will   and   Testament;    Or,  the  Lord 
Hewson's  Translation  : —  "  To  Christians  all  I  greeting  send, 

That  they  may  learn  their  souk  to  mend, 
By  viewing  of  my  cobbler's  end"  &c. 

The  Rev.  Mark  Noble,  in  his  Memoirs  of  the  Protectorate  House  of  Cromwell, 
i.  411,  8vo.,  1784,  quotes  three  stanzas  of  the  above  to  prove  that  Elizabeth,  the 
lady  of  the  Protector,  had  "a  defect  in  one  eye;"  but  the  allusion  is  most 
clearly  to  Hewsoru 
Fast. 


My  name  is  old  Hewson  the  cobbler. 


I  LIVE  NOT  WHERE  I  LOVE. 

In  the  Roxburghe  Collection,  i.  68,  is  a  ballad  entitled  "  The  constant  lover : 
Who  his  affection  will  not  move, 
Though  he  live  not  where  he  love. 

To  -i  Northern  tune,  called  Shall  the  absence  of  my  Mistresse."     It  is  subscribed 
P.  L.,  London,  printed  for  Henry  Gosson,  and  consists  of  twelve  stanzas,  the  first 
of  which  is  as  follows  : — 
"  You  loyal  lovers  that  are  distant  In  singing  sweetly  and  completely 

From  your  sweet-hearts  many  a  mile,  In  commendation  of  my  love ; 

Pray  come  help  me  at  this  instant  Resolving  ever  to  part  never, 

In  mirth  to  spend  away  the  while,  Though  I  live  not  where  I  love" 


452  ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 

In  the  same  Collection,  i.  320,  is  "  A  Paire  of  Turtle  Doves,  Or  a  dainty  new 
Scotch  Dialogue  between  a  yong  man  and  his  mistresse,  both  correspondent  in 
affection,"  &c.  "  To  a  pretty  pleasant  tune  called  The  absence  of  my  Mistresse, 
or,  I  live  not  where  I  love"  It  is  subscribed  "  Martin  Parker,"  Printed  at 
London  for  Thomas  Lambert  at  the  Horse-shoe  in  West  Smithfield,  and  com- 
mences thus : — 

YONG  MAN.     "  Must  the  absence  of  my  mistresse, 

Gar  me  be  thus  discontent, 
As  thus  to  leave  me  in  distresse, 
And  with  languor  to  lament,"  &c. 

In  the  Pepys  Collection,  iv.  40,  is  another  ballad  by  P.  L.,  called  "  The  valiant 
Trooper  and  Pretty  Peggy,"  &c.  "  To  the  tune  of  Though  I  live  not  where 
I  love"  beginning : — 

"  Heard  you  not  of  a  valiant  trooper          With  a  kind  salute,  and  fierce  dispute, 
That  had  his  pockets  well  lin'd  with  gold,     He  thought  to  make  her  his  only  one  ; 

He  was  in  love  with  a  gallant  lady,  But  unconstant  woman,  true  to  no  man, 

As  I  to  you  shall  here  unfold.  Is  gone  and  left  her  bird  alone." 

A  ballad  very  much  akin  to  the  last  is  contained  in  Pills  to  purge  Melancholy, 
iii.  156,  1707,  entitled  "  The  unconstant  woman.  To  a  new  tune"  It  begins  : 

"  Did  you  not  hear  of  a  gallant  sailor,        With  a  kind  salute,  and  without  dispute, 
Whose  pockets  they  were  lin'd  with  gold ;     He  thought  to  gain  her  for  his  own : 

He  fell  in  love  with  a  pretty  creature,         Unconstant  woman  proves  true  to  no  man, — 
As  I  to  you  the  truth  unfold  :  She  has  gone  and  left  me  all  alone." 

It  consists  of  eight  stanzas,  and  ends  thus : — 

"  Since  Peggy  has  my  kindness  slighted,    In  ship  I'll  enter,  on  seas  I'll  venture, 
I'll  never  trust  a  woman  more ;  And  sail  the  world  where  I'm  not  known  : 

In  her  alone  I  e'er  delighted,  Unconstant  woman  proves  true  to  no  man, 

But  since  she's  false  I'll  leave  the  shore :     She's  gone  and  left  me  here  alone." 

This  last  song  is  still  sung  about  the  country,  sometimes  to  a  tune  resembling  that 
printed  in  the  Pitts,  but  more  commonly  to  this  air.  No  tune  seems  to  be  more 
generally  known  by  tradition.  I  have  been  favored  with  copies  from  various  and 
widely  distant  parts  of  the  country.  Captain  Darnell  had  learnt  it  from  "  old 
Harry  Smith,  the  fiddler,  of  Nunnington,  near  Kirby  Moorside;"  Mr.  Edward 
Loder  had  repeatedly  heard  it  in  the  West  of  England.  The  late  George  Macfarren 
recollected  it,  and  the  words  he  heard  had  the  burden,  "Hive  not  where  I  love." 
This  was  before  the  Roxburghe  Collection  of  ballads  had  been  purchased  for  the 
British  Museum,  and  (having  overlooked  the  one  ballad  in  the  Pepys  Collection) 
I  did  not  know  the  burden  to  be  so  old.  Although  it  is  impossible  to  guarantee  any 
considerable  antiquity  to  an  air  preserved  solely  by  tradition,  I  think  it  a  favor- 
able circumstance  that  the  measure  should  agree  with  that  of  the  old  ballads, 


THE   COMMONWEALTH. 


453 


which,  I  am  sure,  no  one  of  my  informants  had  seen.  The  versions  from  different 
parte  of  the  country  differ  in  some  points,  especially  in  the  terminations  of  the 
phranes,  but  that  might  be  expected,  as  it  was  gathered  from  untutored  singers. 
The  following  West  Country  version  has  a  thoroughly  Somersetshire  ending.  It 
was  given  to  me  by  Mr.  Edward  Loder,  and  the  words  written  by  the  late  George 
Maci'arren. 


Gracefully)  and  not  too  slow. 


Fo  -  re 


rest  gems    are    round  me    growing,     Wild  birds  chant  their       ca  -  rols     free. 


lake -let         vy  -   ing  With   the   calm-er  heav'ns  a  -  bove  ; 


Yet      for     o  -  ther  scenes   I'm   sigh  -  ing,     For       I     live  not         where   I    love 


Graceful  are  the  verdant  bowers 

Where  the  elm  and  linden  grow, 
A}  id  its  bloom  the  chesnut  showers 

On  the  mossy  bank  below. 
Yi-t  give  me  that  valley  dreary 

Where  the  mist- clad  mountains  rise, 
And  the  eagle  builds  her  eyrie, 

Monarch  bird  of  stormy  skies. 


Here  the  vine  its  clusters  wreatheth, 

There  the  pine  its  dark  form  shews  ; 
Here  the  zephyr  mildly  breatheth, 

There  the  north  wind  keenly  blows. 
Dearest  still,  my  boyhood's  places ; 

Oh  !  for  wings  of  woodland  dove, 
To  greet  the  old  familiar  faces  ; 

For  I  live  not  where  I  love. 


454 


ENGLISH    SONG    AND    BALLAD    MUSIC. 


OH !  FOB  A  HUSBAND. 

This  song  is  taken  from  John  Gamble's  MS.  common-place  book,  which  has 
already  supplied  several  airs  to  this  collection. 

Moderate  time. 


s 

jW4-J  ^S  1  J    .      H 

J    M     -^- 

1           1 
There  was  a 

_^_     .^  •  •                                             ^n 

maid  this       o  -  ther  day,        Sigh-ed  sore,  God  wot,          And  she 

Y7 

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h-*  1  g      .     S  rt  :  *— 

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said    that  wives  mig] 

it  sport  and    play,    But 

maid  -  ens   they    might       not.         Full 
T—  0  ^  1  —  S)  1 

—  ~1 

1_  

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1 

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& 

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_L_d  J  c  —  •  L_^  1 

T  V   -<  —  •   •  £  —  vr- 

fif-teen  years  have   Pass'd>     she   said>  Since 

I,      poor    soul     was     born, 

f-  r              f-        , 

i                p 

c                       r      • 

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e. 

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T*n  i  J  •  LI 

i    J    J      PI            1  n  r  H  pq 

-J-                       -J-         \^ 

And   if   I  chance  to 

LJLJ.J  J  J--J     ^  —  L*     c     j.,  •   •  ..L.C->   ....    L.  0    ,    «   ,   .1 
die     a   maid,  A  -    pol  -  lo      is       for  -  sworn,         Oh  !    Oh  ! 

m             ^                c,                 i         1 

r^s 

^ 

J"3  i   i 

—  1—  B  h~n=  1- 

1     °i        II        II 

-r*i  1  —  i  '''rSH 

-J- 

Oh 

| 

-g  '  *  J  u  '  •*—  ^ 

for  a  hus-band  !  Oh  !          Oh  !           Oh 

j  ,--.-      ,        •              Efr 

^V  J  U  J.  ^^ 

for  a  hus-band!  Still  this     was      her 

—  r 

h*                   !          f* 

~i  S  r  S  1  

i5  —  r  —  r  ,  p  p  r  i 

1       i       I       r       i 

_c  j*  L+*r  —  I 

i^\ 

_x 

—  F  —  h~f  ^  —  F  1  T*85  — 

sor 

g,       I     will   have     a    hus-band,  have  a  husband,     Be  .  .      he    old      or    young. 

i£E  H-H  —  ^r-^  ^    if  f  —  *  —  3  HS  ^ 

-N 

=  BBS 

JJ^     "' 

—  i  —  ^_j  —  j  —  ^  e  —  t 

THE   COMMONWEALTH.  455 

A.n  ancient  suitor  hither  came,  But  to  her  mother  went  this  maid, 

His  head  was  almost  grey  ;  And  told  her  presently, 

Though  he  was  old,  and  she  was  young,  That  she  a  husband  needs  must  have, 

She  would  no  longer  stay  ;  And  thus  began  to  cry  : 

"  Oh  !  oh  !  oh  !  fora  husband"  &c. 

The  maiden  fulfils  the  old  adage  of  "  marrying  in  haste  and  repenting  at  leisure," 
and,  in  the  third  and  fourth  stanzas,  the  burden  of  her  song  changes  to — 

"  Oh  I  oh  !  oh  !  with  a  husband  Out  upon  a  husband,  such  a  husband, 

What  a  life  lead  I!  A  husband,  fie,  fie,  fie!" 

AN  OLD  WOMAN  CLOTHED  IN  GREY. 

This  tune  is  found  in  two  forms,  the  first  as  An  old  woman  clothed  in  grey,  the 
second,  as  Let  Oliver  now  be  forgotten.  The  difference  in  the  music  has,  no  doubt, 
arisen  from  the  different  metres  of  the  words  adapted  to  it. 

ID  The  Beggars'  Opera,  1728,  the  song  Through  all  the  employments  of  life,  is 
written  to  the  tune  of  An  old  woman  clothed  in  grey.  In  Old  Ballads,  ii.  230, 
1726,  the  song  of  "  An  old  woman  clothed  in  grey,"  is  to  the  tune  of  Kind  hus- 
band and  imperious  wife.  The  song  of  "  The  kind  husband  but  imperious  wife," 
is  contained  in  Westminster  Drollery,  1671,  and  in  Wit  and  Drollery,  1682,  but 
the  tune  is  not  named  in  either.  Here,  therefore,  the  pedigree  halts.  It  should 
be  traceable  higher,  for  I  am  convinced  that  such  words  as  "  Kind  Husband" 
never  had  music  composed  for  them.  They  are  a  dialogue  between  a  man  and  his 
wife,  and  commence — 

"  Wife,  prithee  come  give  me  thy  hand  now, 

And  sit  thee  down  by  me  ; 
.There's  never  a  man  in  the  land  now 
Shall  be  more  loving  to  thee." 

A  copy  of  An  old  woman  clothed  in  grey,  in  Dr.  Burney's  Collection  of  songs, 
with  music  (Brit.  Mus.),  has  a  manuscript  date  of  1662.  Besides  The  Beggars' 
Open,  it  was  introduced  in  Henry  Carey's  Musical  Century,  vol.  ii.,  and  in  the 
balla-1  opera,  The  Humours  of  the  Court,  or  Modern  Gallantry,  1732. 

Tl  e  song,  Let  Oliver  now  be  forgotten,  is  said  to  be  to  the  tune  of  How  unhappy 
is  Pidllis  in  love.  Both  words  and  music  are  contained  in  180  Loyal  Songs,  1685 
and  1694  ;  and  in  Pills  to  purge  Melancholy,  ii.  283,  1719.  The  tune,  without 
word,^5,  is  in  Baiter's  Genteel  Companion  for  the  Recorder,  1683,  and  in  Lady 
Catherine  Boyd's  MS.  Lyra  Yiol  book,  lately  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  A.  Blaikie. 
Many  political  ballads  were  written  to  it  under  one  or  other  of  these  names, 
especially  about  the  year  1680.  For  instance,  in  Mr.  HalliwelPs  Collection, 
Cheer,ham  Library,  are,  at  fol.  171,  "An  excellent  new  ballad  of  the  plotting 
head.  To  the  tune  of  Hoiv  unhappy  is  Phillis  in  love  ;  or,  Let  Oliver  now  be 
forgotten."  Printed  for  R.  Moor,  1681.  At  fol.  243,  "  Tony's  Lamentation  ; 
or,  Potapski's  City  Case,  being  his  last  farewell  to  the  consecrated  Whigs.  The 
tune  is,  Let  Oliver  now  be  forgotten,"  1682.  In  180  Loyal  Songs,  "  The  Con- 
spiracy :  or,  The  discovery  of  the  fanatick  plot,  1684 ;  and  in  Mat.  Taubman's 


456 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


Heroic  Poem  and  choice  Songs  and  Medleyes  on  the  times,  "  Philander,"  fol.  1682. 
The  following  is  to  the  version  called  An  old  woman  clothed  in  grey — 
Cheerfully. 


0    k         -1  1  1         i         i  

,  I  _ 

ZZEZZu     J    • 

—\  —  j  1  —  i  — 

|      j     1- 

—  3=5 

—  j  [—  I 

(d}!£_ft_|_i_ 

—  •  «MtJ      u 

1  —  f  —  1 

—  J    •    t-- 

0      * 

J—  *J      ^ 

J— 

t/                                                 -•- 
Down,  down  with   po-li  - 

ti-cal 

J.    .            =1-*  *S-  B»  —  "—  ' 
fools,  Who        make  of  the  state  such  a 

3EHE3E 

,  H  

—  

•     •     n 

_H  

d  

-.  

—  b    ft    1  

d/        .          • 

—  F—  -  —  >—  — 

• 



"N 

n  j  .  h 

:"J  J"7fn 

™n  — 

1  0  !-  1 
1                    J         . 

—  H 

1  :  '  '  n 

pother,  While      th 

2V,  but     a   pack   o 

i 

"  mere  tools,     Help       statesmen    to    ride  one  an  - 
i 

•                                                  1                                           ! 

1 

I                  •              •              * 

• 

-r  •  j  • 

-J  

• 

*  

^  *-*—>  

i_i  j  •  i 

1 

other     Give     me  but  a  bot-tle  and     glass,  With  a  friend  that  is  honest  and    brave;   Con- 


a:  i  r  •  ^^f=H  • 


1-^ 

—  I  1  .  —  , 

H     •     J     . 



^j 

m       P       M 

j*-  J 

J      ,,  , 

J 

' 

«•     •     • 

•     flu 

hJ         0 

•L 

^^[_                 k^^^!^                                                                                    Tlgj_    H»                          1 

-  tent-ed  thro'  life   we   will     pass       Till         death  call     us  down  to    the       grave. 

i 

_  

—  J  —  -—  *  —  '-  — 

1  

J»  

*      —  

-^ 

;  • 



I  WOULD  I  WERE  IN  MY  OWN  COUNTRY. 

This  tune  is  in  Sir  John  Hawkins'  Transcripts  of  Music  for  the  Virginals;  also 
in  The  Dancing  Master,  from  1650  to  1701,  under  the  name  of  Grodesses. 

A  black-letter  copy  of  the  ballad,  I  would  I  were  in  my  own  country,  is  in  the 
Roxburghe  Collection,  ii.  367,  entitled  "  The  Northern  Lasses  Lamentation ;  or 
The  Unhappy  Maid's  Misfortune ; "  and  prefaced  by  the  following  lines : — 
"  Since  she  did  from  her  friends  depart,          Being  always  fill'd  with  discontent; 
No  earthly  thing  can  cheer  her  heart ;          Resolving  to  do  nought  but  mourn, 
But  still  she  doth  her  case  lament,  Till  to  the  North  she  doth  return. 

To  the  tune,  I  would  I  were  in  my  own  country.''7  Printed  for  P.  Brooksby  at 
the  Golden  Ball,  in  West  Smithfield;  and  reprinted  in  Evans'  Old  Ballads, 
i.  115  (1810). 

T"ie  following  were  sung  to  the  same  tune  : — 
Pepys  Coll.,  i.  266.  "  Newes  frpm  Tower  Hill ;  or— 

"  A  gentle  warning  to  Peg  and  Kate 
To  walk  no  more  abroad  so  late." 


THE   COMMONWEALTH. 


457 


"To  the   tune  of   The  North-country  Lasse;    subscribed  M[artin]    P[arker]. 
London,  printed  for  E.  B.     Begins,  "  A  pretty  jest  I'll  tell." 

Koxburghe  Collection,  ii.  112.  "The  Dumb  Maid;  or,  The  young  Gallant 
trepann'd,"  &c.  "  To  a  new  tune  called  Dum,  dum,  dum,  or  I  would  I  were  in 
my  own  country"  This  is  an  earlier  version  of  a  song  already  printed  (ante 
p.  120) ,  which  begins,  "  There  was  a  bonny  blade."  It  seems  to  have  been  intended 
for  the  tune  of  The  Duke  of  Norfolk,  or  Dum,  dum,  dum,  rather  than  for  this. 
It  commences — 

"  All  you  that  pass  along,  give  ear  unto  my  song, 

Concerning  a  youth  that  was  young,  young,  young, 

And  of  a  maiden  fair, — few  with  her  might  compare ; 

But  alack !  and  alas !  she  was  dumb,  dumb,  dumb." 

Douce  Collection,  p.  135.    "  The  Lancashire  Lovers ;  or,  The  merry  wooing  of 
Thomas  and  Betty,"  &c.     To  the  tune  of  Love's  Tide,  or  At  home  would  I  be  in 
my  own  country."      This,  which  is  black-letter,  printed  by  Wright,  Clarke, 
Thackeray,  and  Passinger  (early,  Charles  II.),  has  also  the  burden — 
"  The  oak,  and  the  ash,  and  the  ivy  tree, 

Flourish  bravely  at  home  in  my  own  country ; " 
^/  Rather  slowly,  and  with  feeling  and  expression. 


A  North-Country  lass  Up  to      London  did  pass,  Although  with  her  na-ture  it 


did      not    a  -  gree,     Which    made  her   re  -  pent,  And    so       of  -  ten    la  -  ment,     Still 


i 


wish  -  ing    a  -  gain    in    the     North  for    to    be.       O    the     oak,  and  the  ash,    and  the 


hon-ny      i  -  vy    tree         Do      flou  -  rish   at  home  in     my       own       coun  -  try 


458 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


Fain  would  I  be  in  the  North-country,    [hay  ; 

Where  the  lads  and  the  lasses  are  making  of 
There  should  I  see  what  is  pleasant  to  me ; — 

A  mischief  light  on  them  entic'd  me  away ! 

0  the  oak,  the  ash,  and  the  bonny  ivy  tree, 
Do  flourish  most  bravely  in  our  country. 

Since  that  I  came  forth  of  the  pleasant  North, 
There's  nothing  delightful  I  see  doth  abound, 
They  never  can  be  half  so  merry  as  we, 

When  we  are  a  dancing  of  Sellinger's  Round. 
O  the  oak,  the  ash,  and  the  bonny  ivy  tree, 
Do  flourish  at  home  in  our  own  coutry. 

I  like  not  the  Court,  nor  to  City  resort, 

Since  there  is  no  fancy  for  such  maids  as  me ; 

Their  pomp  and  their  pride  I  can  never  abide, 

Because  with  my  humour  it  doth  not  agree. 

O  the  oak,  the  ash,  and  the  bonny  ivy  tree, 

Do  flourish  at  home  in  my  own  country. 

How  oft  have   I  been  on  the  Westmoreland 
green,  [for  to  play, 

Where  the  young  men  and  maidens  resort 
Where  we  with  delight,  from  morning  till  night, 
Could  feast  it,  and  frolic,  on  each  holiday. 
O  the  oak,  the  ash,  and  the  bonny  ivy  tree, 
Do  flourish  most  bravely  in  our  country. 

A  milking  to  go,  all  the  maids  in  a  row, 

It  was  a  fine  sight,  and  pleasant  to  see ; 
But  here,  in  the  city,  they're  'void  of  all  pity, 
There  is  no  enjoyment  of  liberty. 
O  the  oak,  the  ash,  and  the  bonny  ivy  tree, 
They  flourish  most  bravely  in  our  country. 

When  I  had  the  heart  from  my  friends  to  de- 
part, 

1  thought  I  should  be  a  lady  at  last; 
But  now  do  I  find  that  it  troubles  my  mind, 

Because  that  my  joys  and  pleasures  are 
past. 


O  the  oak,  the  ash,  and  the  bonny  ivy  tree, 
They  flourish  at  home  in  my  own  country. 

The  ewes  and  the  lambs,  with  the  kids  and 

their  dams, 

To  see  in  the  country  how  finely  they  plaj' ; 

The  bells  they  do  ring,  and  the  birds  they  do 

sing,  [and  gay. 

And  the  fields  and  the  gardens,  so  pleasant 

O  the  oak,  the  ash,  and  the  bonny  ivy  tree, 

They  flourish  most  bravely  in  our  country. 

At  wakes  and  at  fairs,  being  'void  of  all  cares, 

We  there  with  our  lovers  did  use  for  to  dance ; 

Then  hard  hap  had  I,  my  ill  fortune  to  try, 

And  so  up  to  London  my  steps  to  advance. 

O  the  oak,  the  ash,  and  the  bonny  ivy  tree, 

They  flourish  most  bravely  in  our  country. 

But  still,  I  perceive,  I  a  husband  might  have, 

If  I  to  the  city  my  mind  could  but  frame ; 

But  I'll  have  a  lad  that  is  North-country  bred, 

Or  else  I'll  not  marry,  in  the  mind  that  I  am. 

O  the  oak,  the  ash,  and  the  bonny  ivy  tree, 

They  flourish  most  bravely  in  our  country. 

A  maiden  I  am,  and  a  maid  I'll  remain, 
Until  my  own  country  again  I  do  see, 

For  here  in  this  place  I  shall  ne'er  see  the  face 
Of  him  that's  allotted  my  love  for  to  be. 

0  the  oak,  the  ash,  and  the  bonny  ivy  tree, 
They  flourish  at  home  in  my  own  country. 

Then  farewell,  my  daddy,  and  farewell,  my 

mammy, 

Until  I  do  see  you,  I  nothing  but  mourn ; 
Rememb'ring  my  brothers,   my  sisters,   and 

others, 

In  less  than  a  year  I  hope  to  return. 
Then  the  oak,  the  ash,  and  the  bonny  ivy 
tree,  [country. 

1  shall   see   them   at  home   in   my   own 


THE  BROOM,  THE  BONNY  BROOM. 

In  the  Pepys  Collection,  i.  40,  is  a  black-letter  ballad,  entitled  The  new  Broome 
[on  hill~\.      London,  printed  for  F.  Coles.      It  consists  of  seven  stanzas,  and 
commences  thus : — 
"  Poore  Coridon  did  sometime  sit  And,  thinking  that  none  else  was  nie, 

Hard  by  the  broome  alone,  He  thus  began  his  song  :          [broome, 

And  secretly  complain'd  to  it  The  bonny  broome ,  the  well favoured 

Against  his  oniy  one.  The  broome  blooms  Jaire  on  hill; 

He  bids  the  broome  that  blooms  him  by  What  aiVd  my  love  to  lightly  mee, 

Beare  witness  to  his  wrong,  And  I  working  her  will  ?" 

The  second  line  of   the  burden  recalls  the  "  bunch  of  ballads  and  songs,  all 


THE   COMMONWEALTH.  459 

ancient;  as  Broom,  broom,  on  hill"  &c.,  which  are  mentioned  in  Laneham's 
Letter  from  Kenilworth,  1575 ;  also  the  lines  sung  by  Moros,  in  Wager's 
The  longer  thou  livest  the  more  fool  thou  art, — an  interlude  which  appears  to  have 
been  written  soon  after  Elizabeth  came  to  the  throne.  In  that,  Moros  enters, 
"  oounterfaiting  a  vaine  gesture  and  a  foolish  countenance,  synging  the  foote  of 
many  songes,  as  fooles  were  wont ; "  the  first  of  which  is — 

Brome,  brome  on  hill,  Brome,  brome  on  Hive  hill, 

The  gentle  brome  on  hill,  hill :  The  brome  stands  on  Hive  hill-a." 

This  repetition  does  not  give  the  metre  or  the  correct  words  of  the  song.     The 
tune,  or  upper  part,  was  to  be  sung  by  one  person,  while  others  sang  a  foot,  or 
burden,  to  make  harmony.     So,  in  the  same  play,  Idlenesse  says — 
"  Thou  hast  songes  good  stoare,  sing  one, 

And  we  three  t\\Q  foote  will  beare." 

In  The  Dancing  Master,  from  1650  to  1698,  and  in  Musictfs  Delight  on  the 
Ciihren,  1666,  is  a  tune  entitled  Broom,  the  bonny,  bonny  broom.     I  believe  this 
to  be  the  tune  of  The  new  broome  on  hill,  as  well  as  of  another  ballad  in  the  same 
metre,  and  issued  by  the  same  printer,  entitled  "  The  lovely  Northern  Lasse — 
Who  in  the  ditty  here  complaining  shewes 
What  harme  she  got  milking  her  daddies  ewes." 

To  a  pleasant  Scotch  tune,  called  The  broom  of  Oowdon  Knowes"  London, 
printed  for  Fr.  Coles,  in  the  Old  Bayly  (Mr.  HalliwelPs  Collection).  This  is  the 
English  ballad  of  The  broom  of  Cowdenowes,  and  the  tune  is  here  said  to  be 
Scotch.  I  believe  it  not  to  be  Scotch,  for  the  following  reasons : — Firstly,  the 
tune  is  not  in  the  Scottish  scale,  and  is  to  be  found  as  a  three-part  song  in 
Addit.  MSS.,  No.  11,608  British  Museum  (the  same  that  contains  Vive  le  Roy, 
before  quoted,  and  written  at  the  end  of  Charles  the  First's  reign).  Secondly, 
because  English  tunes  or  songs  were  frequently  entitled  "  Scotch,"  if  they  related 
to  Scottish  subjects,  or  the  words  were  written  in  imitation  of  the  Scottish  dialect ; 
(so  with  Lilliburlero,  Purcell's  tune  is  called  "a  new  Irish  tune"  in  Musictfs 
Hcndmaid,  not  because  it  is  an  imitation  of  Irish  music,  nor  even  a  new  tune,  but 
because  a  new  song  on  Irish  affairs)  ;  and  I  rely  the  more  upon  this  evidence 
from  having  found  many  other  ballads  to  the  tune  of  The  broom,  the  bonny,  bonny 
broom,  but  it  is  nowhere  else  entitled  Scotch,  even  in  ballads  issued  by  the  same 
printer.  Thirdly,  Burton,  in  his  Anatomy  of  Melancholy,  quotes  it  as  a  common 
English  country  tune.  Under  the  head  of  "  Love  Melancholy — Symptoms  of 
Love"  (edit,  of  1652),  he  says,  "  The  very  rusticks  and  hog-rubbers  .  .  .  have 
thi'ir  Wakes,  Whitson-ales,  Shepheard's  feasts,  meetings  on  holidays,  Country 
Dances,  Roundelays,  writing  their  names  on  trees,  true  lovers' knots,  pretty  gifts. 
.  .  .  Instead  of  Odes,  Epigrams  and  Elegies,  &c.,  they  have  their  Ballads,  Country 
tui  ies,  0  the  broom,  the  bonny,  bonny  broom  ;  Ditties  and  Songs,  Bess  a  Bell  she 
doth  excel :  they  must  write  likewise,  and  indite  all  in  rhime."  Fourthly,  because 
1650  is  too  early  a  date  for  Scotch  tunes  to  have  been  popular  among  the  lower 
classes  in  England: — I  do  not  think  one  can  be  traced  before  the  reign  of 
Charles  II.  It  is  a  common  modern  error  to  suppose  that  England  was  inun- 
dated with  Scotch  tunes  at  the  union  of  the  two  crowns.  The  first  effect  was 


460  ENGLISH   SONG  AND  BALLAD   MUSIC. 

directly  the  reverse,  and  the  popularity  of  Scotch  tunes  in  England  should  rather 
be  dated  from  the  reign  of  James  II.  I  shall  hereafter  have  occasion  to  revert  to 
this  subject,  and  therefore  will  not  further  enlarge  at  present. 

I  know  of  no  other  copy  of  The  new  broome  on  hill  than  the  one  in  the  Pepys 
Collection,  but  am  persuaded  it  is  a  reprint  of  a  much  earlier  ballad.  Such  lines 
as  " To  ease  my  grieved  grone"  seem  to  point  to  the  "  doleful  dump "  period  of 
poetry ;  and  the  tune  not  being  named,  is  an  indication  of  its  having  been  copied 
from  one  of  the  earlier  part  of  Queen  Elizabeth's  reign,  or  perhaps  even  before. 
The  ballad  of  Brome  on  hill  in  Mr.  Gutch's  Robin  Hood,  ii.  363,  is  a  modern 
fabrication. 

The  broom  of  Cowdon  Knowes  is  a  long  story  in  two  parts.      Besides  the  copy 
in  Mr.  Halliwell's  Collection,  it  will  be  found  among  the  Roxburghe  Ballads, 
i.  190 ;  and  is  reprinted  in  Evans'  Old  Ballads,  i.  88, 1810.     The  following  are 
the  two  first  stanzas : — 
"  Through  Liddersdale  as  lately  I  went,        Fain  would  I  be  in  the  North  Country, 

I  musing  on  did  passe ;  To  milk  my  daddies  ewes. 

I  heard  a  maid  was  discontent,  My  love  into  the  fields  did  come, 

She  sigh'd  and  said,  alas  !  When  my  daddy  was  at  home ; 

All  maids  that  ever  deceived  were,  Sugar'd  words  he  gave  me  there, 

Bear  a  part  of  these  my  woes,  Prais'd  me  for  such  a  one ; 

For  once  I  was  a  bonny  lasse,  His  honey  breath  and  lips  so  soft, 

When  I  milkt  my  daddies  ewes.  And  his  alluring  eye, 

With  0  the  broom,  the  bonny  broom,         His  tempting  tongue  hath  woo'd  me  oft, 
The  broom  of  Cowdon  Knowes ;  Now  forces  me  to  cry. 

All  maids,"  &c. 

The  balled  which  follows  The  new  broom  in  the  Pepys  Collection  is  "  The 
Complaint  of  a  Sinner.  To  the  tune  of  The  bonny  broome  (i.  41).  It  com- 
mences, "  Christ  is  my  love,  he  loved  me,"  and  has  but  a  slightly  different 
burden. 

In  the  Roxburghe,  i.  522,  is  "  John  Hadland's  advice ;  Or,  a  warning  for  all 
young  men  that  have  meanes,  advising  them  to  forsake  bad  company,  cards,  dice, 
and  queanes.     To  the  tune  of  The  bonny,  bonny  broome"     Subscribed  R[ichard] 
Cpimsall],  and  "  Printed  at  London  for  Francis  Coules."     It  commences — 
"  To  all  men  now  I'll  plainly  shew  For  I  have  wrought  my  overthrow, 

How  I  have  spent  my  time ;  With  drinking  beer  and  wine,"  &c. 

In  the  same  Collection,  iii.  174,  is  a  ballad  by  M[artin]  P[arker],  called  "The 
bonny  Bryer ;  or — 

"  A  Lancashire  lass  her  sore  lamentation 

For  the  death  of  her  love  and  her  own  reputation. 
To  the  tune  of  The  bonny  broome"     It  commences — 
"  One  morning  early  by  the  break  of  day,     At  last  I  spyed,  within  my  ken, 

Walking  to  Totnam  Court,  A  blyth  and  buxome  lasse.          [bryer, 

Upon  the  left  hand  of  the  high-way,  Sing  0  the  bryer,  the  bonny,  bonny 

I  heard  a  sad  report :  The  bryer  that  is  so  sweet ; 

I  made  a  stay,  and  look'd  about  me  then,  Would  I  had  stayed  in  Lancashire, 

Wond'ring  from  whence  it  was, —  To  milk  my  motlwr's  neate" 


THE   COMMONWEALTH. 


461 


This  was  "  Printed  at  London  for  F[rancis]  G[rove]  on  Snow  Hill."     Again,  in 

the  same  Collection,  i.  380,  is  "  Slippery  Will ;  or,  The  old  Bachelor's  Complaint, 

with  his  advice  to  all  yong  men  not  to  doe  as  he  had  done — 
His  youthful  time  he  spent  away,  That  he  that  will  not  when  he  may, 

Which  makes  him  now  this  proverb  say,      When  he  would)  he  should  have  nay" 

To  the  tune  of  The  bonny,  bonny  broome."     It  commences — 


But  one  did  all  the  rest  excell, 
And  that  was  pretty  Nanny. 

0  young  men  all,  to  you  I  cry  and  call. 

Make  not  too  long  delay, 
For  if  you  will  not  when  you  may, 

When  ye  would,  ye  shall  have  nay." 
London,  printed  for  E.  B. 


"  Long  have  I  liv'd  a  bachelor's  life, 

And  had  no  mind  to  marry, 
But  now  I  would  fain  have  a  wife, 
Either  Doll,  Kate,  Sis,  or  Mary. 
These  four  did  love  me  very  well, 

I  had  my  choice  of  many ; 
Six  stanzas,  with  a  second  part  of  eight. 

Rox.  Coll.,  ii.  575.  "The  forlorn  Lover's  Lament.     To  the  tune  of  The  bony 
brocm"     Black-letter  (printer's  name  cut  off) ;  beginning — 
"  Sir,  do  not  think  these  lines  have  flow'd 

From  youthful  hearts  or  hands,"  &c. 

There  are  a  great  number  of  English  songs  and  ballads  on  the  subject  of 
"  broom"  and  "  bonny  broom,"  but  the  enumeration  would  exceed  the  space  I  could 
devote  to  it.  I  will  therefore  cite  but  one  more,  and  from  a  very  early  and 
scarce  book.  In  Bale's  Comedy  concernynge  the  Lawes  of  Nature,  1538,  in  the 
second  act,  is  a  song,  with  a  staff  of  five  lines  ruled  for  writing  in  the  music, 
which  is  as  follows : — 

"  Brom,  brom,  brom,  brom,  brom,  Bromes  for  shoes  and  powcherynges, 

Bye  brom,  bye,  bye,  Botes  and  buskins  for  new  bromes. 

Brow,  brom,  &c. 

Slowly. 


O    the  broom,  the     bonny,  bonny  broom,The broom  of    Cow-don  Knowes     Fain 


-p-*-f  —  r  — 

9  W  — 

•                         ^r,         '   \                      r^^ 

i  J  f*~ 

— 

r     L 

1                       ^1                                    ^ 

J     • 

1      " 

)g2P 

1            !    !     J           II 

• 

would    I     be        in  the    North  Country,      To      milk    my    Dad  -  dy's       ewes. 

1  

i-f    r    ;. 



—  •-  —  i  —  L 

-s 

M  1  

F  k  u  — 

The  first  Scotch  song  of  The  broom  of  Oowdenknows  was  printed  in  Allan 
Ramsay's  Tea  Table  Miscellany,  1724.  It  is  there  classed  among  the  "new 
words  by  different  hands ; "  and  commences,  "  How  blyth  ilk  morn  was  I  to  see." 
The  subject  of  the  older  English  burden  is  there  retained. 

The  above  version  of  the  tune  is  not  so  good  as  that  in  The  Beggars'*  Opera, 
or  in  Thomson's  Orpheus  Oakdonius  ;  but  those  copies  are  of  more  than  seventy 
years  later  date. 


462  ENGLISH   SONG  AND  BALLAD  MUSIC. 

I  AM  A  POOR  SHEPHERD  UNDONE. 

This  tune  has  two  names,  I  am  a  poor  shepherd  undone,  and  Hey,  ho,  my  honey. 
It  is  found  in  The  Dancing  Master  of  1665  ;  next,  in  the  edition  of  1686,  and 
in  all  later  :  in  Pills  to  purge  Melancholy,  vi.  284  :  in  Apollo's  Banquet  for  thy 
Treble  Violin,  &c. 

In  the  King's  Pamphlets,  vol.  15,  fol. ;  in  the  Bagford  Collection,  p.  67  ;  in 
Loyal  Songs,  ii.  67 ;  and  in  Wright's  Political  Ballads,  p.  146,  are  copies  of 
"A  proper  new  Ballad  on  the  Old  Parliament,  or  the  second  part  of  Knave 
out  of  doores.  To  the  tune  of — 

Hei,  ho,  my  honey,  my  heart  shall  never  rue  ; 

Four-and -twenty  now  for  your  money,  and  yet  a  hard  pennyworth  too." 
The  copy  in  the  King's  Pamphlets  is  dated  Dec.  11,  1659.     The  ballad  begins 
"  Good  morrow,  my  neighbours  all,  what  news  is  this  I  heard  tell,"  &c. 

In  the  Roxburghe  Collection,  ii.  54,  and  Collier's  Roxburghe  Ballads,  p.  298, 
are  "  A  Caveat  for  young  men,  or  The  bad  husband  turn'd  thrifty,"  &c.  "  To 
the  tune  of  Hey,  ho,  my  honey"  beginning  "  All  you  young  ranting  blades  that 
spend  your  time  in  vain,"  by  John  Wade.  Printed  by  W.  Thackeray,* 
T.  Passinger,  and  W.  Whitwood. 

Ritson  quotes  Wade  as  the  author  of  a  ballad  entitled  "  The  Maiden's  sad 
Complaint  for  want  of  a  Husband,  &c.  To  the  new  West  Country  tune,  or  Hogh 
when  shall  1  be  married"  It  commences  thus  : — 

"  Oh !  when  shall  I  be  married,  My  father  hath  forty  good  shillings, 

Oh  !  be  married  ?  Oh  !  good  shillings, 

My  beauty  begins  to  decay  ;  And  never  a  daughter  but  me ; 

'Tis  time  to  find  out  somebody,  My  mother  is  also  willing, 

Oh  !  somebody,  Oh  !  so  willing, 

Before  it  is  quite  gone  away.  That  I  shall  have  all  if  she  die." 

The  black-letter  copy  of  this  ballad  in  the  Douce  Collection  (p.  67)  was  printed 
for  Richard  Burton,  at  the  Horse  Shoe  in  West  Smithfield  (time  of  the  Com- 
monwealth). It  consists  of  14  stanzas,  three  of  which  (beginning  with  "  My 
father  has  forty  good  shillings")  have  been  appropriated  in  Collections  of  Scotch 
Songs. 

Hey,  ho,  my  honey,  is  also  one  of  the  tunes  to  which  a  The  valiant  Seamen's 
Congratulation"  to  Charles  II.  on  his  accession,  was  to  be  sung  (ante  p.  292). 

In  Pills  to  purge  Melancholy,  the  following  is  entitled  "The  distress'd 
Shepherd : " — 


-j0#p  p  lifj       *T****]  P^    —  j  i—p  —  :  1  — 

1  —  ,  —  , 

—  pl  

—  fe  — 

-.u-J              J      a 

• 

I          am      a   poor  shepherd  im  -  done,     And 
Fora    maid  -en     as  bright  as     the     sun        Has 

f            •             m                                           ~P~     " 

can  -not  be  cur'd      by 
sto  -  len     a  -  way         my 

m          m     - 

\  -+f  n                      \                             f           *                    P 

m                 m 

ft—"1—  3  E  1  '  

-f  f—  i  — 

• 

1               E 

F 

THE   COMMONWEALTH. 


463 


=F  —  i    11    I* 

j—  j  j 

—  i  — 

*^=-fH      »    rr.^^Tfh 

art;            .   And 
he.irt.  .    ' 

5  :  H]   . 

how 

--F  

—  J—  -h-  3=--  —  ^— 

to     get    it      a  -  gain         There's 

|3  —  r  —  s  —  :  —  p-"-|K  —  =  — 

bT>  '    ^-JC 

none    but     she     can 

-f  —  -  —  r—  J  —  f 

M-1  j.  ^*  ^ 

4-1  — 

1    '  E 

-j  r  —  i- 

Or         cure       me         of        my   pain,      By 


r 


say  -  ing  she  loves    me 

£jF^n~^ 


i  r 


~.  .  is  r*i 

—  j  — 

»,_ 

-    fn                       *» 

n  i  j 

i  ^  *  \ 

-»  • 

!         g)         •         1     w 

1-  *  S3* 

^  j-_;  i  '  j-  "  ' 

well.          And     a    -    las!            poor 

shep   -   herd,         A 

H  1~$£- 

•    lack  and 

well  -  a  - 
W—.  h 

J-'-i  

L_|  ^      •        l 

-j  —  =  —  J—  &— 

i  r     \ 

'-  4- 

If  to  love  me  she  would  not  incline, 

I  said  I  should  die  in  an  hour; 
"  To  die,"  said  she,  "is  in  thine, 

But  to  love  you  is  not  in  my  power." 
"1  ask'd  her  the  reason  why 

She  could  not  of  me  approve  ; 
She  said  'twas  a  task  too  hard, 

To  give  any  reason  for  love. 


She  asked  me  of  my  estate, 

I  told  her  a  flock  of  sheep ; 
The  grass  whereon  they  graze, 

And  where  she  and  I  might  sleep  : 
Besides  a  good  ten  pound, 

In  old  King  Harry's  groats; 
While  hooks  and  crooks  abound, 

And  birds  of  sundry  notes. 

And  alas  !  poor  Shepherd,  &c. 


And  alas  !  poor  Shepherd,  &c. 

CHRISTMAS'S  LAMENTATION. 

The  words  and  tune  of  this  ballad  are  contained  in  Gamble's  MS.  common- 
place book.  The  ballad  is  also  in  the  Roxburghe  Collection,  i.  48,  entitled 
"Christmas'  Lamentation  for  the  losse  of  his  acquaintance;  showing  how  he  is 
forst  to  leave  the  Country,  and  come  to  London.  To  the  tune  of  Now  the  Spring 
is  come." 

The  ballad,  "Now  the  Spring  is  come,"  is  in  the  same  Collection,  i.  200, 
entitled  "  A  Lover's  desire  for  his  best  beloved;  or,  Come  away,  come  away,  and 
do  net  stay.  To  an  excellent  new  Court  tune"  It  commences  thus: — 


464 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


"  Now  the  Spring  is  come,  turn  to  thy  love,   Their  sweet  tunes,  their  sweet  tunes,  their 

To  thy  love,  to  thy  love,  to  thy  love ;  and  do  not  stay  :        [sweet  tunes, 

make  no  delay.  "Where  I  will  fill  thy  lap  full  of  flowres, 

While  the  flowers  spring  and  the  birds  do   And  cover  thee  with  shady  bowres, 
sing  Come  away,  come  away,  come  away, 

And  do  not  stay." 

This  copy  of  the  ballad,  having  been  printed  by  the  assigns  of  Thomas  Symcocke, 
is  of  the  reign  of  James  L  Christmas' s  Lamentation  must  also  be  a  ballad  of  the 
reign  of  Elizabeth  or  James  L,  although  the  Roxburghe  copy  is  not  of  so  early 
a  date.  Yellow  starch  is  mentioned  in  the  sixth  stanza,  and  it  came  into  fashion 
in  the  latter  part  of  the  reign  of  Elizabeth,  and  continued  until  November,  1615, 
the  date  of  the  execution  of  the  celebrated  beauty,  Mrs.  Turner,  for  participation 
in  the  poisoning  of  Sir  Thomas  Overbury.  When  the  Lord  Chief  Justice  Coke 
sentenced  her  to  death,  he  ordered  that,  "  as  she  was  the  person  who  had  brought 
yellow  starched  ruffs  into  vogue,  she  should  be  hanged  in  that  dress,  that  the 
same  might  end  in  shame  and  detestation."  "  Even  the  hangman  who  executed 
this  unfortunate  woman  was  decorated  with  yellow  ruffs  on  the  occasion." 
(Rimbault's  Life  of  Overbury.) 

The  rhythm  of  the  first  part  of  the  following  tune  is  peculiar,  from  its  alternate 
phrases  of  two  and  three  bars,  but,  still,  not  unsatisfactory  to  the  ear. 

I  have  not  thought  it  necessary  to  print,  at  length,  all  the  repetitions  of  words 
that  occur  in  the  ballad,  as  they  are  sufficiently  indicated  by  the  first  stanza 
which  is  here  adapted  to  the  music. 


-^  u  Moderate  time. 

/*  -?  f\  1  ^  «  •  

-3  *—  9  •  4     « 

2            ™ 

,        '     1 

C  )        ^  *  "^    ^  ^    * 

-C  —  P—  *  —  ?  —  »   8 

-«  J     J     ^ 

a%          1 

Christ  -  mas    is  my  name,  far     have  I  gone,  Have  I     gone,   have  I  gone,  Havel 

—  b  (/      

—  1  1  

.      j      _  .  .             p  [. 

fi  j    J  .  ^1  rn  E    1^]    J  i  t    . 

-»  —  f  —  a  —  zH 

—  *~r  —  *  —  S  —  j  —  *  — 

*~*"        *         •      *  - 

I           •        1  •  •  ^    8    ™        1 

=F=?= 

F   P   »  il 

gone,  with-out     re  -  gard  ;                Where  -as  great  men  by  flocks  there  be  flown,  There  be 

—  1  ,                                               ,          ft.             -         .        ,   ^                                                        -r-    -1         - 

—  i  »  —  P— 

•  x^n 

—  i  

i 

-^  •  —  i  i  — 

^-*  ^T    :      

^                       _i 

i — i 


•  I 


4-* 


^       I 
flown,  there  be  flown,  There  be  flown  to    Lon-don  -  ward. 


There  they  in  pomp    and 
Houses  where  mu  -  sic  was 


THE   COMMONWEALTH. 


465 


}lea  -  sure   do  waste 
vont     for     to  ring, 


That  which  old  Christ-mas  waa  wont  -  ed     to  feast,  Well-a 
No  -  thing  but  bats       and         owl  -    ets   do  sing.    Well-a 


=^p: 


-c  ay  !  well-a  -  day, 


Well-a  -  day,  where     should       I  stay  ? 


i 


± 


j=a=i 


PP 


^ 


Christmas  beef  and  bread  is  turn'd  into  stones, 

Into  stones  and  silken  rags  ; 
Ai  d  Lady  Money  sleeps  and  makes  moans, 

And  makes  moans  in  misers'  bags : 
Houses  where  pleasures  once  did  abound, 
N(  ught  but  a  dog  and  a  shepherd  is  found, 

Welladay  ! 

Places  where  Christmas  revels  did  keep, 
N<  w  are  become  habitations  for  sheep. 
Welladay,  welladay, 

Welladay,  where  should  I  stay  ? 

Pan,  the  shepherd's  god,  doth  deface, 
Doth  deface  Lady  Ceres'  crown, 
Ai  d  the  tillage  doth  go  to  decay, 

To  decay  in  every  town ; 
Landlords  their  rents  so  highly  enhance, 
That  Pierce,  the   ploughman,    barefoot  may 
Welladay!  [dance; 

Fa  rmers,  that  Christmas  would  still  entertain, 
Sc  irce  have  wherewith  themselves  to  maintain. 
Welladay,  &c. 

Come  to  the  countryman,  he  will  protest, 
Will  protest,  and  of  bull-beef  boast ; 
Ai  d  for  the  citizen  he  is  so  hot, 

Is  so  hot,  he  will  burn  the  roast. 
Th  e  courtier,  sure  good  deeds  will  not  scorn, 
N<  r  will  he  see  poor  Christmas  forlorn  ? — 

Welladay ! 

Sii  ce  none  of  these  good  deeds  will  do, 
Christmas  had  best  turn  courtier  too. 
Welladay,  &c. 

Pr  de  and  luxury  they  do  devour, 
Do  devour  housekeeping  quite ; 

Ai  d  soon  beggary  they  do  beget, 
Do  beget  in  many  a  knight. 

M  .dam,  forsooth,  in  her  coach  must  wheel, 


Although  she  wear  her  hose  out  at  heel, 

Welladay ! 

And  on  her  back  wear  that  for  a  weed, 
Which  me  and  all  my  fellows  would  feed. 

Welladay,  &c. 

Since  pride  came  up  with  the  yellow  starch, 

Yellow  starch,  poor  folks  do  want, 
And  nothing  the  rich  men  will  to  them  give, 

To  them  give,  but  do  them  taunt ; 
For  Charity  from  the  country  is  fled, 
And  in  her  place  hath  nought  left  but  need ; 

Welladay ! 

And  corn  is  grown  to  so  high  a  price, 
It  makes  poor  men  cry  with  weeping  eyes. 
Welladay,  &c. 

Briefly  for  to  end,  here  I  do  find, 

I  do  find  so  great  vacation, 
That  most  great  houses  seem  to  attain 

To  attain  a  strong  purgation  :        [shew'd, 
Where  purging   pills  such  effects  they  have 
That  forth  of  doors  they  their  owners  have 
Welladay !  [spued ; 

And  where'er  Christmas  comes  by,  and  calls, 
Nought  now  but  solitary  and  naked  walls. 
Welladay,  &c. 

Philemon's  cottage  was  turn'd  into  gold, 

Into  gold,  for  harbouring  Jove  : 
Rich  men  their  houses  up  for  to  keep, 

For  to  keep,  might  their  greatness  move ; 
But  in  the  city,  they  say,  they  do  live, 
Where  gold  by  handfulls  away  they  do  give  : — 

I'll  away, 

And  thither,  therefore,  I  purpose  to  pass, 
Hoping  at  London  to  find  the  golden  ass. 

/'//  away,  I'll  away, 

I'll  away,  for  here's  no  stay. 


466 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND    BALLAD   MUSIC. 


WHEN  LOVE  WAS  YOUNG. 

The  words  and  music  of  this  song  are  contained  in  Gamble's  MS.  common- 
place book. 

Moderate  time. 


9  n  —  is— 

1  h  1  h— 

—  i  b  — 

,  c  — 

N— 

EJ5    o        J 

i  

d-  d  

_H  H  ,  f^_ 

sn  " 

t         ...• 

^fc             • 

•  •!          °      - 

a 

1 

J           9 

«J                      -3-             -J-                  •*              -i-                  -d-                         •+ 
When  Love  was  young,  and      men  were  strong,  And   maids      be-liev'd   them 

Y^-f  —  fy  s  1  B  1  B  m               ^H  =i  a§  

—  J  

•  =j  

-f  !  —  • 

i  1  

P  

-h^H  —  jr-f—  j  — 

—  5-  — 

-1  —  t-f-^J— 

3  —  R  —  i  

-4-  -=  —  «l  —  r  M 

3  ,  j  

_j     j  —  ^  —  aj  —  , 

-5  P  —  ^  K-L 

<j^>-     -    T-     '    bl     •      ^                              •   ^    V 

true,               A        shep-herd  came,  with     pret  -  ty  song,  Un    -    to        a    maid,     to 

L.  —  ^  —     i  *     n         -=  —  k--|.    M  -  h-i  _  —  ^  J.-.r     i. 

—  J  —  s 

-*  =1  F  *  

r   *  j  .  ^ 

woo:       "O          fair,          O       sweet,     Shall        I      con-sume  in       sor  -  row  ?"  "  Pluck 

-I 


Si 


-1   J*  J   > 

m        fl           « 

r-4  1*—  i  ^n 

j 

|_^  J__i  $        | 

-^  —  J^j  —  J3- 

-5  f~1  FT" 

~l  1 

* 

S       ^' 

J       ! 

I                         II 

up      thy  heart,  thou 

r  r  r  M 

gen  -  tie  swain,  And 

if    r  J    T  q 

I'll    be   thine     to    -    mor  -  row." 

[-T     H    -_f  J    .         H 

1  |  -  —  *  —     g  —  1 

-I  1—  ^  -L- 

-4- 

He  gave  her  gloves  as  white  and  soft 

As  were  the  hands  that  wore  'em, 
And  many  a  leafy  garland,  sweet 

As  were  the  brows  that  bore  'em. 
He  woo'd, — she  sigh'd, 

The  shepherd  then  was  merry ; 
He  stole  a  kiss,  the  loving  maid 

Blush'd  red  as  any  cherry. 

He  danc'd  her  many  a  roundelay, 

And  footed  it  full  fine  ; 
The  flow'rs  of  broom  he  deck'd  with  may, 

All  for  his  Rosaline. 


He  said, — he  swore, 

He  lov'd  her  best  of  any  ; 
She  pinch'd  his  cheeks,  and,  sighing,  said, 

"O,  shepherd,  thou  lov'st  many." 

He  said  that  he  was  ever  true 

And  constant,  from  his  mother; 
"When  I  am  gone,  thou'lt  have  a  new, 

And  after  her  another." 
"O  no!  "     "O  yes!  " 

"  Believe  it,  pretty  maid." 
"  I  do  believe  :  "  and  then  they  kiss'd, 

And  thus  they  wantons  play'd. 


467 


REIGNS  OF  CHARLES  II., 
JAMES   II.,  AND  WILLIAM   AND   MARY. 


the  restoration  of  Charles  II.  may  be  dated  an  entire  change  in  the  style 
of  music  till  then  cultivated  in  England.  The  learned  counterpoint  and  con- 
trivance of  madrigals  and  motets  in  vocal  music,  and  of  fancies  in  instrumental 
music,  fell  gradually  out  of  esteem,  and  were  replaced  by  a  lighter  and  more 
melodious  style  of  air  ;  such  as  could  be  better  appreciated  by  uncultivated  ears. 
The  viol,  hitherto  the  chief  instrument  for  chamber  concerted  music,  was 
gradually  replaced  by  the  violin,  and  the  supremacy  of  the  lute  in  vocal  music 
was  then  first  contested  by  the  guitar. 

Charles  II.  had  passed  the  greater  part  of  his  life  in  exile  ;  where  sauntering, 
dancing,  and  dallying  with  his  mistresses,  had  been  his  principal  occupation. 
One  of  his  letters  of  that  time  is  so  characteristic,  that  it  is  here  subjoined 
entire.  It  was  written  from  Cologne,  and  addressed  to  his  "  deerest  aunte,"  the 
Queen  of  Bohemia.  The  orthography  is  preserved,  as  by  no  means  the  least 
curious  part  ;  it  would  have  disgraced  a  school-boy. 

"  Colleti,  Augt.  6  [1655]. 

"Madam,  —  I  am  just  now  begining  this  Letter  in  my  Sisters  Chamber,  wher 
ther  is  such  a  noise  that  I  never  to  hope  to  end  it,  and  much  less  write  sence.  For 
what  concernes  my  sisters  journey  and  the  accidents  that  happened  in  the  way, 
I  leave  her  to  give  your  Ma*y  an  account  of.  I  shall  only  tell  your  Maty  that  we  are 
now  thinking  of  how  to  passe  our  time;  and  in  the  first  place  ofdanceing,  in  which 
we  find  to  difficnltyes,  the  one  for  want  of  the  fidelers,  the  other  for  somebody  both 
to  teach  and  assist  at  the  danceing  the  new  Dances  :  and  I  have  gott  my  sister  to  send 
for  Silvius  as  one  that  is  able  to  performe  both  :  for  the  fideldedies,  my  Ld  Taaffe  does 
promise  to  be  there  convoy,  and  in  the  meane  time  we  must  contente  our  selves  with 
those  that  makes  no  difference  between  a  himme  and  a  coranto.  I  have  now  receaved 
my  sisters  picktnre  that  my  deare  cousin  the  Princess  Louise  was  pleased  to  draw, 
and  do  desire  your  Ma*?  thank  her  for  me,  for  'tis  a  most  excellent  pickture,  which  is 
all  I  tan  say  at  present,  but  that  I  am,  Madame, 

Your  Maties  most  humble 

and  most  affectionate  nephew  and  servant 

Charles  R. 

The  original  letter  is  in  MS.  Lans.  1236  (fol,  106),  British  Museum;  and  a 
copy  is  printed  in  the  second  series  of  Original  Letters  illustrative  of  English 
Histo>"y,  edited  by  Sir  H.  Ellis,  iii.  376.  On  the  18th  of  the  same  month,  Charles 
wrote,  from  Bruges,  to  Henry  Bennet  (whom  he  afterwards  created  Earl  of 
Arlington),  "Pray  get  me  pricked  down  as  many  new  Corants  and  Sarabands, 
and  onher  little  dances,  as  you  can,  and  bring  them  with  you,  for  I  have  a  small 
fidler  that  does  not  play  ill  on  the  fiddle."  And  on  the  1st  of  September  of  the 
following  year,  in  another  letter  to  the  same  person,  —  "  You  will  find,  by  my  last, 
that  though  I  am  furnished  with  one  small  fidler,  yet  I  would  have  another  to 

2n 


468  VIOLS   AND   VIOLINS. 

keep  him  company ;  and  if  you  can  get  either  he  you  mentioned,  or  another  that 
plays  well,  I  would  have  you  do  it." 

The  King  knew  enough  of  music  to  take  his  part  in  an  easy  composition ;  and, 
after  his  restoration,  would  sometimes  sing  duets  with  "  that  stupendous  base," 
Mr.  Gostling,  of  the  Chapel  Royal,  the  Duke  of  York  (afterwards  James  II.) 
accompanying  them  on  the  guitar.  The  Hon.  Roger  North  says  that  Charles 
"  was  a  professed  lover  of  music,  but  of  this  "  [dancing]  "  kind  only ;  and  had  an 
utter  detestation  of  fancies,"  or  other  compositions  in  the  fugal  style ;  and,  not  the 
less  so,  from  an  unsuccessful  entertainment  of  that  kind  given  him  by  Secretary 
Williamson ;  "  after  which,  the  Secretary  had  no  peace,  for  the  King,  as  his  way 
was,  could  not  forbear  whetting  his  wit  upon  the  subject  of  the  fancy-music,  and 
its  patron  the  Secretary.  He  would  not  allow  the  matter  to  be  disputed  upon 
the  point  of  meliority,  but  ran  all  down  by  saying,  Have  I  not  ears  ?  He  could 
not  bear  any  music  to  which  he  could  not  keep  time,  and  that  he  constantly  did  to 
all  that  was  presented  to  him ;  and,  for  the  -most  part,  heard  it  standing."  Pepys 
describes  him  as  beating  time  with  his  hand  "  all  along  the  anthem,"  in  the 
Chapel  Royal ;  and  Dr.  Tudway  accuses  the  young  composers  of  his  Chapel  of 
having  so  far  given  way  to  the  King's  French  taste,  as  to  introduce  dancing 
movements  and  theatrical  corantos  into  their  anthems. 

Speaking  of  the  "grand  metamorphosis  of  music"  that  took  place  in  this 
reign,  the  Hon.  Roger  North  says,  "  Upon  the  Restoration,  the  old  way  of 
concerts  were  laid  aside  at  court,  and  the  King  made  an  establishment  after  the 
French  model,  of  twenty-four  violins  [tenors  and  bases  being  counted  among 
them],  and  the  style  of  the  music  was  accordingly."  Wood  says,  "he  would 
have  the  twenty-four  violins  playing  before  him  while  he  was  at  meals ; "  but 
Evelyn,  speaking  of  a  visit  to  the  Chapel  Royal,  on  Dec.  21,  1662,  says,  that, 
after  one  of  His  Majesty's  Chaplains  had  preached,  "  instead  of  the  ancient, 
grave,  and  solemn  wind  music  [cornets  and  sackbuts]  accompanying  the  organ, 
was  introduced  a  concert  of  twenty-four  violins,  between  every  pause,  after  the 
French,  fantastical,  light  way;  better  suiting  a  tavern  or  playhouse  than  a 
church." 

Violins  had  long  been  the  favorite  instruments  for  dancing,  whether  with 
common  fiddlers  or  at  court.  They  were  probably  first  included  in  the  Royal 
band,  under  the  name  of  violins,  in  the  fourth  year  of  the  reign  of  Queen 
Elizabeth  (1561) ;  and  the  sum  then  paid  to  performers  on  that  instrument  was 
230/.  6s.  Sd.  (MS.  Lansd.  No.  5).  Ten  years  after,  there  were  seven  "  vyolons," 
at  an  annual  cost  of  325£.  15s.  (MS.  Cotton,  Vesp.  c.  xiv.).  Charles  the  First's 
band,  in  1625,  consisted  of  eight  hautboys  and  sackbuts,  six  flutes,  six  recorders, 
eleven  violins,  six  lutes,  four  viols,  and  a  harp  (exclusive  of  drummers,  trumpeters, 
and  fifers)  ;  and  in  1641  it  numbered  fifty-eight  musicians,  of  whom  fourteen  were 
violins.  So  far  as  the  antiquity  of  the  instrument  is  concerned,  it  may  be  traced 
back  to  the  Anglo-Saxons,  for  the  modern  violin  is  but  an  improvement  upon  the 
ancient  fiddle  in  shape.  The  curious  may  see  in  a  manuscript  of  the  tenth 
century,  in  the  British  Museum  (Cotton,  Tiberius  c.  vi.),  an  illumination  of  an 


REIGN    OF   CHARLES    II. 


469 


Anglo-Saxon  gleeman,  or  minstrel,  playing  on  his  "frSele,"  which  has  four 
strings,  the  two  sound-holes,  and  is  played  on  by  a  bow ;  but  in  shape  is  more 
like  the  half  of  a  long  pear,  very  taper  towards  the  stalk.  This  shape  would 
have  been  very  inconvenient  for  reaching  high  notes,  but  the  use  of  the  upper 
part  of  the  finger-board  was  then  unknown.a 

The  reason  why  viols  had  been  preferred  to  violins,  tenors,  and  violoncellos,  for 
cham oer-music,  was  simply  this:  until  the  reign  of  Charles  II.,  the  music  played 
was  in  close  counterpoint,  of  limited  compass  for  each  instrument,  and  in 
from  three  to  six  parts,  every  visitor  being  expected  to  take  a  part,  and  generally 
at  sight.  The  frets  of  the  viols  secured  the  stopping  in  tune,  which  one  in- 
different ear  in  the  party  might  otherwise  have  marred. 

The  violin  had  "  a  lift  into  credit "  in  Cromwell's  time,  by  the  arrival  in 
England  of  Thomas  Baltzar,  a  celebrated  performer  on  that  instrument,  born  at 
Lubeck.  The  Hon.  Roger  North  says  "  he  did  wonders  upon  it  by  swiftness  and 
doubling  of  notes,  but  his  hand  was  accounted  hard  and  rough."  Evelyn,  in  his 
Diary  (March  4,  1656),  says,  "His  variety  on  a  few  notes  and  plain  ground, 
with  that  wonderful  dexterity,  was  admirable.  Though  a  young  man,  yet  so 
perfect  and  skilful,  that  there  was  nothing,  however  cross  and  perplext,  brought 
to  him  by  our  artists,  which  he  did  not  play  off  at  sight,  with  ravishing  sweetness 
and  improvements,  to  the  astonishment  of  our  best  masters."  Wood  speaks  of  him 
with  equal  enthusiasm,  and  adds  that,  after  his  arrival,  Mr.  Davis  Mell,  who  had 
been  accounted  the  best  violin  player  in  England,  was  not  so  admired ;  "  yet  he 
played  sweeter,  was  a  well-bred  gentleman,  and  not  given  to  excessive  drinking 
as  Baltzar  was." 

At  the  Restoration,  the  King  appointed  Baltzar  leader  of  his  private  band  of 
twenty-four;  and,  about  the  same  time,  according  to  Wood,  "he  commenced 
Bachdar  of  Musick  at  Cambridge."  Baltzar  died  in  1663,  and  Charles  then 
appointed  John  Banister  in  his  place.  Banister,  however,  was  afterwards  dis- 
missed for  saying  on  his  return  from  France  (whither  the  King  had  sent  him), 
that  the  English  violins b  were  better  than  the  French.  At  that  time,  and  for 
many  years  before,  the  favorite  entertainments  of  the  French  court  were  ballets, 


»  This-  fiddle  has  been  engraved  in  Strutt's  Sports  and 
Pastimet  of  the  People  of  England,  and  in  Wackerbarth's 
Music  a  id  the  Anglo  Saxons,  8vo.,  1837. 

b  The  names  of  Charles  the  Second's  private  band  of 
24,  and  :he  sums  they  received  in  the  year  1674,  which 
amounted  to  £1433  17s.  8d.,  are  given  in  a  note  at  p.  98 
of  Menu  irs  of  Musick,  by  the  Hon.  Roger  North,  edited 
by  Edward  F.  Rimbault,  LL.D.,  from  a  document  in  his 
possession.  It  is  as  follows  :— "  The  Gentlemen  of  his 
Majesties  Private  Musick  paid  out  of  the  Excheker,— 

£     s.    d. 


Fho.  Purcell  ... 
Pelham  Humphreys 
John  Hardinge 
William  Hawes   ... 
Tho.  Blagrave,  sen. 
\\t.  Marsh 
fohn  Goodgroome     . 
•*at.  Watkins       ... 


200  0  0 

40  0  0 

46  10  10 

40  9  2 

40  0  0 

40  0  0 

40  0     0 


Mat.  Lock      ... 
John  Clayton 
Izaack  Stagins,  sen. 
Nich.  Stagins,  jun. 
Tho.  Battes    ... 
John  Lilly 
Hen.  Gregory 
Theoph.  Hills      ... 
Hen.  Madge   ... 
John  Gambell      ... 
Rich.  Dorney 
John  Banister,  sen. 
Phil.  Beckett 
Rob.  Blagrave,  jun. 
John  Singleton 
Rob.  Strange 

15  May,  1674. 


£    s.  d. 

40    0    0 

152  13    4 

...       46  10  10 

46  10   10 

...       90     0     0 

40     0    0 

60     0     0 

46  10  10 

86  12     8 

46  10  10 

20     0     0 

100     0     0 

60     2     6 

58     4     2 

46  10  10 

46  10  10 
(Signed)    T.  PCRCELL. 


470  CHANGES  IN   INSTRUMENTAL  MUSIC. 

and  the  music  of  the  most  inartificial  description.  The  treble  part  contained  the 
whole  of  the  melody,  the  base  and  interior  part  being  mere  accompaniment,  with- 
out variety,  and  inferior  in  counterpoint.  France  had  then  produced  fewer  good 
musicians  than  any  country  in  Europe ;  and  when,  about  1660,  Lully  (a  Floren- 
tine by  birth,  but  brought  up  in  France  from  ten  years  of  age)  was  placed  at  the 
head  of  a  band  of  violins,  created  for  him  by  Louis  XIV.,  and  called  Les  petits 
Violons,  to  distinguish  them  from  the  twenty-four,  "  not  half  the  musicians  in 
France  were  able  to  play  at  sight."  Even  the  famous  band  of  twenty-four  were 
incompetent,  says  La  Borde,  to  play  anything  they  had  not  specially  studied 
and  gotten  by  heart.  They  were,  therefore,  in  this  respect,  inferior  to  English 
gentlemen  in  their  own  art.  Nor  did  Lully  effect  any  great  reform  in  this 
respect,  for  when  the  Regent,  Duke  of  Orleans,  wished  to  hear  Corelli's  Sonatas, 
which  were  newly  brought  from  Rome,  no  three  persons  in  Paris  could  be  found 
to  play  them.  He  was  obliged  to  have  them  sung  by  three  voices.  This  is  related 
by  Michael  Corette  (a  strong  partizan  of  French  music),  in  the  Preface  to  his 
Methode  d'Accompagnement,  and  quoted  from  him  by  M.  Choron.  Corette  was 
organist  of  the  Jesuits'  College  in  Paris  in  1738.  Louis  XIV.  died  in  1715. 

I  conjecture  the  reason  of  Charles  the  Second's  preference  for  French  music  to 
have  been,  in  a  great  measure,  because,  as  dance-music,  it  was  not  so  generally 
composed  upon  old  scales  as  were  the  "  Fancies,"  which  were  then  the  principal 
chamber-music  of  England.  Some  of  those  scales  sound  very  harshly  to  un- 
initiated ears.  There  was  also  a  rhythm  in  dance-music,  which  would  bear  the 
King's  test  of  beating  time,  and  it  was  the  only  style  admired  at  the  French 
Court,  the  gaieties  and  laxities  of  which,  during  exile,  had  formed  so  agree- 
able a  contrast  to  the  austere  presbyterianism  of  his  Scottish  subjects,  as  to  have 
inspired  him  with  a  predilection  for  everything  French. 

To  those  who  are  curious  to  know  what  fancies,  or  fantasies,  were,  I  recommend 
the  perusal  of  the  Fantasies  of  three  parts  [for  viols]  composed  by  Orlando 
Cribbons,  printed  in  the  early  part  of  the  reign  of  James  I.  Having  been  re- 
printed by  the  Musical  Antiquarian  Society,  they  are  more  accessible  than  any 
other.  To  those  who  are  satisfied  with  the  judgment  of  another,  I  submit  the 
following  analysis  by  one  who  is  thoroughly  versed  in  the  music  of  the  sixteenth 
and  seventeenth  centuries,  Mr.  G.  A.  Macfarren  : — 

"  The  fantasies  of  Orlando  Gibbons  are  most  admirable  specimens  of  pure  part- 
writing  in  the  strict  contrapuntal  style  ;  the  announcement  of  the  several  points,  and 
the  successive  answers  and  close  elaboration  of  these,  the  freedom  of  the  melody  of 
each  part,  and  the  independence  of  each  other,  are  the  manifest  result  of  great  scho- 
lastic acquirement,  and  consequent  technical  facility.  Their  form,  like  that  of  the 
madrigals  and  other  vocal  compositions  of  the  period,  consists  of  the  successive  intro- 
duction of  several  points  or  subjects,  each  of  which  is  fully  developed  before  the  entry 
of  that  which  succeeds  it.  The  earlier  fantasies  in  the  set  are  more  closely  and  ex- 
tensively elaborated,  and  written  in  stricter  accordance  with  the  Gregorian  modes,  than 
those  towards  the  close  of  the  collection,  which,  from  their  comparatively  rhythmical 
character,  and  greater  freedom  of  modulation,  may  even  be  supposed  to  have  been 
aimed  at  popular  effect.  They  would,  it  is  true,  be  little  congenial  to  modern  ears, 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES    II.  471 

but  this  is  because  of  the  strangeness  to  us  of  the  crude  tonal  system  that  prevailed 
at  tlio  time,  and  upon  which  they  are  constructed.  The  peculiarities  that  result  from 
it  are  the  peculiarities  of  the  age,  and  were  common  to  all  the  best  writers  of  the 
school  in  this  and  every  other  country.  Judged  by  the  only  true  standard  of  criticism, 
— juc  ged  merely  as  what  they  were  designed  to  be, — they  must  be  pronounced  ex- 
cellent proofs  of  the  musical  erudition,  the  ingenious  contrivance,  and  the  fluent 
invention  of  the  composer." 

Before  the  introduction  of  fantasies,  says  the  Hon.  Roger  North,  "whole 
consorts  for  instruments  of  four,  five,  and  six  parts  were  solemnly  composed, 
and  with  wonderful  art  and  invention,  whilst  one  of  the  parts  (commonly  in  the 
middje)  bore  onely  the  plain  song  throughout.  And  I  guess  that,  in  some  time, 
little  of  other  consort  musick  was  coveted  or  in  use.  But  that  which  was  styled 
In  Nomine,  was  yet  more  remarkable,  for  it  was  onely  descanting  upon  seven 
notes,  with  which  the  syllables  In  Nomine  Domini  agreed.  And  of  this  kind 
I  have  seen  whole  volumes  of  many  parts,  with  the  several  authors'  names  in- 
scribed. And  if  the  study,  contrivance,  and  ingenuity  of  these  compositions  to 
fill  the  harmony,  carry  on  fugues,  and  intersperse  discords,  may  pass  in  the 
account  of  skill,  no  other  sort  may  plead  so  more ;  and  it  is  some  confirmation 
that  in  two  or  three  ages  last  bygone  the  best  private  musick,  as  was  esteemed, 
consisted  of  these.'7  A  volume  of  In  Nomines,  formerly  in  the  possession  of 
the  North  and  L'Estrange  families,  is  now  in  that  of  Dr.  Rimbault.  They  are 
in  five,  six,  seven,  and  eight  parts;  and  among  the  composers  are  Shepherd, 
Taverner,  Tye,  Munday,  Tallis,  Byrd,  &c.  Among  the  earlier  writers  of 
fantasies  whose  works  are  still  extant,  are  Robert  White  (the  well-known  church 
composer,  who  died  before  1581),  Byrd,  Morley,  Dr.  Bull,  Michael  Este  or  East, 
Ferabosco,  Cooper,  and  others. 

Queen  Elizabeth's  Virginal  Book  contains  numerous  fantasies  for  that  in- 
strument, including  one  by  John  Munday,  "  Faire  Wether,  Lightning,  Thunder, 
Calmc  Wether,  &c. ; "  and  in  Lady  Nevill's,  we  have  a  composition  by  Byrd, 
entitled  "  The  Battell,"  with  the  following  movements :— "  The  March  of  Foote- 
men ;  The  March  of  Horsemen ;  The  Trumpetts ;  The  Irish  Marche ;  The  Bag- 
pipe !,nd  Drone;  The  Flute  and  Drone;  The  March  to  fight;  Tantara;  The 
Battells  be  joyned ;  The  Retreat ;  and  The  Galliarde  for  the  Victorie." 

Speaking  of  "  Musick  designed  for  Instruments,"  Christopher  Simpson  says, 
"  Of  this  kind,  the  chief  and  most  excellent  for  art  and  contrivance  are  Fancies 
of  six.  five,  four,  and  three  parts,  intended  commonly  for  viols.  In  this  sort  of 
Musick  the  composer  (being  not  limited  to  words)  doth  imploy  all  his  art  and 
invention  solely  about  the  bringing  in  and  carrying  on  these  Fuges  according  to 
the  order  and  method  formerly  shewed.  When  he  has  tried  all  the  several  ways 
which  he  thinks  fit  to  be  used  therein,  he  takes  some  other  point  and  does  the 
like  with  it;  or  else,  for  variety,  introduces  some  chromatick  notes,  with  bindings 
and  intermixtures  of  discords ;  or  falls  into  some  lighter  humour  like  a  Madrigal, 
or  what  else  his  own  fancy  shall  lead  him  to ;  but  still  concluding  with  something 
which  hath  art  and  excellency  in  it/' 

Among  the   lighter   kinds  of  instrumental  music,  were   Pavans.  Galliards 


472  MUSIC  OF   LONDON. 

Corantos,  &c. ;  and,  in  the  reign  of  James  I.,  such  collections  as  that  of  "  Courtly 
Masquing  Ayres,  composed  to  five  and  six  parts,  for  Violins,  Consorts,  and 
Cornets,  by  John  Adson,a  1621 ;"  and  others  already  mentioned. 

Roger  North  says,  "  The  French  manner  of  instrumental  music  did  not  gather 
so  fast  as  to  make  a  revolution  all  at  once;  but,  during  the  greater  part  of 
Charles  the  Second's  reign,  the  old  music  was  used  in  the  country  and  in  many 
meetings  and  societies  in  London.  But  the  treble  viol  was  disregarded,  and  the 
violin  took  its  place."  English  musicians  were  willing  to  give  the  palm  to  the 
Italians  in  vocal  music,  after  the  invention  of  recitative;  but  they  claimed  to 
rank  above  every  nation  in  instrumental  music ;  and,  so  far  as  I  can  trace,  that 
claim  was  commonly  admitted  and  well  founded. 

"  None  give  so  harsh  a  report  of  Englishmen  as  the  English  themselves,"  says 
Henry  Lawes, — a  remark  which  is  too  frequently  true;  but  it  is  a  national 
peculiarity,  the  boundary  of  which  is  strongly  marked  by  the  river  Tweed,  and 
which,  happily  for  our  neighbours,  has  never  extended  to  the  northern  bank  of 
that  stream.  Charles,  although  of  Scottish  descent,  was  born  far  south  of  it ; 
and  to  his  opinion  I  would  oppose  that  of  Count  Lorenzo  Magaiotti,  a  Florentine, 
and  one  of  the  most  eminent  characters  of  the  brilliant  court  of  Ferdinand  II., 
Grand  Duke  of  Tuscany.  Magaiotti  (to  whom  Sir  Isaac  Newton  gave  the  name 
of  "  il  magazzino  del  buon  gusto")  wrote  his  journal  while  making  a  tour  in 
England  in  1669,  and  acting  as  Secretary  to  the  hereditary  Prince  of  Tuscany, 
afterwards  Cosmo  III.  In  describing  the  plays  that  were  represented  at  the 
London  theatres,  he  says,  "  Before  the  comedy  begins,  that  the  audience  may 
not  be  tired  with  waiting,  the  most  delightful  symphonies  are  played ;  on  which 
account,  many  persons  come  early  to  enjoy  this  agreeable  amusement"  (Travels 
of  Cosmo  III.,  Grand  Duke  of  Tuscany,  p.  191,  4to.,  Lond.,  1821).  This  is  un- 
fortunately the  only  notice  of  secular  music  throughout  the  diary,  for  his  object 
was  to  describe  the  country  and  to  collect  statistics,  rather  than  to  draw  com- 
parisons of  manners  and  customs,  or  of  the  state  of  the  arts. 

We  have  also  favorable  testimony  from  the  Sieur  de  la  Serre,  Historiographer 
of  France,  who  accompanied  Mary  de'  Medici  to  London,  in  1638.  He 
says,  in  his  "  description  of  the  city  of  London,"  that  "  in  all  public  places, 
violins,  hautboys,  and  other  sorts  of  instruments  are  so  common,  fbr  the  amuse- 
ment of  particular  persons,  that,  at  all  hours  of  the  day,  one  may  have  one's  ears 
charmed  with  their  sweet  melody."  Again,  "  The  excellent  musicians  of  the 
Queen  of  Great  Britain  sang,"  &c.  I  have  read  many  accounts  of  foreigners 
travelling  in  England  in  and  before  the  seventeenth  century,  but  never  yet  found 
one  to  speak  with  the  slightest  disparagement  of  the  music.  The  criticism, 
which  is  usually  to  be  found  in  their  travels,  is  invariably  favorable. 

Roger  North,  giving  credit  to  the  Italians  for  having  first  printed  Fantasias, 
says  that  "  the  English,  working  more  elaborately,  improved  upon  their  pattern, 

»  The  above  work  was    "printed  by  T.  S.,  for  John  is  in  Marsh's  Library,  Dublin.     They  are  the  "  Cantus, 

Browne,  and  to  be  sold  in  St.  Dunstan's  Churchyard,  in  Tenor,  Bassus,  Medius,  and  Sextus."    Adson  composed 

Fleet  Street."    It  was  dedicated  to  "  George,  Marquisse  one  popular  tune  to  which  ballads   were  sung,   called 

of  Buckingham."    A  copy  of  five,  out  of  the  six  parts,  "Adson's  Saraband." 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES   II.  473 

which   gave  occasion   to  an  observation,   that  in  vocal   the  Italians,    and   in 
instrumental  music  the  English  excelled."   (p.  74). 

Tuscany  and  Rome  both  claim  the  honor  of  the  invention  of  recitative  music; 
Rome  for  Emilio  del  Cavaliere,  and  Tuscany  for  Jacopo  Peri.  The  sacred  drama, 
or  oratorio,  DelV  Anima  e  del  Corpo,  by  Emilio  del  Cavaliere,  and  Peri's  opera 
of  Eurydice,  were  both  first  printed  in  1600.  The  latter  was  produced  in  the 
theatre  at  Florence  in  that  year,  on  the  occasion  of  the  marriage  of  Mary  de' 
Medici  with  Henry  IV.  of  France.  Although  performed,  on  so  great  an  event, 
"  in  a  most  magnificent  manner,"  and  in  the  presence  of  the  Queen,  the  Grand 
Duke,  the  Cardinal  Legate,  and  innumerable  princes  and  noblemen  of  Italy  and 
France,  it  appears  from  the  Author's  preface,  that  only  four  musical  instruments 
were  employed, — a  harpsichord,  a  large  guitar,  a  large  lute,  and  a  large  lyre. 
The  lyre  was  probably  an  instrument  of  the  harp  description  for  the  music  of 
Orpheus,  intended  to  imitate  the  ancient  lyre.  (Dr.  Burney  translates  "  lira 
grande,"  viol  da  gamba!)  These  four  instruments  were,  without  doubt,  to  be  used 
separately  for  accompanying  particular  voices  (as  was  the  custom  in  somewhat 
later  Italian  operas),  and  not  to  be  played  in  concert.  The  only  instrumental 
music  in  the  opera  is  a  short  symphony  of  eight  bars  for  a  triflauto,  or  triple 
flute.a  The  employment  of  instruments  of  various  sorts  in  combination  seems  to 
have  been  little  practised  in  Italy,  although  at  this  time  each  ward  of  the  city  of 
London,  and  the  suburbs  of  Finsbury,  Southwark,  &c.,  had  its  band  that  played 
habitually,  with  various  instruments,  in  six  parts.  Two  years  before  Peri's 
opera  was  produced,  Hentzner  wrote  of  the  "  suavissima  adhibita  musica"  (the 
charming  music  performed)  in  the  London  theatres ;  and,  to  prove  the  variety  of 
instruments  occasionally  employed  in  English  plays,  we  may  quote  (for  an  early 
date)  Gascoyne's  Jocasta,  1566,  in  which  each  act  is  preceded  by  dumb  show, 
accompanied  by  the  music  of  "viols,  cythren,  bandores  [or  large  lutes],  flutes, 
cornots,  trumpets,  drums,  pipes,  and  stillpipes." 

I  have  already  alluded  to  the  number  of  English  instrumental  performers  in 
the  employ  of  foreign  courts  in  the  reigns  of  Elizabeth  and  James  L,  and  may 
add  that,  in  the  Court-Masques  of  the  latter  reign,  as  many  as  from  60  to  80 
instrumentalists  were  sometimes  engaged.  As  an  instance,  which  I  select  because 
it  has  not  before  been  printed,  take  the  following  from  the  list  of  "  Rewards  to 
the  persons  employed  in  the  Maske,"  by  Ben  Jonson,  which  was  presented  at 
court  at  Christmas,  1610-11,  the  original  document  being  among  the  Pell  Records : 
"  To  12  Musicions  that  were  Preestes,  that  songe  and  played  -  £24 

To  12  other  Lutes  that  suplied  and  with  Flutes  12 

To  10  Violencas  [Violoncellos]  that  continually  practized  to  the  Queen,   20 
To    4  more  that  were  added  at  the  Maske  4 

To  15  Musitions  that  played  the  pages  and  fooles  -         20 

To  13  Hoboyes  and  Sackbutts  10." 

»  Pr<  bably  an  ancient  triple  flute  was  to  be  held  by  flutes,"  but  it  is  in  the  singular  number.    He  divides  the 

Tim,  whilst  the  symphony  was  played  behind  the  scenes  symphony  of  eight  bars,  of  six  in  a  bar,  into  fifteen. 

by  thre  2  flutes,  as  the  music  is  in  three  parts.  Dr.  Burney  (History,  vol.  iv.,  p.  31.) 
solves  the  difficulty  by  translating  un  triflauto  "three 


474  FASHION  FOR  FOREIGN  MUSIC. 

There  are  also  rewards  "  to  Mr.  Alfonso  [Ferabosco],  for  making  the  Songes, 
£20 ;  to  Mr.  [Robert]  Johnson,  for  setting  the  Songs  to  the  Lutes,  £5 ;  and 
to  Mr.  Thomas  Lupo,  for  setting  the  Dances  to  the  Violins,  £5."  The  viol,  the 
violin  players,  and  other  members  of  the  royal  band,  are  not  included  in  the  above 
list,  and  therefore  probably  received  only  their  usual  payments  in  the  form  of 
salary. 

The  splendid  Court-Masques  of  the  reigns  of  James  I.  and  Charles  I.  afforded 
ample  opportunities  for  the  development  of  the  power  of  Recitative,  which  gave 
variety  and  novelty  to  the  entertainments.  Recitative  seems  to  have  been  first 
composed  in  England  by  Nicholas  Laniere,  an  eminent  musician,  painter,  and 
engraver,  in  the  service  of  James  I.  He  was  an  Italian  by  birth,  but  lived  and 
died  in  England.  There  were  four  of  the  name  in  James's  band — "  John, 
Nicholas,  Jerom,  and  Clement," — of  whom  one  other,  at  least,  was  painter  as 
well  as  musician.  Evelyn  says,  in  his  Diary,  under  the  date  of  Aug.  1,  1652, 
"  Came  old  Jerome  Lennier,  of  Greenwich,  a  man  skilled  in  painting  and  music, 
and  another  rare  musician  named  Mell"  (the  violin  player  mentioned  by  Anthony 
a  Wood).  "  Lennier  had  been  a  domestic  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  and  shewed  me 
her  head,  an  intaglio  in  a  rare  sardonyx,  cut  by  a  famous  Italian,  which  he  assured 
me  was  exceeding  like  her."  Nicholas  Laniere's  "  Hero's  Complaint  to  Leander, 
in  Recitative  Music,"  gives  a  very  favorable  impression  of  his  ability  in  that 
style  of  composition.  It  is  printed  in  the  fourth  book  of  Choice  Ayres  and  Songs, 
to  sing  to  the  Theorbo  Lute  or  Bass  Viol  (fol.,  Play  ford,  1683). 

From  the  introduction  of  Recitative  began  a  fashion  for  Italian  vocal  music, 
which  in  the  latter  part  of  the  reign  of  Charles  I.  was  so  predominant,  that 
scarcely  any  other  was  esteemed  by  the  upper  classes.  They  seemed  to  think  that 
whatever  was  Italian  must  be  necessarily  good ;  and  that,  if  not  Italian,  it  must  be 
otherwise.  This  indiscriminate  preference  is  noticed  by  Henry  Lawes  in  the  preface 
to  his  first  book  of  Ayres  and  Dialogues,  published  in  1653  :  "  Wise  men  have 
observed  our  generation  so  giddy,"  says  he,  "  that  whatsoever  is  native,  be  it  never 
so  excellent,  must  lose  its  taste,  because  themselves  have  lost  theirs.  For  my  part 
I  profess  (and  such  as  know  me  can  bear  witness)  I  desire  to  render  every  man 
his  due,  whether  strangers  or  natives  ....  and,  without  depressing  the  honor 
of  other  countries,  I  may  say  our  own  nation  hath  had,  and  yet  hath,  as  able 
musicians  as  any  in  Europe.  I  confess  the  Italian  language  may  have  some 
advantage  by  being  better  smooth' d  and  vowell'd  for  music,  which  I  found  by 
many  songs  which  I  set  to  Italian  words,  and  our  English  seems  a  little  over- 
clogged  with  consonants,  but  that's  much  the  composer's  fault,  who,  by  judicious 
setting,  and  right  tuning  the  words,  may  make  it  smooth  enough.  This  present 
generation  is  so  sated  with  what's  native,  that  nothing  takes  their  ear  but  what's 
sung  in  a  language  which,  commonly,  they  understand  as  little  as  they  do  the 
music.  And  to  make  them  a  little  sensible  of  this  ridiculous  humour,  I  took 
a  table  or  index  of  old  Italian  songs,  and  this  index,  which  read  together  made 
a  strange  medley  of  nonsense,  I  set  to  a  varied  air,  and  gave  out  that  it  came 
from  Italy,  whereby  it  passed  for  a  rare  Italian  song.  This  very  song  have  I  here 


REIGN  OF  CHARLES   II.  475 

printed."  Again  he  says,  "  There  are  knowing  persons  who  have  been  long  bred 
in  those  worthily  admired  parts  of  Europe,  who  ascribe  more  to  us  than  we  to 
ourselves;  and  able  musicians,  returning  from  travel,  do  wonder  to  see  us  so 
thirsty  after  foreigners.  Their  manner  of  composing  is  sufficiently  known  to  us, 
their  best  compositions  being  brought  over  hither  by  those  who  are  able  enough 
to  choose."  Lawes  was  an  excellent  musician,  and  composed  the  music  to  Milton's 
Comus.  He  was  highly  esteemed  both  by  Milton  and  Waller.  As  some  of  his 
songs  have  been  recently  revived,  and  sung  in  public,  he  is  better  known  to  the 
present  generation  than  almost  any  other  composer  of  his  day  ;  and  his  fame  has 
been  sufficiently  vindicated  from  the  very  unjust  criticism  of  Dr.  Burney. 

The  fashion  for  foreign  music  continued  to  spread  ;  and  in  1656,  Matthew 
Lock,  in  his  preface  to  his  Little  Consort  of  three  parts,  containing  Pavans, 
Ayres,  Corants,  and  Sarabands,  for  Viols  or  Violins,  says  :  "  For  those  mounte- 
banks of  wit  who  think  it  necessary  to  disparage  all  they  meet  with  of  their  own 
countrymen,  because  there  have  been,  and  are,  some  excellent  things  done  by 
strangers,  I  shall  make  bold  to  tell  them  (and  I  hope  my  known  experience  in 
this  science  will  inforce  them  to  confess  me  a  competent  judge)  that  I  never  yet 
saw  any  foreign  instrumental  composition  (a  few  French  Corants  excepted)  worthy 
an  Englishman's  transcribing."  He  adds,  "  I  only  desire,  in  the  performance  of 
this  Consort,  you  would  do  yourselves  and  me  the  right  to  play  plain,  not  tearing 
them  in  pieces  with  division, — an  old  custom  of  our  country  fiddlers,  and  now, 
under  the  title  of  a  la  mode,  endeavoured  to  be  introduced."  In  the  same  strain, 
Christopher  Simpson,  in  his  Compendium  of  Practical  Music,  says,  "  You  need 
not  seek  outlandish  authors,  especially  for  instrumental  music ;  no  nation  (in  my 
opinion)  being  equal  to  the  English  in  that  way,  as  well  for  their  excellent  as  for 
their  various  and  numerous  consorts  of  three,  four,  five,  and  six  parts,  made 
properly  for  instruments — of  all  which,  as  I  said,  Fancies  are  the  chief." 
(3rd  edit.  8vo.,  1678.)  So  also  Playford,  in  his  Introduction  to  the  Skill  of 
Music :  "  But  musick  in  this  age,  like  other  arts  and  sciences,  is  in  low  esteem 
with  the  generality  of  people.  Our  late  and  solemn  musick,  both  vocal  and  in- 
strumental, is  now  jostled  out  of  esteem  by  the  new  Corants  and  Jigs  of  foreigners, 
to  the  grief  of  all  sober  and  judicious  understanders  of  that  formerly  solid  and 
good  musick."  (6th  edit.  8vo.,  1672.)  And  in  his  preface  to  MusicVs  Delight 
on  the  Cithren  (1666),  "  It  is  observed  that  of  late  years  all  solemn  and  grave 
musick  is  much  laid  aside,  being  esteemed  too  heavy  and  dull  for  the  light  heels 
and  brains  of  this  nimble  and  wanton  age ;  nor  is  any  musick  rendered  accept- 
able, or  esteemed  by  many,  but  what  is  presented  by  foreigners :  not  a  City 
Dame,  though  a  tap-wife,  but  is  ambitious  to  have  her  daughters  taught  by 
Monsieur  La  Novo  Kickshawibus  on  the  Gittar,  which  instrument  is  but  a  new 
old  one,  used  in  London  in  the  time  of  Queen  Mary,  as  appears  by  a  book  printed 
in  English  of  Instructions  and  Lessons  for  the  same,  about  the  beginning  of 
Queen  Elizabeth's  reign ;  being  not  much  different  from  the  Cithren,  only  that 
[the  Gittern?]  was  strung  with  gut  strings,  this  with  wire,  which  was 
accounted  the  more  sprightly  and  cheerful  musick,  and  was  in  more  esteem,  till 
of  late  years,  than  the  Gittar." 


476  GUITAR,   HARP,   ETC. 

Roger  North  says,  "  It  imparts  not  much  to  the  state  of  the  world,  or  the 
condition  of  human  life,  to  know  the  names  and  styles  of  those  authors  of  musical 
composition  whose  performances  gained  to  the  nation  the  credit  of  excelling  the 
Italians  in  all  but  the  vocal.  Nothing  is  more  a  fashion  than  music, — no,  not 
clothes  or  language,  either  of  which  is  made  a  derision  in  after  times.  The  grand 
custom  of  all  is  to  affect  novelty,  and  to  goe  from  one  thing  to  another,  and 
to  despise  the  former.  Cannot  we  put  ourselves  in  loco  of  former  states,  and  judge 
pro  tune  ?  It  is  a  shallow  monster  that  shall  hold  forth  in  favour  of  our  fashions 
and  relishes,  and  maintain  that  no  age  shall  come  wherein  they  will  not  be 
despised  and  derided;  and  if,  on  the  other  side,  I  may  take  upon  me  to  be  a 
fidling  prophet,  I  may  with  as  much  reason  declare  that  the  time  may  come  when 
some  of  the  present  celebrated  musick  will  be  as  much  in  contempt  as  John  come 
kiss  me  now,  now,  now,  and  perhaps  with  as  much  reason  as  any  is  found  for  the 
contrary  at  present." 

The  versatility  of  the  English  in  the  fashion  of  music,  in  the  reign  of 
Charles  II.,  was  quite  as  great  as  their  variableness  in  dress;  to  ridicule  which, 
Andrew  Borde,  a  physician  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII.,  in  his  Bolce  of  the 
Introduction  of  Knowledge,  describing,  and  giving  engravings  of,  the  costume  of 
other  countries,  paints  the  Englishman  naked,  with  a  pair  of  shears  in  his 
hand,  and  with  the  following  lines : — 

"  I  am  an  Englyshman,  and  naked  I  stand  here, 

Musyng  in  my  mynd  what  rayment  I  shall  were ; 

For  now  I  wyll  were  this,  and  now  I  wyll  were  that, 

Now  I  wyll  were  I  cannot  tel  what. 

All  new  fashyons  be  plesaunt  to  me, 

I  wyll  have  them,  whether  I  thryve  or  thee : 

Now  I  am  a  frysker,  all  men  doth  on  me  looke, 

What  should  I  do  but  set  Cocke  on  the  Hoope  ? 

What  do  I  care  yf  all  the  worlde  me  fayle  ? 

I  will  get  a  garment  shal  reche  to  my  tayle. 

Then  I  am  a  minion,  for  I  were  the  new  gyse, 

The  yere  after  this  I  trust  to  be  wyse,"  &c. 

So  in  Charles  the  Second's  reign  it  was  first  French  music,  then  Italian  music ; 
first  one  instrument,  and  then  another ;  just  as  some  new  performer  appeared, 
who  pleased  the  King. 

The  Guitar  was  brought  into  fashion  in  1662,  by  Francisco  Corbeta,  who 
"  had  a  genius  for  music,"  says  Count  Grammont,  "  and  was  the  only  man  who 

could  make  anything  of  it The  king's  relish  for  his  compositions  had 

brought  the  instrument  so  much  into  vogue,  that  every  person  played  upon  it, 
well  or  ill ;  and  you  were  as  sure  to  see  a  Guitar  on  a  lady's  toilette,  as  rouge  or 
patches."  (Memoirs,  p.  174,  8vo.,  1846.)  Evelyn  also  mentions  him  as  playing 
"  with  extraordinary  skill." 

M.  Jorevin  de  Rocheford,  who  printed  his  travels  in  England  at  Paris  in  1672, 
says,  "  the  Harp  was  then  the  most  esteemed  of  musical  instruments  by  the 
English."  He  made  this  observation  at  Worcester,  where  an  English  gentleman, 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES   II.  477 

who  had  kindly  acted  as  interpreter  for  him,  supped  with  him  at  the  inn,  and 
"  sent  for  a  band  of  music,  consisting  of  all  sorts  of  instruments."  M.  Jorevin 
also  mentions  going  to  one  of  the  college  chapels  in  Cambridge,  where  the  whole 
of  divine  service  was  sung  every  day  to  music,  and  thinks  he  "  there  counted 
more  than  fifty  musicians,  as  many  clerks,  and  the  like  number  of  ministers." 
If  so,  tempora  vere  mutantur. 

Charles  II.  advanced  the  salaries  of  the  thirty-two  Gentlemen  of  the  Chapel 
Royal  to  70/.  a  year  each  ;  but  he  sometimes  left  them,  like  his  private  musicians 
ind  the  public  servants,  from  two  to  five  years  without  their  money.  Pepys 
tells  us  in  December,  1656,  that  "  many  of  the  musique  are  ready  to  starve, 
uhey  being  five  years  behind  hand  with  their  wages ; "  and  adds  that  "  Evens,  the 
man  upon  the  harp,  having  not  his  equal  in  the  world,  did  the  other  day  die  from 
mere  want,  and  was  fain  to  be  buried  from  the  alms  of  the  parish,  and  carried  to 
his  grave  in  the  dark  at  night  without  one  link,  but  that  Mr.  Kingston  (the 
organist)  met  the  funeral  by  chance,  and  did  give  12J.  to  buy  two  or  three  links." 

Evelyn  speaks  in  strong  terms  of  admiration  of  the  harp,  when  well-played. 
In  his  Diary  (January  20,  1653-4)  he  says,  "  Came  to  see  me  my  old  acquaint- 
ance and  the  most  incomparable  player  on  the  Irish  harp,  Mr.  Clarke,  after  his 
travels.  He  was  an  excellent  musician,  a  discreet  gentleman  (born  in  Devonshire, 
as  I  remember).  Such  music  before  or  since  did  I  never  hear,  that  instrument 
being  neglected  for  its  extraordinary  difficulty ;  but  in  my  judgment,  far  superior 
to  the  lute  itself,  or  whatever  speaks  with  strings."  Again,  on  November  17, 
1668,  "  I  heard  Sir  Edward  Sutton  play  excellently  on  the  Irish  harp ;  he 
performs  genteely,  but  not  approaching  my  worthy  friend,  Mr.  Clark,  a  gentle- 
man of  Northumberland,  who  makes  it  execute  lute,  viol,  and  all  the  harmony 
sin  instrument  is  capable  of;  pity  it  is  that  it  is  not  more  in  use ;  but,  indeed,  to 
play  well,  takes  up  the  whole  man,  as  Mr.  Clark  has  assured  me,  who  though  a 
gentleman  of  quality  and  parts,  was  yet  brought  up  to  that  instrument  from  five 
years  old,  as  I  remember  he  told  me." 

I  suppose  the  harp  above-mentioned  to  be  that  with  a  double  row  of  strings, 
>vhich  is  described  by  Galilei,  in  his  Dialogo  delta  Musica,  1581,  as  the  Irish 
harp.  It  could  not  otherwise  be  so  difficult  an  instrument.  In  Galilei's  time  it 
had  from  fifty-four  to  sixty  strings,  generally  of  metal,  and  was  played  upon  by 
the  nails,  as  the  Spaniards  now  do  on  the  guitar.  There  were,  at  the  same  time, 
double  harps  strung  with  gut ;  for  the  use  of  the  intestines  of  animals  as  strings 
for  musical  instruments,  was  known  and  practised  in  very  early  times — even  by 
the  ancient  Greeks. 

In  Wales,  according  to  Edward  Jones,  harps  with  triple  rows  of  strings  were 
in  use  in  the  fifteenth  century.  (Welsh  Bards,  i.  104.)  Michael  Drayton 
speaks  of  a  peculiar  mode  of  stringing  the  ancient  British  harp,  in  the  following 
passage  from  his  Polyolbion : — 

"  Th'  old  British  bards,  upon  their  harps,         To  stir  their  youth  to  warlike  rage, 
For  falling  flats  and  rising  sharps  Or  their  wild  fury  to  assuage, 

That  curiously  were  strung  ;  In  their  loose  numbers  sung." 


478  ORIGIN   OP   ENGLISH   OPERA. 

Upon  either  the  double  or  triple  harp,  music  in  a  variety  of  keys  might  be  per- 
formed ;  but  that  with  a  single  row  of  strings  could  not  have  more  than  one  or  two 
accidentals  in  the  octave.  The  Hon.  Roger  North  says,  "  The  common  harp,  by 
the  use  of  gut  strings,  hath  received  incomparable  improvement,  but  cannot  be  a 
consort  instrument,  because  it  cannot  follow  organs  and  violls  in  the  frequent 
change  of  keys ;  and  the  wind  music,  which  by  all  stress  of  invention  hath 
been  brought  into  ordinary  consort  measures,  yet  more  or  less  labours  under 
the  same  infirmity,  especially  the  chief  of  them,  which  is  the  trumpet.'^  Ambrose 
Philips,  in  his  fifth  Pastoral,  has  beautifully  described  the  effects  which  the  harp 
is  peculiarly  capable  of  producing,  where  he  says — 
"  His  fingers,  restless,  traverse  to  and  fro,  While  melting  airs  arise  at  their  command ; 

As  in  pursuit  of  harmony  they  go  ;  And  now,  laborious,  with  a  weighty  hand, 

Now  lightly  skimming  o'er  the  strings     He  sinks  into  the  chords  with  solemn  pace, 
they  pass,  .        [grass,     And   gives  the  swelling  tones  a  manly 

Like  wings  that  gently  brush  the  plying  grace." 

It  may  now  be  desirable  to  give  a  few  particulars  of  the  establishment  of 
operas  with  recitative  in  this  country,  and  of  the  origin  of  public  concerts,  but 
to  do  so,  it  will  be  necessary  to  revert  to  the  time  of  the  Commonwealth. 

The  first  step  towards  the  revival  of  dramatic  music  during  the  usurpation,  was 
the  performance  of  Shirley's  masque,  entitled  Cupid  and  Death.  It  was  presented 
(according  to  the  title-page  of  the  printed  copy)  "  before  his  Excellence  the 
Ambassadour  of  Portugal,  upon  the  26th  of  March,  1653  ;"  and  the  music,  of 
which  there  are  two  manuscript  copies  in  the  library  of  the  British  Museum,  was 
composed  by  Christopher  Gibbons  and  Matthew  Lock.  One  of  those  copies  is  in 
the  handwriting  of  Matthew  Lock.  (See  Addit.  MSS.,  No.  17,799.) 

In  1656,  Sir  William  Davenant  obtained  permission  to  open  a  theatre  for  the 
performance  of  operas,  in  a  large  room  "  at  the  back  of  Rutland  House,  in  the 
upper  end  of  Aldersgate  St."  He  commenced  with  "  An  Entertainment  in 
Declamation  and  Music,  after  the  manner  of  the  Ancients;"  the  vocal  and 
instrumental  music  to  which  was  composed  by  Dr.  Charles  Coleman,  Captain 
Henry  Cook,  Mr.  Henry  Lawes  and  Mr.  George  Hudson.  In  the  same  year  he 
produced  the  first  opera,  "The  Siege  of  Rhodes,  made  a  representation  by  the  Art 
of  Prospective  in  Scenes,  and  the  Story  sung  in  Recitative  Musick."  From 
his  address  to  the  reader,  we  learn  that  there  were  five  changes  of  scenes, 
"according  to  the  ancient  dramatic  distinctions  made  for  time;"  but  the 
size  of  the  room  did  not  permit  them  to  be  more  than  eleven  feet  in  height  and 
about  fifteen  in  depth,  including  the  places  of  passage  reserved  for  the  music. 
There  were  seven  performers;  the  part  of  Solyman  being  taken  by  Captain 
Henry  Cook,  and  that  of  lanthe  by  Mrs.  Coleman,  wife  to  Mr.  Henry  Coleman, 
who  was,  therefore,  the  first  female  actress  on  the  English  stage.  The  remaining 
five  parts  were  doubled, — sometimes  represented  by  one  person,  and  sometimes  by 
the  other.  They  were,  Villerius,  by  Mr.  Gregory  Thorndell  and  Mr.  Dubartus 
Hunt ;  Alphonso,  by  Mr.  Edward  Coleman  and  Mr.  Roger  Hill ;  the  Admiral,  by 
Mr.  Matthew  Lock  and  Mr.  Peter  Rymon  ;  Pirrhus,  by  Mr.  John  Harding  and 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES   II.  479 

Mr.  Alphonso  March ;  and  Mustapha,  by  Mr.  Thomas  Blagrave  and  Mr.  Henry 
Purcell.  The  vocal  music  of  the  first  and  fifth  "  entries,"  or  acts,  was  composed 
]>y  Henry  Lawes ;  of  the  second  and  third  by  Captain  Henry  Cook  (who  was 
r.fterwards  Master  of  the  Children  of  the  Chapels  Royal)  ;  and  the  fourth  by  the 
celebrated  Matthew  Lock.  The  instrumental  music  was  composed  by  Dr.  Charles 
Coleman  and  George  Hudson,  and  performed  by  Messrs.  William  Webb, 
Christopher  Gibbons,  Humphrey  Madge,  Thomas  Baltzar,  "  a  German, " 
Thomas  Baites,  and  John  Banister.  The  scenery  was  designed  and  "  ordered" 
by  Mr.  John  Web.  Davenant  assigns  as  a  reason  for  his  "numbers  being  so  often 
diversified,"  that  "  frequent  alterations  of  measure  are  necessary  to  recitative 
music."  I  have  given  rather  minute  details  of  the  manner  in  which  this  opera 
was  performed,  because  it  is  not  mentioned  by  Sir  John  Hawkins,  and  Dr.  Burney 
lad  not  examined  the  edition  of  1656,  and  his  account  and  all  his  deductions 
are  consequently  erroneous.11  (History,  iv.  182.) 

In  1669,  Louis  XIV.  granted,  by  letters  patent,  to  the  Sieur  Perrin  "  une 
permission  d'etablir  en  notre  bonne  Ville  de  Paris,  et  autres  de  notre  Royaume, 
des  Academies  de  Musique  pour  chanter  en  public  de  pieces  de  Theatre,  comme 
il  se  pratique  en  Italic,  en  Allemagne,  et  en  Angleterre."  According  to 
Menestrier,  in  his  Des  Representations  en  Musique  Anciennes  et  Modernes  (Paris, 
1681),  after  Perrin  had  enjoyed  this  patent  for  a  few  years,  it  was  revoked  and 
given  to  Lully.  From  this  it  is  evident  that  opera  was  established  in  England 
about  thirteen  years  before  France,  and  that  Matthew  Lock  was,  by  about  twenty 
years,  an  earlier  composer  of  dramatic  music  than  Lully. 

We  learn  from  Ogilby's  "  Relation  of  His  Majesty's  entertainment  passing 
through  the  city  of  London  to  his  Coronation,"  April  22nd,  1661,  that  Lock 
composed  the  whole  of  the  music  for  the  public  entry  of  Charles  II. ,  and  had 
received  the  appointment  of  "  Composer  in  Ordinary"  to  the  King.  His 
"  Psyche,"  b  seems  to  have  been  the  first  opera  printed  in  England  (4to.,  1675), 
and  it  is  mixed  with  "  interlocutions  (or  dialogue),  as  more  proper  to  our  Genius" 
than  the  Italian  plan  of  being  entirely  in  recitative.  To  that  system  we  have 
since  adhered  almost  without  exception. 

Our  public  concerts  originated  from  the  music  performed  at  taverns.  When  the 
civil  war  commenced,  and  "  the  whole  of  the  masters  of  music  in  London  were 
turned  adrift,  some  went  into  the  army,  others  dispersed  in  the  country  and  made 
music  for  the  consolation  of  the  Cavalier  gentlemen,"  while  many  of  the  musicians 
of  the  theatres  were  driven  to  earn  a  subsistence  by  frequenting  taverns  and  in- 
viting the  guests  to  hear  them  perform.  They  who  went  into  the  country  "  gave 
great  occasion,"  says  Roger  North,  "  to  divers  [county]  families  to  entertain  the 

Burney  conies  to  a  conclusion  directly  opposed  to  was  printed  in  score  with  Psyche.  His  music  to  Macbeth 

th  :  fact,  viz. :  that  "  it  seems  as  if  this  drama  was  no  was  not  printed  during  his  lifetime,  and  we  have  no  copy 

m<  <re  like  an  Italian  opera  than  the  Masques  which  long  extant  of  so  early  a  date.  A  tune  called  "Macbeth,  a  Jigg," 

preceded  it."  History,  vol.  4,  p.  182.  A  copy  in  the  is  in  Mustek's  Delight  on  the  Cithr en,  1666,  and  the  same 

British  Museum  wants  the  last  leaf,  and  that  leaf  con-  is  in  The  Pleasant  Companion  to  the  Flagelet  with  the 

tains  many  of  the  above  particulars.  I  am  indebted  to  initials  of  M[atthew]  L'ock]  against  it  Lock  is  said  to 

Dr.  Rimbau'.t  for  the  loan  of  a  perfect  copy.  have  composed  the  music  to  Macbeth  in  1670.  This  jig 

Lock's  instrumental  music  to  Shakespeare's  Tempest  is  of  four  years  earlier  date. 


480  FIRST    PUBLIC   CONCERTS. 

skill  and  practice  of  music,  and  to  encourage  the  masters,  to  the  great  increase  of 
composition."  As  an  instance,  he  says,  that  Mr.  John  Jenkins,  one  of  the 
court  musicians  of  Charles  I.,  and  an  esteemed  composer  of  instrumental  music 
in  his  day,  had  written  so  much  concerted  music  at  the  houses  of  different  gentle- 
men, to  suit  the  capabilities  of  the  various  performers,  that  there  were  "  horse- 
loads  "  of  his  works  dispersed  about.  "  A  Spanish  Don  having  sent  some  papers  to 
Sir  Peter  Lely ,  containing  one  part  of  a  concert  of  four  parts,  of  a  sprightly  moving 
kind,  such  as  were  called  Fancies,  desiring  that  he  would  procure  and  send  him 
the  other  parts,  costa  che  costa"  North  shewed  the  papers  to  Jenkins,  "who 
knew  the  concert  to  be  his,  but  when  or  where  made  he  knew  not.  His  com- 
positions of  that  kind  were  so  numerous,  that  he  himself  outlived  the  knowledge 
of  them." 

The  number  of  superior  musicians  thus  added  to  those  who  habitually  per- 
formed at  taverns,  rendered  them  places  of  great  resort,  and  brought  a  rich 
harvest  to  the  tavern-keepers.  After  the  theatres  were  closed,  taverns  were  the 
only  public  places  in  which  music  was  to  be  heard.  However,  in  1656-7, 
Cromwell's  third  Parliament  passed  "  an  Act  against  vagrants  and  wandering 
idle  dissolute  persons,  in  which  it  was  ordained  that,  "  if  any  person  or  persons, 
commonly  called  fiddlers  or  minstrels,  shall  at  any  time  after  the  1st  of  July  be 
taken  playing,  fiddling,  and  making  music,  in  any  inn,  alehouse,  or  tavern,  or 
shall  be  taken  proffering  themselves,  or  desiring,  or  intreating  any  person  or 
persons  to  hear  them  play  or  make  music  in  any  of  the  places  aforesaid,"  they 
shall  be  adjudged  rogues,  vagabonds,  and  sturdy  beggars,  and  be  proceeded 
against  and  punished  accordingly.  This  checked  instrumental  music  at  the 
time,  and  the  visitors  being  driven  to  amuse  themselves,  indulged  the  more 
in  vocal,  by  joining  together  in  singing  part-songs,  catches,  and  canons. 
As  gentlemen  had  been  taught  to  sing  at  sight,  as  a  part  of  their  education, 
there  was  rarely  a  difficulty  in  finding  the  requisite  number  of  voices.  Pepys 
mentions  going  to  a  coffee-house  with  Matthew  Lock  and  Mr.  Purcell  (Henry 
PurcelPs  father),  where,  with  other  visitors,  in  a  room  next  the  water,  they  had 
a  variety  of  "  brave  Italian  and  Spanish  songs,  and  a  canon  for  eight  voices  which 
Mr.  Lock  had  lately  made  on  these  words, — "Domine,  salvum  fac  Regem." 
This  was  while  General  Monk  was  in  London,  and  before  he  had  declared  for  the 
King.  It  was  therefore  a  bold  measure  to  sing  such  a  canon  at  the  time,  and  they 
must  have  been  well  assured  that  there  were  none  but  Cavaliers  in  the  room. 

After  the  Restoration,  according  to  Roger  North,  the  first  place  of  entertain- 
ment where  music  was  regularly  performed  was  "  in  a  lane  behind  Paul's,  where 
there  was  a  chamber  organ  that  one  Phillips  played  upon,  and  some  shopkeepers 
and  foremen  came  weekly  to  sing  in  concert,  and  to  hear  and  enjoy  ale  and 
tobacco  [as  they  do  now  in  Germany],  And  after  some  time  the  audience  grew 
strong,  and  one  Ben  Wallington  got  the  reputation  of  a  notable  base  voice,  who 
also  set  up  for  a  composer,  and  hath  some  songs  in  print,  but  of  a  very  low  ex- 
cellence." He  adds,  that  "their  music  was  chiefly  out  of  Playford's  catch- 
book."  We  know  that  in  1664  there  was  a  "  Musick-house  at  the  Mitre  near 


REIGN   OP   CHARLES   II.  481 

the  west  end  of  St.  Paul's  Church,"  (where  "  Robert  Hubert,  alias  Forges,  Gent.," 
exhibited  his  "  natural  rarities,")  and  this  was  probably  the  original  spot ;  but  in 
Playford's  Catch  that  catch  can,  or  The  Musical  Companion,  1667,  Benjamin 
"W  allington,  citizen,  is  also  mentioned  as  one  of  the  "  endeared  friends  of  the  late 
Musick  Society  and  Meeting  in  the  Old-Jury,  London."  North  says,  "these 
meetings  shewed  an  inclination  in  the  citizens  to  follow  music ;  and  the  same  was 
confirmed  by  many  little  entertainments  the  masters  voluntarily  made  for  their 
scholars,  for,  being  known,  they  were  always  crowded." 

"  The  next  essay  was  of  the  elder  Banister,  who  had  a  good  theatrical  vein, 
and  in  composition  had  a  lively  style  peculiar  to  himself.  He  procured  a  large 
room  in  Whitefriars,  near  the  Temple  back  gate,  and  made  a  large  raised  box  for 
the  musicians,  whose  modesty  required  curtains.  The  room  was  surrounded  with 
seats  and  small  tables,  alehouse  fashion.  One  shilling  was  the  price,  and  call  for 
what  you  pleased.  There  was  very  good  music,  for  Banister  found  means  to 
procure  the  best  hands  in  town,  and  some  voices  to  come  and  perform  there,  and 
there  wanted  no  variety  of  humour,  for  Banister  himself,  among  other  things, 
did  wonders  upon  a  flageolet,  to  a  thorough-base,  and  the  several  masters  had 
their  solos." 

There  was  also  "  a  society  of  gentlemen  of  good  esteem,"  who  used  to  meet 
weekly  for  the  practice  of  instrumental  music  in  concert,  at  a  tavern  in  Fleet 
Street,  "  but  the  taverner  pretending  to  make  formal  seats  and  to  take  money," 
the  society  was  disbanded.  However,  the  masters  of  music  finding  that  money 
was  to  be  got  in  this  way,  determined  to  take  the  business  into  their  own  hands, 
and  about  the  year  1680,  a  concert  room  was  built  and  furnished  for  public 
concerts  in  Villiers  Street,  York  Buildings.  This  was  the  first  public  concert 
room*  independent  of  ale  and  tobacco.  It  was  called  "The  Musick  Meeting," 
and  "  all  the  quality  and  beau  monde  repaired  to  it ;  there  was  nothing  of  music 
valued  in  town,  but  was  to  be  heard  there." 

Banister's  concerts  continued  till  his  death  in  1678,  and  in  that  year  the  club 
or  private  concerts  established  by  John  Britton,  "  the  musical  small-coalman,"  in 
Clerkenwell,  had  its  beginning,  and  continued  till  1714.  The  concert  room  in 
York  Buildings  was  in  use  till  the  middle  of  the  last  century,  and  was  pulled 
down  about  the  year  1768. 

Our  musical  festivals  originated  in  the  celebrations  of  St.  Cecilia's  Day ;  and 
the  first  celebration  of  which  we  have  any  record,  occurred  in  the  year  1683. 
The  reader  will  find  full  information  on  this  subject  in  the  Account  of  the  musical 
ce'ebrations  of  St.  Cecilia's  day,  recently  published  by  Mr.  W.  H.  Husk,  librarian 
to  the  Sacred  Harmonic  Society. 

As  Roger  North  says  that  "  the  tradesmen  and  foremen  "  sang  chiefly  out  of 
Playford's  Catch-book  (which  consists  of  rounds,  canons,  catches,  and  other 
part-music),  a  few  words  on  the  subject  of  catches  may  not  be  out  of  place. 

Many  quotations  have  already  been  adduced  about  smiths,  tinkers,  pedlars, 

•  I   say  "public  concert  room,"  because  old  English        concert  or  music  room, 
mansions  of  the  sixteenth  century  had  generally  each  a 


482  CATCHES  AND   OTHER   PART-MUSIC. 

watchmen,  and  others  of  the  same  class,  singing  catches,  rounds,  and  roundelays, 
in  the  sixteenth  century  (pp.  108  to  110),  but  the  custom  may  be  traced  to  a 
more  remote  period. 

In  1453,  Sir  John  Norman,  being  the  first  Lord  Mayor  of  London  who  "  brake 
that  auncient  and  olde  continued  custome  of  riding  with  greate  pompe  unto 
Westminster,  to  take  his  charge,"  choosing  rather  to  be  rowed  thither  by  water, 
"  the  watermen  made  of  him  a  roundell  or  song,  to  his  great  praise,  the  which 
began, —  Rowe  the  bote,  Norman, 

Rowe  to  thy  Lemnian." 

For  this  we  have  the  authority  of  a  contemporary,  Robert  Fabyan,  who  was 
Sheriff  of  London  in  1493-4.  But  the  very  "  roundel  "  seems  to  have  been  in 
Playford's  possession  in  1658,  when  he  printed  an  enlarged  edition  of  Hilton's 
Catch  that  catch  can,  because  "  Row  the  boat,  Norman,"  is  one  of  the  rounds  in 
the  index  to  that  collection.  It  was  omitted  in  the  body  of  the  work,  and 
another  substituted  (if  I  may  judge  by  the  only  two  copies  I  have  seen)  ;  but,  in 
1672,  Playford  printed  "Row  the  boat,  Whittington"  in  a  collection  of  a  similar 
nature,  entitled  The  Musical  Companion.  Sir  Richard  Whittington  was  Lord 
Mayor  of  London  long  before  Sir  John  Norman,  and  I  have  little  doubt  of  the 
name  having  been  altered  because  Whittington  was  then  the  popular  Lord  Mayor 
of  history,  and  the  story  of  his  cat  universally  known.  There  were  many  ballads 
about  him,  like  "  Sir  Richard  Whifetington's  Advancement,"  &c. ;  and  one  of  the 
tradesmen's  tokens  in  the  Beaufoy  Collection,  of  the  year  1657,  is  of  "  J.  M.  M., 
at  Whittington's  Cat "  in  Long  Lane.  Peter  Short,  a  printseller,  who  died  of 
the  plague  in  1665,  having  obtained  an  old  engraved  plate  of  Sir  Richard,  with 
his  "right  hand  resting  on  a  skull,  transformed  the  skull  into  a  cat,  to  make  the 
print  accord  with  the  popular  tradition. 

This  round  seems  to  have  been  intended  to  imitate  the  merry  ringing  of  the 
church  bells  on  Lord  Mayor's  day  ;  it  is  of  the  simplest  construction,  and  of  but 
six  bars.  As  a  musical  curiosity,  it  is  subjoined, — 

In  three  parts. 

rTTTTTJ^^^^^^^^ 


Row    the  boat,  Whittington,  thou  wor-thy      ci    -    ti-zen,  Lord  Mayor  of  London. 
[Row    the  boat,  Norman,  row,  row    to   thy     le- man,  thou  Lord  May  or  of  London.] 

Let  the  first  voice  begin,  and  sing  it  through  several  times,  not  stopping  at  the 
end  but  recommencing  immediately.  The  second  to  do  exactly  the  same,  but  to 
commence  after  the  first  has  sung  two  bars  ;  and  the  third  in  like  manner  after 
the  second.  If  sung  merrily  with  three  equal  voices  (or  more  to  each  part),  it 
will  have  an  agreeable  effect,  like  the  following  two  bars  constantly  recurring, 
but  with  an  interchange  of  voices : — 

v  \T  I          I 

These  popular  rounds,  catches,  and  canons,  seem  to  have  been  first  collected  for 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES   II.  483 

publication  by  Ravenscroft,  in  the  reign  of  James  I.  In  1609  the  first  was 
issued  under  the  title  of  "Pammelia:  Musick's  Miscellanie;  or  mixed  varietie 
of  pleasant  Roundelayes  and  delightfull  Catches  of  3,  4,  5,  6,  7,  8,  9,  10  parts 
in  one:  none  so  ordinarie  as  musicall;  none  so  musicall  as  not  to  all  very 
pleasing  and  acceptable."  That  many  of  these  were  "ordinary"  catches  and 
rounds  is  clearly  proved  by  the  words.  We  find  among  them,  "  New  oysters,  new 
Waylfleet  oysters ; "  "A  miller,  a  miller,  a  miller  would  I  be  ;  "  "  Jolly  Shep- 
herd; "  "  Joan,  come  kiss  me  now;  "  "  Dame,  lend  me  a  loaf;"  "  The  white  hen 
she  cackles ; "  "  Banbury  Ale ; "  "  There  lies  a  pudding  in  the  fire  ; "  "  Trole,  trole 
tho  bowl ;  "  and  others  of  the  same  description.  There  are  a  hundred  in  the 
collection,  and  among  them  many  of  great  excellence  and  of  very  early  date. 
As  a  specimen  of  the  words,  I  give  "  Hey,  jolly  Jenkin,"  the  catch  which 
Samuel  Harsnet  mentioned  in  1604,  as  one  which  tinkers  sang  "  as  they  sat  by 
the  fire  with  a  pot  of  good  ale  between  their  legs," — a  not  unusual  accompaniment 
to  the  singing.  It  is  the  seventh  in  the  collection. 

"  Now  God  be  with  old  Simeon,  «  To  whom  drink  ye  ?' 

For  he  made  cans  for  many  a  one,  '  Sir  knave  to  you  ; 

And  a  good  old  man  was  he  ;  Then,  hey,  jolly  Jenkin, 

And  Jenkin  was  his  journeyman,  I  spy  a  knave  drinking, — 

And  he  could  tipple  of  every  can,  Come,  pass  this  can  to  me.' " 

And  this  he  said  to  me  : 

Another  copy  of  the  above  will  be  found  in  a  manuscript  in  the  library  of 
Trin.  Coll.,  Dublin  (F.  5.  13,  fol.  40). 

In  the  same  year  (1609),  Ravenscroft  printed  "  Deuteromelia ;  or  the  second 
part  of  Musick's  Melodie,  or  melodious  musicke  of  pleasant  Roundelaies,  K[ing] 
H[onry's]  Mirth  or  Freemen's  Songs,  and  such  delightfull  Catches."  To  this 
he  affixes  the  motto,  "  Qui  canere  potest  canat — Catch  that  catch  can."  It 
contains  fourteen  Freemen's  Songs  and  seventeen  Rounds  or  Catches.  His  third 
Collection  was  "  Melismata :  Musical  Phansies  fitting  the  Court,  Citie,  and 
Countrey  humours,"  consisting  of  "  Court  Varieties,"  "  Gitie  Rounds,  "  Citie 
Conceits,"  "  Country  Rounds,"  and  "  Country  Pastimes."  4to.,  1611. 

After  an  interval  of  forty  years,  appeared  John  Play  ford's  first  publication 
containing  rounds  and  catches,  under  the  title  of  "  Musick  and  Mirth,  presented 
in  a  choice  collection  of  Rounds  and  Catches  for  three  voices"  (1651).  This  is 
now  a  scarce  book,  and  perhaps  the  only  copy  remaining  is  in  the  Douce  Collection 
at  Oxford.  In  1652,  he  printed  "  Catch  that  catch  can,  or  a  choice  collection  of 
Catches,  Rounds,  and  Canons  for  3  or  4  voices :  collected  and  published  by  John 
Hilton,  Batch,  in  Musick;"  and  in  the  same  year  appeared  "A  Banquet  of 
Musick,  set  forth  in  three  several  varieties  of  musick:  first,  Lessons  for  the  Lyra 
Violl ;  the  second,  Ayres  and  Jiggs  for  the  Violin  ;  the  third,  Rounds  and 
Catches  :  all  which  are  fitted  to  the  capacity  of  young  practitioners  in  Music." 
The  last  is  also  a  scarce  work,  the  only  known  copy  being  in  the  Douce  Collection. 

Both  Ravenscroft  and  Hilton  give  punning  prefaces  to  their  books.  The  latter 
speaks  of  his  as  the  times  "  when  catches  and  catchers  were  never  so  much  in 

2i 


484  CATCHES,  SONGS,  AND  BALLADS. 

request."  His  collection  became  very  popular,  and  a  second  edition  was  printed 
in  1658.  In  1667,  Playford  first  published  his  Musical  Companion,  containing 
143  catches  and  rounds,  besides  glees,  ayres,  part-songs,  &c.,  in  all  218  com- 
positions. To  this  additions  were  constantly  made,  and  in  1685  he  printed  a 
second  part,  the  popularity  of  which  carried  through  ten  editions  between  that 
year  and  1730.  The  fourth  edition,  printed  in  1701,  contains  fifty- three  catches 
composed  by  Henry  Purcell,  and  eleven  by  Dr.  Blow.* 

In  and  after  the  reign  of  Charles  II.,  the  best  composers  did  not  disdain  to 
write  catches ;  but  if  the  great  masters  of  Elizabeth's  reign  wrote  any,  they  did 
not  care  to  print  them,  for  although  there  are  numberless  canons  of  that  period 
extant,  and  in  every  form  of  that  species  of  composition,  I  do  not  recollect  to  have 
seen  a  single  catch  of  their  production.1* 

Publication  was  then  attended  with  little  pecuniary  advantage  to  authors. 
Not  a  fiftieth  part  of  the  music  we  know  to  have  been  composed  by  celebrated 
musicians  was  printed ;  and  when  an  author  was  induced  to  publish  his  works, 
he  commonly  assigned  such  reasons  as  "  the  solicitation  of  numerous  friends,"  or 
"  the  many  incorrect  copies  "  that  were  in  circulation.  The  sum  to  be  received 
from  a  publisher  was  evidently  small  in  proportion  to  what  might  be  derived,  in 
the  form  of  presents  for  copies,  so  long  as  the  work  remained  in  manuscript ;  and 
the  transcription  of  music  required  much  less  time  than  an  ordinary  book.  When 
Playford  and  Carr  published  The  Theater  of  Music,  in  1685,  in  a  preface  to  that 
collection  they  solicited  the  composers  whose  works  they  were  printing  to  leave 
copies  of  all  their  new  songs,  "  under  their  own  hands,"  either  at  the  shop  of  the 
one  or  of  the  other ;  promising,  in  return, — not  to  pay  the  authors,  but  "  faith- 
fully to  print  from  such  copies;  whereby  they  may  be  assured  to  have  them 
perfect  and  exact."  Composers  were  expected,  "  in  justice  to  themselves,  easily 
to  grant "  this  favour,  and  so  to  "  prevent  such  as  daily  abuse  them  by  publishing 
their  songs  lame  and  imperfect,  and  singing  them  about  the  streets  like  ordinary 
ballads."  It  was  a  great  indignity  to  an  author  to  rank  his  works  with  ballad- 
tunes,  and  Playford  reproves  a  pupil  of  Mr.  Birkenshaw,  as  "  an  ignorant  pre- 
tender to  musick,"  for  having  asserted  that  there  were  only  three  good  songs  in 
his  third  book  of  Choice  Ayres,  and  that  "  the  rest  were  worse  than  common 
ballads  sung  about  the  streets  by  footboys  and  linkboys." 

Old  Thomas  Mace  was  perhaps  the  only  musician  of  the  time  who  had  a  word 

a  See  Notes  on  the  Hon.  Roger  North's  Memoires  of  you  please,  so  that  they  may  aptly  make  one  continued 

Musick,  by  Edward  F.  Rimbault.  tune,  you  have  finished  a  Catch."    He  prints  an  example 

b  The  method  of  making  rounds  or  catches  Is  so  simple,  in  score,  and  then  the  same  written  out  with  the  mark  of 

that  I  shall  here  transcribe  Christopher  Simpson's  direc-  the  period  where  another  voice  is  to  follow.     That  is 

tions  for  composing  them.  These  will  be  found  at  the  end  equally  exemplified  in    "  Row  the  boat,  Whittington  " 

of  his  Compendium  or  Introduction  to  Practical  Music.  (ante  p.  482).     The  two  bars  are  the  score  compressed  ; 

After  teaching  all  the  "  Contrivances  of  Canon,"  he  says,  the  six  bars  are  the  three  parts  written  out  in  the  order 

"  I  must  not  omit  another  sort  of  Canon,  in  more  request  they  are  to  be  sung.    I  have  already  said  that  the  only 

and  common  use,  though  of  less  dignity,  than  all  those  difference  between  a  catch  and  a  round  is  that  the  former 

which  we  have  mentioned ;  and  that  is  a  Catch  or  Round:  has  some   catch,   or  cross-reading  in  the  words, — some 

some  call  it  a  Canon  in  Unison ;   or  a  Canon  consisting  of  "  latent  meaning  or  humour,  produced  by  the  manner  in 

Periods.    The  contrivance  thereof  is  not  intricate  ;   for  if  which  the  composer  has  arranged  the  words  for  singing, 

you  compose  any  short  strain  in  three  or  four  parts,  setting  which  would  not  appear  on  perusing  them."  See  Note  at 

them  all  within  the  ordinary  compass  of  the  voice;   and  p.  108. 
then  place  one  part  at  the  end  of  another,  in  what  order 


KEIGN  OF   CHARLES   II.  485 

to  say  in  favour  of  ballad-tunes  ;  for  learned  counterpoint  and  skilful  harmony 
were  far  more  highly  valued  by  professed  musicians  than  simple  melodies.  In 
his  quaint  and  charming  book,  called  MusicK s  Monument  (1676),  after  describing 
pr«3ludes,  fancies,  pavans  ("  very  grave  and  sober  ;  full  of  art  and  profundity ; 
but  seldom  used  in  these  light  days"),  galliards,  corantos,  sarabands,  jigs,  &c., 
Mace  speaks  of  "  common  tunes,"  which  "  are  to  be  known  by  the  boys  and 
common  people  singing  them  in  the  streets  ;"  and  says,  that  "  among  them  are 
many  very  excellent  and  well-contrived;"  that  they  have  "neat  and  spruce 
ayre,"  and  "  in  either  sort  of  time,"  common  or  triple. 

He  tells  us  that  the  theorbo,  a  large  lute,  of  which  an  engraving  is  given,  is 
"  no  other  than  that  which  we  called  the  old  English  lute"  and  that  "  in  despite 
of  fickleness  and  novelty,  it  was  still  made  use  of  in  the  best  performances  of 
music,  viz.,  in  vocal."     For  instrumental  music,  a  lute  of  smaller  size  was 
used,  because  the  neck  of  the  theorbo  was  so  long  that  the  strings  could  not 
be  drawn  up  to  a  sufficiently  high  pitch,  and  it  could  only  be  managed  by  tuning 
one  string  to  the  octave.     "  Know,"  says  he,  "  that  an  old  lute  is  better  than  a 
new  one ;"  and  "  you  shall  do  well,  ever  when  you  lay  it  by  in  the  day-time,  to 
put  it  into  a  bed  that  is  constantly  used,  between  the  rug  and  the  blanket,  but 
never  between  the  sheets,  because  they  may  be  moist.     This  is  the  most  absolute 
and  best  plan  to  keep  it  always.    There  are  many  great  commodities  in  so  doing ; 
it  will  save  your  strings  from  breaking ;   it  will  keep  your  lute  in  good  order,  so 
that  you  shall  have  but  small  trouble  in  tuning  it ;   it  will  sound  more  brisk  and 
lively,  and  give  you  pleasure  in  very  handling  of  it ;   if  you  have  any  occasion 
extraordinary  to  set  your  lute  at  a  higher  pitch,  you  may  do  it  safely,  which 
otherwise  you  cannot  so  well  do,  without  danger  to  your  instrument  and  strings ; 
it  will  be  a  great  safety  to  your  instrument,  in  keeping  it  from  decay ;   it  will 
prevent  much  trouble  in  keeping  the  bars  from  flying  loose,  and  the  belly  from 
sinking :  and  these  six  conveniences,  considered  all  together,  must  needs  create  a 
seventh,  which  is,  that  lute-playing  must  certainly  be  very  much  facilitated,  and 
mado  more  delightful  thereby.     Only  no  person  must  be  so  inconsiderate  as  to 
tumble  down  upon  the  bed  whilst  the  lute  is  there,  for  I  have  known  several  good 
lutes  spoilt  with  stfch  a  trick.  .  .  .  Take  notice  that  you  strike  not  your  strings 
with  your  nails,  as  some  do,  who  maintain  it  the  best  way  of  playing,  but  I  do 
not,  and  for  this  reason  :   because  the  nail  cannot  draw  so  sweet  a  sound  as  the 
nibble  end  of  the  flesh  can  do.     I  confess,  in  a  concert,  it  might  do  well  enough, 
where  the  mellowness  (which  is  the  most  excellent  satisfaction  from  a  lute)  is  lost 
in  the  crowd ;   but  alone,  I  could  never  receive  so  good  content  from  the  nail  as 
from  the  flesh." 

Mace  had  seen  two  old  lutes,  "  pitiful,  battered,  cracked  things,"  which  were 
value  1  at  100£.  a  piece.  Charles  II.  had  paid  that  sum  for  the  one,  and  the  other 
was  the  property  of  Mr.  Edward  Jones,  who  being  minded  to  dispose  of  it,  made 
a  bargain  with  a  merchant  that  desired  to  have  it  with  him  in  his  travels,  that, 
on  his  return,  he  should  either  pay  Mr.  Jones  100/.  as  the  price,  or  20L  "  for 
his  experience  and  use  of  it"  during  the  voyage.  Yet  lutes  of  three  or  four 
pounds  a-piece  were  "  more  illustrious  and  taking  to  a  common  eye." 


486  LUTES,   VIOLS,   VIRGINALS,   ETC. 

"  Of  viols,"  says  Mace,  "  there  are  no  better  in  the  world  than  those  of  Aldred, 
Jay,  and  Smith,  yet  the  highest  in  esteem  are  Bolles  and  Ross ;  one  bass  of  Bolles 
I  have  known  valued  at  100Z.  These  were  old ;  but  we  have  now  very  excellent 
good  workmen,  who  no  doubt  can  work  as  well  as  those,  if  they  be  so  well  paid 
for  their  work  as  they  were ;  yet  we  chiefly  value  old  instruments  before  new ; 
for,  by  experience,  they  are  found  to  be  far  the  best." 

A  hundred  pounds  for  a  lute,  and  the  same  for  a  viol,  were  quite  as  large  sums, 
in  relation  to  the  comparative  value  of  money,  as  are  now  occasionally  paid  for 
Cremona  violins  of  the  best  makers  of  the  sixteenth  century ;  but  the  expenditure 
upon  music  generally  was  certainly  greater,  in  proportion  to  our  wealth,  in  the 
seventeenth  than  in  the  present  century.  Evelyn  tells  us  that  when  Sir  Samuel 
Morland  was  blind,  he  "buried  200£.  worth  of  music-books  six  feet  under  ground ; 
being,  as  he  said,  love-songs  and  vanity."  This  was  a  considerable  sum  for 
an  amateur  to  spend  in  books  of  vocal  music  only  ;  and  as  he  continued  to  play 
"  psalms  and  religious  hymns  on  the  theorbo,"  it  may  be  presumed  that  what 
was  interred  formed  but  a  portion  of  his  vocal  library. 

During  the  great  fire  of  London  in  1666,  Pepys,  who  was  an  eye-witness,  tells 
us  that,  the  river  Thames  being  full  of  lighters  and  boats  taking  in  goods,  he 
"  observed  that  hardly  one  lighter  or  boat  in  three,  that  had  the  goods  of  a  house, 
but  there  was  a  pair  of  virginals  in  it."  As  these  were  principally  for  the  use 
of  the  fair  sex,  the  cultivation  of  music  could  not  have  declined  among  them  to 
any  great  extent,  in  spite  of  the  long  reign  and  depressing  influence  of  puritanism ; 
or  else  the  revival  must  have  been  singularly  rapid.  The  virginals,  spinet,  and 
harpsichord  (or  harpsichow,  as  it  was  about  this  time  more  generally  called) ,  were 
the  precursors  of  the  pianoforte ;  and,  although  differing  from  one  another  in 
shape,  and  somewhat  in  interior  mechanism,  were  essentially  the  same  instru- 
ment. Two  "pairs  of  virginals,"  manufactured  in  London,  are  now  in  the 
possession  of  Mr.  T.  Mackinlay ;  the  one  pair  by  John  Loosemore  (the  builder  of 
the  organ  of  Exeter  Cathedral),  bearing  the  date  of  1655,  and  the  second  by 
Adam  Leversidge,  made  in  the  year  of  the  fire.  In  shape  they  resemble 
"  square"  pianofortes ;  but  the  lids,  instead  of  being  flat,  are  elevated  in  the 
centre,  and  are  in  three  long  pieces.  The  compass  of  the  second  is  from  A  to  F, 
— rather  less  than  five  octaves.  The  interiors  of  the  lids  are  decorated  by 
paintings. 

To  connect  the  history  of  the  cultivation  of  music  among  ladies,  from  the  reign 
of  Elizabeth  to  that  of  Charles,  it  may  suffice  to  quote  from  two  authors ;  and, 
as  Dr.  Nott  truly  says,  "From  old  plays  are  chiefly  to  be  collected  the  manners 
of  private  life  in  the  sixteenth  and  seventeenth  centuries,"  the  first  shall  be  a 
dramatist.  Middleton's  play,  A  Chaste  Maid,  1630,  opens  with  this  question, 
addressed  by  the  goldsmith's  wife  to  her  daughter  :  "  Moll,  have  you  played  over 
all  your  old  lessons  o'the  virginals?  "  In  his  Michaelmas  Term,  1607,  Quomodo, 
the  hosier,  desires  his  daughter  to  leave  the  shop,  and  to  "  get  up  to  her  vir- 
ginals." In  his  Roaring  Cf-irl,  1611,  Sir  Alexander  asks  Moll,  "You  can  play 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES   II.  487 

any  lesson  ?  "  and  is  answered,  "  At  first  sight,  Sir."     In  his  Women,  beware 
Women —         "  I've  brought  her  up  to  music,  dancing,  and  what  not, 
That  may  commend  her  sex,  and  stir  her  a  husband." 

Tc  the  same  purport  writes  Burton,  in  his  Anatomy  of  Melancholy.  Under  the 
he  id  of  "  Love  Melancholy — Artificial  Allurements,"  he  says,  "  A  thing  never- 
theless frequently  used,  and  part  of  a  gentlewoman's  bringing  up,  is  to  sing, 
dance,  play  on  the  lute  or  some  such  instrument,  before  she  can  say  her  Pater 
no4er  or  ten  commandments :  'tis  the  next  way  their  parents  think  to  get  them 
husbands,  they  are  compelled  to  learn."  But  when  they  were  married,  "  We 
sec  this  daily  verified  in  our  young  women  and  wives,  they  that  being  maids  took 
so  much  pains  to  sing,  play,  and  dance,  with  such  cost  and  charge  to  their 
parents  to  get  these  graceful  qualities,  now,  being  married,  will  scarce  touch  an 
instrument,  they  care  not  for  it." 

Of  the  opposite  sex  Burton  says,  "  Amongst  other  good  qualities  an  amorous 
fellow  is  endowed  with,  he  must  learn,  to  sing  and  dance,  play  upon  some  instru- 
ment or  other,  as  without  doubt  he  will,  if  he  be  truly  touched  with  the  loadstone 
of  love :  for,  as  Erasmus  hath  it,  Musicam  docet  amor,  et  poesin,  love  will  make 
them  musicians,  and  to  compose  ditties,  madrigals,  elegies,  love-sonnets,  and  sing 
them  to  several  pretty  tunes,  to  get  all  good  qualities  may  be  had."  He  also  tells 
us  that  many  silly  gentlewomen  are  won  by  "  gulls  and  swaggering  companions 
that  have  nothing  in  them  but  a  few  players'  ends  and  compliments ;  that  dance, 
siny  old  ballet  tunes,  and  wear  their  clothes  in  fashion  with  a  good  grace ; — a  sweet 
fim;  gentleman !  a  proper  man !  who  could  not  love  him  ?  " 

To  return  to  Charles  the  Second's  reign,  I  may  again  quote  Pepys,  who  not 
only  sang  at  sight,  but  also  played  upon  the  lute,  the  viol,  the  violin,  and  the 
flageolet ;  learnt  to  compose  music ;  bad  an  organ  and  pair  of  virginals  or  harp- 
sichord in  his  house,  and  had  a  thoroughly  musical  household.  And  yet,  when  a 
young  man,  was  so  vehement  a  roundhead  as  to  say  on  the  day  Charles  I.  was 
executed,  that,  were  he  to  preach  upon  him,  his  text  should  be  "  The  memory  of 
the  wicked  shall  rot."  His  Diary  abounds  with  amusing  passages  about  music, 
as  a  few  brief  extracts  will  prove.  And,  firstly,  as  to  himself. 

Nov.  21,  1660.  "  At  night  to  my  viallin,  in  my  dining  roome,  and  afterwards 
to  my  lute  there,  and  I  took  much  pleasure  to  have  the  neighbours  come  forth 
into  the  yard  to  hear  me."  Dec.  3.  "  Rose  by  candle  and  spent  my  morning  in 
fiddling  till  time  to  go  to  the  office."  28th.  "  Staid  within  all  the  afternoon 
and  evening  at  my  lute  with  great  pleasure."  In  the  cellars  at  Audley  End, 
"  played  on  my  flageolette,  there  being  an  excellent  echo;  "  and  again,  "I  took 
my  flageolette  and  played  upon  the  leads  in  my  garden,  when  Sir  W.  Pen  came, 
and  there  we  stayed  talking  and  singing,  and  drinking  great  draughts  of  claret." 
On  Sundays  we  find  him  joining  with  others  to  sing  Ravenscroft's  or  Lawes' 
Psalms,  or  else  taking  part  in  cathedral  service  or  an  anthem.  After  morning 
pravers,  "  To  Gray's  Inn  Walk,  all  alone,  and  with  great  pleasure  seeing  all  the 
fine  ladies  walk  there.  Myself  humming  to  myself  the  trillo,  which  now-a-days 
is  my  constant  practice  since  I  begun  to  learn  to  sing,  and  find  by  use  that  it  do 


488  MUSIC   IN   PRIVATE   LIFE. 

come  upon  me."     Once  he  says,  "  Lord's  day  .  .  .  composing  some  ayres.     God 
forgive  me ! " 

According  to  the  custom  of  those  days,  Pepys  frequently  dined  at  taverns  or 
ordinaries,  generally  choosing  those  where  the  best  musicians  were  to  be  heard. 
He  mentions  the  Dolphin  Tavern  as  having  "  an  excellent  company  of  fiddlers," 
and  his  being  there,  on  more  than  one  occasion,  "  exceeding  merry  till  late." 
But,  a  year  or  two  after,  being  invited  to  dine  there  by  Mr.  Foly,  and  an  excel- 
lent dinner  provided,  he  tells  us,  "  but  I  expected  musique,  the  missing  of  which 
spoiled  my  dinner." 

Licenses  were  not  then  required  for  the  performance  of  music  at  taverns,  as 
now ;  and  Killigrew  says  that  no  ordinary  fiddlers  of  any  country  were  so  well 
paid  as  our  own.  According  to  Heylin,  in  his  Voyage  of  France,  1679,  the 
custom,  at  Tours,  was  for  each  man  at  table  to  pay  the  fiddlers  a  sou ;  "  they 
expect  no  more,  and  will  take  no  less."  In  English  country  towns  a  groat  for 
"  a  fit  of  mirth  "  had  long  been  the  remuneration  of  the  minstrel ;  and  (accord- 
ing to  a  ballad  of  this  time)  each  villager,  male  or  female,  gave  two-pence  for  a 
dance  on  the  green ;  but  Pepys  speaks  of  paying  four  shillings  on  one  occasion 
at  the  Dolphin,  and  37.  for  four  musicians, — "  the  Duke  of  Buckingham's  music, 
the  best  in  town," — for  a  dance  at  his  own  house.  Their  instruments  were  two 
violins,  a  base,  and  a  theorbo. 

Under  the  date  of  November  16,  1667,  Pepys  says,  "  To  White  Hall,  and 
there  got  into  the  theatre-room,  and  there  heard  both  the  vocall  and  instrumentall 
musick ;  where  the  little  fellow  (Pelham  Humphrey,  the  composer)  stood  keeping 
time."  Conductors  to  bands  are  therefore  of  no  modern  introduction ;  and  he 
even  mentions  a  case  in  which  that  office  was  held  by  a  woman.  On  the  6th  of 
June,  1661,  "Lieutenant  Lambert  and  I  went  down  by  water  to  Greenwich, 
and  eat  and  drank  and  heard  musique  at  the  Globe,  and  saw  the  simple  motion 
that  is  there  of  a  woman  with  a  rod  in  her  hand  keeping  time  to  the  musique 
while  it  plays,  which  is  simple,  methinks" 

In  one  instance  he  dines  at  a  club,  where  they  have  three  voices  to  sing  catches. 
This  is  probably  one  of  the  earliest  notices  of  clubs  in  England. 

His  position  as  a  clerk  at  the  Admiralty  threw  him  much  into  the  society  of 
naval  officers,  and  his  own  taste  into  that  of  antiquaries.  Meeting  Ashmole  in  the 
morning  at  the  house  of  Lilly,  the  astrologer,  they  stay  and  sing  duets  and  trios 
in  Lilly's  study.  We  are  told  that  Evelyn  and  all  his  family  were  lovers  of  music, 
and  well  skilled  in  the  art.  Evelyn  also  mentions  his  daughter  Mary  as  having 
"  substantial  and  practical  knowledge  in  ornamental  arts  of  education,  especially 
music,  both  vocal  and  instrumental." 

We  find  the  tedium  of  naval  life  to  have  been  often  relieved  by  music ; — that 
one  captain  kept  a  harper ;  another  was  "  a  perfect  good  musician ; "  a  third 
"  a  merry  man  that  sang  a  pleasant  song  pleasantly ; "  that  one  lieutenant  played 
the  cittern,  and  another,  who  was  "  in  a  mighty  vein  of  singing,"  had  "  a  very 
good  ear  and  strong  voice,  but  no  manner  of  skill."  Sets  of  viols  or  violins  were 
sometimes  kept  on  board,  because  Pepys  tells  us,  while  the  Nazeby  was  lying  off 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES    II.  489 

Deal,  Mr.  North,  son  of  Sir  Dudley  North,  came  on  board,  and  "  did  play  his 
part  exceeding  well  at  first  sight." 

Pepys'  household  included  a  maid  to  wait  upon  his  wife,  and  a  boy  to  attend 
upon  him.  In  the  course  of  the  Diary,  which  extends  over  about  nine  years  and 
a  half,  four  maids  are  mentioned,  and  all  possessed  of  some  skill  in  music.  Of  the 
first  he  says  (Nov.  17,  1662),  "  After  dinner,  talking  with  my  wife,  and  making 
Mrs.  Gosnell  sing.  .  .  I  am  mightily  pleased  with  her  humour  and  singing." 
And  again,  Dec.  5,  "  she  sings  exceeding  well."  Within  a  few  months,  Gosnell 
wan  succeeded  by  Mary  Ashwell,  who  had  been  brought  up  at  Chelsea  school,  and 
he  tells  us  in  March,  "  I  heard  Ashwell  play  first  upon  the  harpsichon,  and  I  find 
she  do  play  pretty  well.  Then  home  by  coach,  buying  at  the  Temple  the  printed 
virginall  book  for  her."  Of  the  third,  Mary  Mercer,  "  a  pretty,  modest,  quiet 
maid,"  he  says,  on  Sep.  9,  1664,  "  After  dinner,  my  wife  and  Mercer,  Tom  (the 
boy)  and  I,  sat  till  eleven  at  night,  singing  and  fiddling,  and  a  great  joy  it  is  to 
see  me  master  of  so  much  pleasure  in  my  house.  The  girle  (Mercer)  plays 
pretty  well  upon  the  harpsichon,  but  only  ordinary  tunes,  but  hath  a  good  hand : 
sings  a  little,  but  hath  a  good  voyce  and  eare.  My  boy,  a  brave  boy,  sings 
finely,  and  is  the  most  pleasant  boy  at  present,  while  his  ignorant  boy's  tricks 
last,  that  ever  I  saw."  Again,  May  5,  1666,  u  It  being  a  very  fine  moonshine, 
my  wife  and  Mercer  came  into  the  garden,  and  my  business  being  done,  we  sang 
till  about  twelve  at  night,  with  mighty  pleasure  to  ourselves  and  neighbours  by 
their  casements  opening." 

After  some  time,  Mercer  went  out  to  see  her  mother,  and  Mrs.  Pepys,  finding 
her  absent  without  having  asked  permission,  followed  her  to  the  house  and  beat 
her  in  her  mother's  presence.  It  was  the  custom  of  ladies  to  beat  their  servants 
in  those  days.  The  mother  having  urged  that  her  daughter  was  "  not  a  common 
prentice  girl,"  Mrs.  Pepys  construed  it  into  a  question  of  her  right  to  inflict 
corporeal  chastisement,  and  therefore,  when  Mary  Mercer  returned  home,  she  was 
dismissed. 

In  October,  1666,  says  Pepys,  "  My  wife  came  home,  and  hath  brought  her 
new  girle  I  have  helped  her  to,  of  Mr.  Falconbridge's.  She  is  wretched  poor  and 
but  ordinary  favoured,  and  we  fain  to  lay  out  seven  or  eight  pounds'  worth  of 
clothes  upon  her  back,  which,  methinks,  do  go  against  my  heart:  and  do  not 
think  I  can  ever  esteem  her  as  I  could  have  done  another,  that  had  come  fine  and 
handsome ;  and  which  is  more,  her  voice,  for  want  of  use,  is  so  furred  that  it 
do  not  at  present  please  me;  but  her  manner  of  singing  is  such  that  I  shall, 
I  think,  take  great  pleasure  in  it." 

Within  a  short  time,  Mercer  was  taken  back,  and  we  hear  constantly  of  trips 
by  water  to  Greenwich,  &c.,  and  then  of  singing  on  the  water,  especially  when 
returning  by  moonlight.  The  boy,  Tom  Edwards,  was  usually  of  the  party.  Of 
him,  Pepys  says  (Oct.  25, 1664),  "  My  boy  could  not  sleep,  but  wakes  about  four 
o'clock  in  the  morning,  and  in  bed  laying  playing  on  his  lute  till  daylight,  and  it 
seems  did  the  like  last  night  till  twelve  o'clock."  And  again,  Dec.  26,  1668, 


490  ITALIAN   AND    SCOTCH    MUSIC. 

"  After  supper  I  made  the  boy  play  upon  his  lute,  and  so,  my  mind  in  mighty 
content,  to  bed." 

Pepys  evidently  selected  servants  that  could  both  sing  and  play,  but  it  is 
certain  that  there  was  no  great  difficulty  in  procuring  them.  If  further  proof 
were  required,  I  might  quote  the  dramatists  of  the  time,  who,  as  in  Shirley's 
Court  Secret,  commonly  attribute  to  the  servants  in  their  plays  the  ability  to  sing 
"  at  first  sight."  Pepys'  own  taste  was  not  fashionable,  for  on  hearing  a  cele- 
brated piece  of  music  by  Carissimi,  he  says,  "  Fine  it  was  indeed,  and  too  fine 
for  me  to  judge  of."  And  again,  on  hearing  Mrs.  Manuels  sing  with  an  Italian, 
he  says,  "  Indeed  she  sings  mightily  well,  and  just  after  the  Italian  manner,  but 
yet  do  not  please  me  like  one  of  Mrs.  Knipp's  songs,  to  a  good  English  tune,  the 
manner  of  their  ayre  not  pleasing  me  so  well  as  the  fashion  of  our  own,  nor  so 
natural." 

He  first  speaks  of  Scotch  music  in  the  year  1666,  and  it  would  seem  to  have 

been  then  a  novelty.     In  January  he  hears  Mrs.  Knipp,  the  actress,  sing. "  her 

little  Scotch  song  of  Barlary  Allen"  at  Lord  Brouncker's,  and  he  was  "in 

perfect  pleasure  to  hear  her  sing"  it.     In  the  following  July,  he  says,  "  To  my 

Lord  Lauderdale's  house  to  speak  with  him,  and  find  him  and  his  lady,  and  some 

Scotch  people,  at  supper.     But  at  supper  there  played  one  of  their  servants  upon 

the  viallin  some  Scotch  tunes  only ;  several,  and  the  best  of  their  country,  as 

they  seem  to  esteem  them,  by  their  praising  and  admiring  them :  but,  Lord !  the 

strangest  ayre  that  ever  I  heard  in  my  life,  and  all  of  one  cast."     His  third  and 

last  notice  of  Scottish  music  is  in  June,  1667.  "  Here  in  the  streets  I  did  hear 

the  Scotch  march  beat  by  the  drums  before  the  soldiers,  which  is  very  odd." 

The  first  Scotch  tunes  that  I  have  found  printed  in  England  are  among  the 

"  Select  new  Tunes  and  Jiggs  for  the  Treble  Violin,"  which  were  added  to  The 

Dancing  Master  of  1665.     These  are  "  The  Highlanders'  March,"  "  A  Scotch 

Firke,"  and  "  A  Scots  Rant.'*   They  are  not  included  among  the  country-dances 

in  that  publication ;  neither  do  they  appear  in  any  other  edition.     The  "  Select 

new  tunes"  were  afterwards  transferred  to  Apolk's  Banquet  for  the  Treble  Violin." 

In  The  Dancing  Master  of  1686  we  find  the  first  Scotch  tune  arranged  as  a 

country-dance."     This  is  "  Johnny,  cock  thy  beaver,"  which  had  been  rendered 

popular  by  Tom  D'Urfey's  song,  "  To  horse,  brave  boys,  to  Newmarket,  to  horse," 

being  written  to  it.      On  the  other  hand,  the  first  collection  of  secular  music 

printed  in  Scotland,  Forbes'  Cantns,  consists  entirely  of  English  compositions, 

and  songs  to  English  ballad-tunes.     The  first  edition  was  published  in  1662, 

the  second  in  1666,  and  the  third  in  1682.     "  Severall  of  the  choisest  Italian 

songs  and  new  English  Ayres  in  three  parts  "  were  added  to  the  Jast,  and,  with 

that  exception,  all  are  for  one  voice.     Forbes  was  a  printer  at  Aberdeen,  and 

this  was  the  only  secular  music  published  in  Scotland  during  the  seventeenth 

century. 


RETQN    OF   CHARLES   II. 


491 


THE  TWENY-NINTH  OF  MAY. 

The  following  song  "  On  the  King's  Birthday,  May  29,"  (on  which  day 
Charles  the  Second  entered  London  after  his  restoration),  is  from  a  copy 
printed  in  1667. 

The  spirited  tune  is  to  be  found  in  The  Dancing  Master  of  1686,  and  in  every 
subsequent  edition,  under  the  title  of  The  twenty-ninth  of  May.  In  several 
of  the  editions  it  is  printed  twice;  the  second  copy  being  under  another 
name.  For  instance,  in  the  "Additional  Sheet"  to  The  Dancing  Master  of 
1686,  it  appears  as  May  Hill,  or  The  Jovial  Crew ;  in  "  The  Second  Part "  of  that 
of  1698,  as  The  Jovial  Beggars ;  in  the  third  volume  of  The  Dancing  Master,  N.D., 
as  the  Restoration  of  King  Charles. 

It  also  bears  the  name  of  The  Jovial  Crew  in  Apollo's  Banquet  for  the  Treble 
Violin. 

.x  Boldly. 


el-come,  welcome,     roy  -  al     May !      Welcome  long     de     -     sir-ed  day ! 


Ma-ny  Springs  and    Mays    we've   seen     Have  brought  forth  what's   gay  and  green, 


But  none  like      this      glorious  Spring      Whic*h  brings  forth  our        gra  -  cious  King ;  Then 


ba  -  nish  care,    And      let       us    sing,     We     have  our  laws,  And  we  have  our  King 


492 


ENGLISH   SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


HERE'S  A  HEALTH  UNTO  HIS  MAJESTY. 

This  was  a  very  popular  loyal  song  in  the  reign  of  Charles  II.  It  is  twice 
mentioned  by  Shad  well  in  his  plays.  Firstly,  in  The  Miser  (1672),  where 
Timothy  says,  "  We  can  be  merry  as  the  best  of  you— we  can,  i'  faith— and  sing 
A  boat,  a  boat  [haste  to  the  ferry],  or  Here's  a  health  to  his  Majesty,  with  a  fa,  la, 
la,  lero;"  and  secondly,  in  his  Epsom  Wells  (1673),  where  Bisket  says,  "  Come, 
let's  all  be  musitioners,  and  all  roar  and  sing  Here's  a  health  unto  his  Majesty, 
with  a  fa,  la,  la,  la,  la,  lero" 

The  words  are  in  Merry  Drollery  Complete,  1670 ;  and  words  and  music 
together  in  Playford's  Musical  Companion,  1667,  1672,  &c. 

Dr.  Kitchener,  in  his  Loyal  and  National  Songs  of  England,  commits  the  sin- 
gular mistake  of  printing  the  tenor  part  as  the  tune,  instead  of  the  treble ;  and  it 
is  the  more  remarkable,  because  the  three  parts,  treble,  tenor,  and  base,  are  printed 
on  the  same  page  of  the  Musical  Companion.  Another  blunder  is  his  ascribing 
it  to  Jeremiah  Savage,  instead  of  Jeremiah  Savile. 

Boldly  and  marked. 


m 


mj  j  J  j^u^ 

-9-  +     m    '  ^f* 


Here'sa  health  un- to  his    Ma-  jes-ty,Witha     fal    la  la  la  la      la      la,   Con- 

>     *m     g     * 


* 


m 


i 


£ 


-fusion  to  his        e -nemies,Witha     fallal  la    la  la        la        la.      And  he  thatwillnot 


E^M-H!  i^-nrCT^ 


J        n       d 

[d     •     F        ^        d 

J 

j 

-f  1  J  $- 

1    :    d  —  d  1  

.H     !     J  » 

—  J-M 

•A  —  fl  —  1  —  3  —  h 

_$  c  g_ 
drink  his  health,   I 

f"     f"      F 

*     3    *    *     p.:        i  p*     • 

wish  him    nei-ther      wit      nor  wealth,  Nor 

_       m                     -                     \ 

-d  d  m- 
yet       a     rope      to 

F 

F    •    f                 F 

1                        • 

F        SB          tf          F        1 

1          L 

r     L 

J      F  r 

i             F          ml 

!  1  

_  I  —    V.  ..  '     4.. 

j             rj 

*E3  —  r   r  r 

m 


hang  himself.  With  a  fal  lal  la  la  la     la  la  la   la  la,  With  a     fal  lal  la    la  la      la     la. 


i 


J  U   J   j  J  I 


•  . 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES   II.  493 

GRIM  KING  OF  THE  GHOSTS. 

Black-letter  copies  of  this  ballad  are  to  be  found  in  the  Bagford,  the  Pepys, 
the  Douce,  and  the  Roxburghe  Collections.  It  is  usually  entitled  "  The  Lunatick 
Lover :  Or  the  Young  Man's  call  to  Grim  King  of  the  Ghosts  for  cure.  To  an 
excellent  new  tune."  Percy  reprinted  it  in  his  Reliques  of  Ancient  Poetry,  and 
Ritson,  in  his  Select  Collection  of  English  Songs;  the  first  stanza  will  therefore 
suffice. 

"  Grim  King  of  the  Ghosts !  make  haste,      Come,  yon    night    hags,  with    all    your 
And  bring  hither  all  your  train  :  And  revelling  witches,  away,   [charms, 

Bee  how  the  pale  moon  does  waste,  And  hug  me  close  in  your  arms ; 

And  just  now  is  in  the  wane.  To  you  my  respects  I'll  pay." 

Among  the  ballads  sung  to  the  tune,  are  the  following : — 
1.  "  The  Father's  wholesome  Admonition:  To  the  tune  of  Grim  King  of  the 
Ghosts"     See  Roxburghe  Collection,  ii.  165. 

2-.  "  The  Subjects'  Satisfaction  ;  being  a  new  song  of  the  proclaiming  King 
William  and  Queen  Mary,  the  13th  of  this  instant  February,  to  the  great  joy 
and  comfort  of  the  whole  kingdom.  To  the  tune  of  G-rim  King  of  the  Ghosts, 
or  Hail  to  the  myrtle  shades"  See  Roxburghe  Collection,  ii.  437. 

3.  "  The  Protestant's  Joy  ;  or  an  excellent  new  song  on  the  glorious  Coronation 
of  King  William  and  Queen  Mary,  which  in  much  triumph  was  celebrated  at 
Westminster  on  the  llth  of  this  instant  April.  Tune  of  Grim  King  of  the 
Ghosts,  or  Hail  to  the  myrtle  shades"  This  has  a  woodcut  intended  to  represent 
the  King  and  Queen  seated  on  the  throne.  See  Bagford  Collection  (643,  m.  10, 
p.  172,  Brit.  Mus.)  "Printed  for  J.  Deacon,  in  Guiltspur  Street."  It 
commences  thus : — 
"  Let  Protestants  freely  allow  Brave  boys,  let  us  merrily  sing, 

Their  spirits  a  happy  good  cheer,  While  smiling  full  bumpers  go  round ; 

Th'  eleventh  of  April  now,  Hear  joyful  good  tidings  I  bring, 

Has  prov'd  the  best  day  in  the  year.       King  William  and  Mary  are  crown'd." 
The  tune  was  introduced  into  The  Beggars'   Opera,  The  Devil  to  pay,  The 
Oxford  Act,  and  other  ballad-operas  ;  also  printed  in  Watts'  Musical  Miscellany, 
i.  126  (1729)  to  a  song  entitled  "Rosalind's  Complaint,"  commencing,  "On  the 
bank  of  a  river  so  deep." 

It  was  to  this  air  that  Rowe  wrote  his  celebrated  song  "  Colin's  Complaint;" 
in  which,  according  to  Dr.  Johnson,  he  alluded  to  his  own  situation  with  the 
Countess  Dowager  of  Warwick,  and  his  successful  rival,  Addison.  Goldsmith,  in 
his  preface  to  TJie  Beauties  of  English  Poetry,  says,  "  This,  by  Mr.  Rowe,  is  better 
than  anything  of  the  kind  in  our  language."  It  commences — 
"  Despairing  beside  a  clear  stream,  The  wind  that  blew  over  the  plain, 

A  shepherd  forsaken  was  laid ;  To  his  sighs  with  a  sigh  did  reply ; 

And  while  a  false  nymph  was  his  theme,     And  the  brook,  in  return  to  his  pain, 

A  willow  supported  his  head  :  Ran  mournfully  murmuring  by." 

It  has  been  reprinted  in  Ritson's  English  Songs,  and  in  many  other  collections. 
There  are  several  parodies ;  one  of  which  is  contained  in  "  A  complete  Collection 


494 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND    BALLAD   MUSIC. 


of  old  and  new  English  and  Scotch  Songs,  with  their  respective  tunes  prefixed." 
8vo.,  1735,  p.  82.     It  commences — 

"  By  the  side  of  a  great  kitchen  fire,  A  pudding  was  all  his  desire, 

A  scullion  so  hungry  was  laid ;  A  kettle  supported  his  head." 

Many  of  my  readers  will  recollect  another,  attributed  to  Canning,  commencing — 

"  By  the  side  of  a  neighbouring  stream,          On  the  top  of  his  head  was  his  wig, 
As  an  elderly  gentleman  sat;  On  the  top  of  his  wig  was  his  hat." 

The  tune  is  also  well  known,  from  a  song  called  The  Lover's  Mistake,  adapted 
to  it  by  Balfe,  and  sung  on  the  stage  by  the  late  Madame  Vestris. 

When  Gay  introduced  the  air  into  The  Beggars'  Opera,  he  took  the  first  line 
("  Can  love  be  controll'd  by  advice")  from  the  following  song  by  Mr.  Berkeley. 
It  is  said  to  have  been  addressed  to  the  once  well-known  Viscountess  Vane,  whose 
history  is  related  by  Smollett  in  the  "  Memoirs  of  a  Lady  of  Quality,"  intro- 
duced into  his  Peregrine  Pickle.  See  the  early  editions. 

Moderate  time. 


Can   love    be  controll'd  by  ad  -  vice 


" 

Can  madness  andrea-son  a  -  gree? 


Mol  -  ly !  who'd  e  -  ver   be          wise, 


1 


madness  be  lov  -  ins:  of          thee  ? 


?-:  f ;  in  [ 


adness  be  lov-mg  or 

=ffi^S 


cfltTTrtmf^i^^ 


Let        sages  pre  -  tend     to  des  -  pise         The  joys  they  want  spirits  to      taste;      Let 

-  ir  •  r  • 


r-if  '   p 


us  seize  old  Time  as  he 


And  the    blessings  of  life  while  they         last. 


Dull  wisdom  but  adds  to  our  cares  ; 
Brisk  love  will  improve  every  joy  ; 
Too  soon  we  may  meet  with  gray  hairs, 
Too  late  may  repent  being  coy. 


Then,  Molly,  for  what  should  we  stay, 
Till  our  best  blood  begins  to  run  cold  ? 
Our  youth  we  can  have  but  to-day, 
We  may  always  find  time  to  grow  old. 


REIGN    OF    CHARLES    II.  495 

THE  KING'S   JIG. 

The  dancing  of  jigs  is  now  in  a  great  measure  confined  to  Ireland;  but  they 
were  formerly  equally  common  in  England  and  Scotland.  The  word  "jig  "  is  said 
to  be  derived  from  the  Anglo-Saxon,  and  in  old  English  literature  its  application 
extended,  beyond  the  tune  itself,  to  any  jigging  rhymes  that  might  be  sung  to  such 
tunes.  The  songs  sung  by  clowns  after  plays  (which,  like  those  of  Tarleton, 
were  often  extempore,)  and  any  other  merry  ditties,  were  called  jigs.  "  Nay, 
sit  down  by  my  side,  and  I  will  sing  thee  one  of  my  countrey  jigges  to  make  thee 
merry,"  says  Deloney,  in  his  Thomas  of  Reading. 

Pepys  speaks  of  his  wife's  maid,  Mary  Mercer,  as  dancing  a  jig,  "  the  best  he 
ever   saw,  she  having  the  most  natural   way  of  it,  and   keeping   time   most 
perfectly."     Heywood  includes  jigs  among  the  dances  of  the  country  people,  in 
the  following  passage  from  A  Woman  killed  with  kindness : — 
"  Now,  gallants,  while  the  town  musicians 

Finger  their  frets  a  within,  and  the  mad  lads 

And  country  lasses,  every  mother's  child, 

With  nosegays  and  bride-laces  in  their  hats. 

Dance  all  their  country  measures,  rounds,  and  jigs, 

What  shall  we  do  ?— Hark !  they're  all  on  the  hoigh ; b 

They  toil  like  mill-horses,  and  turn  as  round — 

Marry,  not  on  the  toe.     Aye,  and  they  caper — 

But  not  without  cutting ;  you  shall  see  to-morrow 

The  hall  floor  peck'd  and  dinted  like  a  millstone, 

Made  with  their  high  shoes :  though  their  skill  be  small, 

Yet  they  tread  heavy  where  their  hobnails  fall." 

Jigs,  however,  were  danced  by  persons  of  all  ranks  during  the  latter  half  of  the 
seventeenth  century ;  and  this  having  been  published  as  the  The  King's  Jig, 
during  the  life  of  Charles  II. ,  we  may  suppose  it  to  be  one  of  the  tunes  to  which 
his  majesty  danced.  The  jigs  of  the  Inner  Temple,  the  Middle  Temple,  Lincoln's 
Inn,  Gray's  Inn,  and  many  others,  are  to  be  found  in  the  editions  of  Apollo's 
Banquet  for  the  Treble  Violin,  printed  in  this,  and  the  following  reign. 

D'Urfey  wrote  a  descriptive  song  called  "  The  Winchester  Wedding;  set  to  The 
King's  Jigg,  a  Country  Dance ; "  and  it  was  published,  with  the  tune,  among 
"  Several  new  Songs  by  Tho.  D'Urfey,  Gent.,  set  to  as  many  new  tunes  by  the 
best  masters  in  music,"  fol.,  1684.  It  became  very  popular,  was  printed  as  a 
penny  ballad,  and  the  tune  became  better  known  as  The  Winchester  Wedding 
than  as  TJie  King's  Jig.  It  is  to  be  found,  under  the  one  name  or  the  other,  in 
The  Dancing  Master  of  1686,  and  every  subsequent  edition ;  in  Pills  to  purge 
Melancholy ;  and  in  many  of  the  ballad-operas.  The  copies  in  the  Pills,  and 
some  others,  are  very  incorrectly  printed. 

Among  the  ballads  that  were  sung  to  the  tune,  I  have  already  quoted  one, 
printed  in  July,  1685,  "  On  the  Virgins  of  Taunton  Dean,  who  ript  open  their 

»  t.  <?.,  Play  instruments  that  have  frets,  like  viols  and  b  Qutfre  "  dancing  the  Hey." 

lutes,  or  such  as  guitars  still  have. 


496 


ENGLISH   BONO  AND  BALLAD   MUSIC. 


silk  petticoats  to  make  colours  for  the  late  D[uke]  of  M[onmouth]'s  army" 
(ante  p.  444).     It  commences — 

"  In  Lime  began  a  rebellion,  Rebels,  almost  a  million, 

For  there  the  rebels  came  in ;  Came  there  to  make  M[onmouth]  king." 

and  there  are  many  others,  such  as  "  A  Fairing  for  young  men  and  maids  " 
(Roxburghe  Collection,  ii.  162),  &c. 

Ritson  reprinted  The  Winchester  Wedding  in  his  Ancient  Songs,  from  a  black- 
letter  ballad  in  the  British  Museum,  but  apparently  without  knowing  it  to  have 
been  written  by  D'Urfey.  It  is  scarcely  repr  in  table  now,  and  therefore  the  fol- 
lowing first  stanza  must  suffice. 

Cheerfully. 


^ 


At      Winchester  was     a    wedding,  The       like   was    ne    -  ver  seen,  'Twixt 


.  r  •  r^j^E^E^ 


£±3 


lus  -  ty  young  Ralph    of    Read  -  ing,   And    bon  -  ny  black  Bess  of   the    green ;  The 

-j   .    r  •   r  ---fl   '    f   =    C-=E 


fiddlers  did  crowd  be-fore,  Each  lass  was  as  fine  as  a  queen,  A  hundred  there  were  and  more,  For 

' 


3 


3 


i 


all        the    coun  -  try  came    in. 


Brisk     Ro  -  bin  led    Rose       so      fair,      She 


ook'd  like  a  Lilly  o'th'  Vale,  And  ruddy-fac'd  Harry  led  Mary,  And  Roger  led  bouncing  Nell 


REIGN  OF  CHARLES  II. 


497 


SARABAND. 

When  in  exile,  Charles  II.  wrote  to  Henry  Bennet  to  bring  him  as  many  new 
corantos  and  sarabands,  and  other  little  dances,  as  he  could  get  written  down. 
The  following  specimen  of  a  saraband  is  from  The  Dancing  Master  of  1665  : — 

Rather  slowly  and  stately. 

— (•— — i— m— *— 8— i K    I     . 1 1 h.     J     ,— J— 


*'«-J: 


^3 


**= 


^U  .  1 1 r  j-h?=mpMi 


^ 


-*- 


//     f- 


^ay=ff=^^^ga=3: 


i-h 


s 


^r* 


From  the  following  passage  in  Sir  W.  Davenant's  Law  against  Lovers  (which 
is  a  mixture  of  the  two  plots  of  Shakespeare's  Measure  for  Measure  and  Much 
Ado  about  Nothing)  it  would  appear  that  the  dancer  of  the  saraband  accompanied 
it  with  castanets. 


498  ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 

Beatrice.  "  Page,  call  Viola  with  her  castanietos, 
And  bid  Bernardo  bring  his  guittar." 

(  Viola  strikes  the  castaniets  within.) 
Benedict.  "  Those  castanietos  sound 

Like  a  consort  of  squirrels  cracking  of  nuts." 

(Enter  Viola  dancing  a  saraband  awhile  with  castanietos.) 
There  are  no  directions  for  the  use  of  castanets  in  The  Dancing  Master, 
because  the  tunes  are  there  intended  for  country  dances. 

THE  DELIGHTS  OF  THE  BOTTLE. 

In  its  original  form,  this  was  a  song,  sung  by  Bacchus,  in  the  last  act  of 
Shadwell's  opera,  Psyche,  and  the  music  by  Matthew  Lock.  Shadwell  wrote  but 
two  stanzas,  and  as  that  would  have  been  too  short  for  a  ballad,  some  ballad- 
monger  lengthened  it  into  twelve.  A  copy  will  be  found  in  the  Roxburghe 
Collection  (ii.  106),  containing  five  stanzas  in  the  first  part,  and  seven  in  the 
second.  The  tune  is  there  described  as  "  a  most  admirable  new  tune,  everywhere 
much  in  request." 

Playford  printed  the  song  in  his  Choice  Ayres  (omitting  the  chorus)  ;  and  it 
was  arranged  as  a  duet  for  his  Pleasant  Musical  Companion  (book  ii.,  2nd  edit., 
1687).  The  words  are  also  contained  in  the  Antidote  to.  Melancholy,  1682. 

In  the  Roxburghe  Collection,  iii.  188,  is  "  The  Prodigal  Son  converted  ;   Or 
the  young  man  returned  from  his  ramble,"  &c. ;  "  To  a  pleasant  new  playhouse 
tune,  called  The  Delights  of  the  Bottle"     "London,  printed  for  R.  Burton,  at 
the  Horse-shoe  in  West  Smithfield."     It  commences — 
"  The  delights  and  the  pleasures 
Of  a  man  without  care." 

In  the  same  Collection,  iii.  244,  is  a  ballad  on  the  Customs  duty  imposed  upon 
French  wines,  dated  1681,  and  entitled  "The  Wine  Cooper's  Delight;"  to 
the  tune  of  The  Delights  of  the  Bottle.  "  Printed  for  the  Protestant  Ballad 
Singers."  This  is  also  in  the  Collection  of  180  Loyal  Songs,  1685  and  1694, 
p.  183.  It  consists  of  sixteen  stanzas,  commencing,  "  The  delights  of  the  bottle 
are  turn'd  out  of  doors." 

There  are  several  other  ballads  extant,  which  were  to  be  sung  to  the  tune,  and 
among  them,  the  following,  which  is  in  the  Pepys  Collection  (i.  474).  It  was 
printed  for  P.  Brooksby,  and  licensed  by  Roger  L'Estrange ;  therefore  the  copy 
cannot  be  of  later  date  than  the  reign  of  James  II.,  and  is  more  probably  of  that 
of  Charles  II. 

"  OLD  CHRISTMAS  RETURNED,  or  Hospitality  revived ;  Being  a  Looking-glass 
for  rich  misers,  wherein  they  may  see  (if  they  be  not  blind)  how  much  they  are 
to  blame  for  their  penurious  house-keeping ;  and  likewise  an  encouragement  to 
those  noble-minded  gentry  who  lay  out  a  great  part  of  their  estate  in  hospitality, 
relieving  such  persons  as  have  need  thereto  : 

Who  feasts  the  poor,  a  true  reward  shall  find, 
Or  helps  the  old,  the  feeble,  lame,  and  blind." 
To  the  tune  of  The  Delights  of  the  Bottle. 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES   II. 


499 


All  you  that  to  feasting  and  mirth  are 

inclin'd,  [your  mind, 

Come,  here  is  good  news  for  to  pleasure 

Ola  Christmas  is  come  for  to  keep  open 

house, 

He  scorns  to  be  guilty  of  starving  a  mouse : 

Thon  come,  boys,  and  welcome  of  diet  the 

chief,  [and  roast-beef. 

Plum-pudding,  goose,  capon,  minc'd  pies, 

A  long  time  together  lie  hath  been  forgot, 
They  scarce  could  afford  for  to  hang  on 

the  pot ;  [been, 

Such  miserly  sneaking  in  England  hath 
As  by  our  forefathers  ne'er  us'd  to  be  seen ; 
But  now  he's  returned  you  shall  have  in 

brief,  [and  roast-beef. 

Plum-pudding,  goose,  capo'n,  minc'd  pies, 

The  times  were    ne'er  good  since    Old 

Christmas  was  fled, 

And  all  hospitality  hath  been  so  dead, 
No  mirth  at  our  festivals  late  did  appear, 
They  scarcely  would  part  with  a  cup  of 

March  beer ; 
But  now  you  shall  have  for  the  ease  of 

your  grief,  [and  roast-beef. 

Plum-pudding,  goose,  capon,  minc'd  pies, 

The  butler  and  baker,  they  now  may  be 

glad,  [have  been  bad ; 

The  times  they  are  mended,  though  they 

The  brewer,  he  likewise  may  be  of  good 

cheer,  [strong  beer, 

He  shall  have  good  trading  for  ale  and 

All  trades  shall  be  jolly,   and  have  for 

relief,  [and  roast-beef. 

Plum-pudding,  goose,  capon,  minc'd  pies, 

The  holly  and  ivy  about  the  walls  wind, 
Aiid  show  that  we  ought  to  our  neigh- 
bours be  kind, 

Inviting  each  other  for  pastime  and  sport, 
And  where  we  best  fare,  there  we  most 

do  resort, 

W>3  fail  not  of  victuals,  and  that  of  the 

chief,  [and  roast-beef. 

Plum-pudding,  goose,  capon,  minc'd  pies, 

The  cooks  shall  be  busied  by  day  and  by 

night,  [delight ; 

In    roasting   and   boiling,   for   taste    and 

Their  senses  in  liquor  that's  nappy  they'll 

steep,  [sleep ; 

Though  they  be  afforded  to  have  little 

They  still  are  employed  for  to  dress  us,  in 

brief,  [and  roast-beef. 

PI  am -pudding,  goose,  capon,  miiic'd  pies, 


Although  the  cold  weather  doth  hunger 
provoke,  [smoke ; 

'Tis  a  comfort  to  see  how  the  chimneys  do 

Provision  is  making  for  beer,  ale,  and 
wine, 

For  all  that  are  willing  or  ready  to  dine; 

Then  haste  to  the  kitchen  for  diet  the 
chief,  [and  roast-beef. 

Plum-pudding,  goose,  capon,  minc'd  pies, 

All  travellers  as  they  do  pass  on  their  way, 
At  gentlemen's  halls  are  invited  to  stay, 
Themselves  to  refresh,  and  their  horses  to 

rest,  [guest, 

Since  that  he  must  be  Old  Christmas's 
Nay,  the  poor  shall  not  want,  but  have  for 

relief  [and  roast-beef. 

Plum -pudding,  goose,  capon,  minc'd  pies, 

Now  Mock -beggar -hall  it  no  more  shall 

stand  empty,  [plenty, 

But  all  shall  be  furnisht  with  freedom  and 

The   hoarding   old   misers   who   us'd   to 

preserve  [poor  starve, 

The  gold  in  their  coffers,    and   see   the 

Must  now  spread  their  tables,  and  give 

them  in  brief  [and  roast-beef. 

Plum-pudding,  goose,  capon,  minc'd  pies, 

The  court,  and  the  city,  and  country,  are 

glad  [sad  ; 

Old  Christmas  is  come  to  cheer  up  the 

Broad  pieces  and  guineas  about  now  shall 

%, 

And  hundreds  be  losers  by  cogging  a  die, 

Whilst  others  are  feasting  with  diet  the 

chief,  [and  roast-beef. 

Plum -pudding,  goose,  capon,  minc'd  pies, 

Those  that  have  no  coin  at  the  cards  for 

to  play, 

May  sit  by  the  fire,  and  pass  time  away, 
And  drink  off  their  moisture  contented 
and  free,  [to  thee," 

"  My  honest  good  fellow,  come,  here  is 
And  when  they  are  hungry,  fall  to  their 

relief  [and  roast-beef. 

Plum-pudding,  goose,  capon,  minc'd  pies, 

Young  gallants  and    ladies  shall   foot  it 

along,  [shall  throng, 

Each   room  in   the  house  to   the   music 

Whilst    jolly   carouses  about  they  shall 

pass,  [his  lass ; 

And  each  country  swain  trip  about  with 
Meantimes  goes  the  caterer  to  fetch  in  the 

chief,  [and  roast-beef. 

Plum -pudding,  goose,  capon,  minc'd  pies, 

2  K 


500 


ENGLISH   SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


The  cooks  and  the  scullion,  who  toil  in  We  feast  it  all  day,  and  we  frolic  all  night, 

their  frocks,                         [mas  box ;  Both  hunger  and  cold  we  keep  out  with 

Their  hopes  do  depend  upon  their  Christ-  relief,                           [and  roast-beef. 

And  few  there  are  now  that  do  live  on  the  Plum-pudding,  goose,  capon,  minc'd  pies 

But  enjoy  at  this  time  either  p^nfor  Then  to  all  curmudgeons  who  dote  on 

Yea,    many    are    charged   to   give   for  .      *1TTt  ;                  [their  heath, 

relief,                           [and  roast-beef.  And  value  the.r  treasure  much  more  than 

Plum-pudding,  goose,  capon,  minc'd  pies,  *»  ha^themselves  up,  rfthey  **  be^o 

Then  well  may  we  welcome  Old  Christ*  Old  Christmas  with  them  but  small  wel- 

mas  to  town,            [liquor  so  brown,  They  will  not  afford  to  themselves  with- 

Who   brings   us   good  cheer,   and   good  out  grief, 

To  pass  the  cold  winter  away  with  de-  Plum-pudding,  goose,  capon,  minc'd  pies, 

light,  and  roast  beef. 

The  following  is  the  original  song  from  Psyche,  4to.,  1675.  "In  musick," 
says  Roger  North,  "  Matthew  Lock  had  a  robust  vein,"  of  which  the  following  is 
rather  characteristic. 


(CT^f8^ 

1          Is     .      =± 

—  J  j  1  <L  •  *  *~ 

--«  F~=~M 

g^r^x-  J  i  'a 

The     de-lights       of     the       bot 

„                     _J  

iJ  *ffj*  ?  J      K                    •*•>                                             ' 

-  tie      and  the  charms    of  good  wine,     To  the 

1  M  

—  JM^  — 

r,  .  ft  r^ 

L^-         '    'J 

.    i      i     J    |  J 

J     U       J 

—  j  hyl  f^] 

-j  —  1  —  =s=| 

N  •  ^  a  •  ' 

;i    J—  1-14 

:&g  —  i  -  9-4 

pow  -   er     and  the  plea-sures      of       love  must     re  -  sign  ;  Though  the 

1  1  r  Mm  1  —  9  1  r 

•      -t 
night  in      the 

.|*_  »  

L  H  

•-CT  JE 

—  1  0  

-HP  —  •  

a                 9 

1                         ' 

a         [ 

^L.  ,—T  ,  1  — 

—f-.  ,  K  1  r- 

J      h  -i 

~N  —  i  — 

i  J  i  T~ 

—  r    g  ha  •   J 

•4—  j-tH  —  d  — 

J          i 

J        m       £ 

r*     '     H       1  «F                               15 

• 

m     •     J         I 

1  .                ^ 

C  ...  p    I  *T                 n* 

\              m, 

9                        9999           .^. 

joys       of   good   drink  -  ing     be      past, 

*  -T               -9-     •          • 

The  de  -  bauch  -  es    but       till       the  next 

[_  1  

-\  r  —  ;  — 

F~  —  3  C5  9  

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A  '          T           1*      •      m        * 

e  .  ^$9  — 

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W          m       L       1 

morn  -ing      will      last,       But      Love's  g 

B-J          -   O                                   '                                         * 

flp     ••  ^      r              c 

r         •    i 

T                1         r 

reat       de  -  bauch      is   more 

r       f 

last  -  ing   and 

^                                      M 

PS 

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1    I  j  [_J- 

1                  1 

^  U_ 

strong,    For          tl 

JP    •  H  j* 

lat      of  -    ten        lasts 

9               m 

p—  4  f—  f- 

a     man        all         his  life 

1                                                        A 

—  ^  E 

long. 

I 

_sq  L^-g  

f—  r—  f—  ^P 

j—  hP—  ,  P= 

"    J           || 

_^  L 

—  i  —  i  1_ 

E  —  |.  ...  '.- 

li 

REIGN   OF   CHARLES    II. 


501 


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rr  —  p~ 

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•      •      ^        2 

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n 

// 

2 

^T^T    T-^T 

But         Love's  great      de  -  bauch      is  more 

k_    *_  Hi    4-9-  - 

Hi  •  Ljgl  — 

last  -  ing     and      strong, 

^ 

For 

^J 

~*~      ~& 

:     s    B! 

1  —  r 

P 

j: 

that       of   -    ten 


lasts 


man 


his    life 


long. 


=*=* 


Love  and  wine  are  the  bonds  that  fasten  us  all,  Mankind  for  each  trifle  their  lives  would  re- 

The  world,  but  for  these,  to  confusion  would  sign ;  [out  thinking, 

fall :  They'd  not  value  dull  life,  nor  could  live  with- 

Were  it  not  for  the  pleasures  of  love  and  good  Nor  would  kings  rule  the  world,  but  for  love 

wine,  and  good  drinking. 

BONNY  NELL. 

From  one  of  the  earliest  editions  of  Playford's  Apollo's  Banquet,  without  a 
title  page,  probably  of  1670. 

In  Westminster  Drollery,  3rd  edit.,  1674,  is  a  song  beginning  "  A  blithe  and 
bonny  Country  Lass  ;"  and  in  the  second  stanza  are  these  lines  : — 
"  When  as  the  wanton  girl  espied 
The  means  to  make  herself  a  bride, 
She  simpered  much  like  bonny  Nell." 

I  suppose  Nell  Gwyn  to  be  intended,  and  that  this  tune  is  also  named  from  her. 
Dr.  Richard  Corbett,  afterwards  Bishop  of  Norwich,  wrote  some  verses  to  a 
tune  of  Bonny  Nell,  which  could  not  be  sung  to  this  air ;  and,  as  Dr.  Corbett  was 
a  singer,  and  not  likely  to  mistake  the  rhythm,  I  have  no  doubt  of  there  having  been 
another  tune,  under  the  same  name,  and  of  earlier  date.  "  After  he  was  D.D.,"  says 
Aubrey,  "  he  sang  ballads  at  the  Cross  of  Abingdon.  On  a  market  day,  he  and 
some  of  his  comrades  were  at  the  tavern  by  the  Cross  (which,  by  the  way,  was 
then  the  finest  in  England),  and  a  ballad  singer  complained  that  he  had  no  cus- 
tom ;  he  could  not  put  off  his  ballads.  The  jolly  Doctor  put  off  his  gown,  and 
put  on  the  ballad  singer's  leathern  jacket ;  and,  being  a  handsome  man,  and 
having  a  rare  full  voice,  he  presently  had  a  great  audience,  and  vended  a  large 
number  of  ballads." 

Dr.  Corbett' s  verses  commence — 

"  It  is  not  yet  a  fortnight  since 
Lutetia  entertain'd  a  prince;" 
and  are  entitled  "  A  grave  Poem,  as  it  was  presented  by  certain  divines  by  way 


502 


ENGLISH    SONG    AND    BALLAD    MUSIC. 


of  Interlude,  before  his  Majesty  in  Cambridge,  stiPd  Liber  novus  de  adventu  regis 
ad  Cantabrigiam,  faithfully  done  into  English,  with  some  liberal  advantages,  made 
rather  to  be  sung  than  read,  to  the  tune  of  Bonny  Nell"  A  copy  in  MSS. 
Ashmole,  36,  37,  art.  271,  and  in  Nicholls'  Progresses  of  King  James,  iii.  66,  as 
well  as  "  A  Cambridge  Madrigal,  confuting  the  Oxford  Ballad  that  was  sung  to 
the  tune  of  Bonny  Nell." 

Massinger  alludes  to  some  "  Bonny  Nell,"  in  his  Old  Law,  act  iv.,  sc.  1,  where 
the  Cook  says,  "That  Nell  was  Helen  of  Greece  too;"  and  Gnotho  answers, 
"  As  long  as  she  tarried  with  her  husband,  she  was  Ellen  ;  but  after  she  came  to 
Troy,  she  was  Nell  of  Troy,  or  Bonny  Nell."  There  is  much  punning  on 
musicians  in  this  scene  ; — as  "  ^re-drawers  "  they  are  compared  to  m'we-drawers, 
both  being  governed  by  pegs,  both  having  pipes  and  sack-buts,  only  the  heads 
differ ;  the  one  hogsheads,  the  other  cittern  or  gittern  heads,  but  still  each  wooden 
heads,  &c. 

In  the  Pepys  Collection,  i.  70,  is  "  A  Battell  of  Birds  most  strangly  fought  in 
Ireland  upon  the  8th  day  of  September,  1621,  where  neere  unto  the  Citty  of 
Corke,  by  the  river  Lee,  were  gathered  together  such  a  multytude  of  Stares,  or 
Starlings,  as  the  like  for  number  was  never  scene  in  any  age.  To  the  tune  of 
Shore's  Wife,  or  to  the  tune  of  Bonny  Nell."  And  in  the  same,  iii.  124  (or 
Roxburghe,  i.  84),  another  "  to  an  excellent  new  tune,  or  to  be  sung  to  Bonny 
Nell"  which  commences  — 


"  As  I  went  forth  one  summer's  day, 
To  view  the  meadows  fresh  and  gay, 
A  pleasant  bower  I  espied, 

^     Merrily. 


Standing  hard  by  the  river's  side ; 
And  in't  I  heard  a  maiden  cry, 
Alas  !  there's  none  e'er  lov'd  like  I.' 


M 


flp  i"  frtpEJ^ 


ii&fi: 


-fi- 


at 


REIGN   OP  CHARLES   II.  503 

THE  LASS  OF  CUMBERLAND. 

The  copies  of  this  ballad  and  tune  are  still  numerous.  The  tune  is  in  a 
manuscript  in  the  Music  School,  Oxford,  dated  1670, — in  180  Loyal  Songs,  1685 
and  1694, — in  Youth's  Delight  on  the  Flagelet, — in  several  of  the  editions  of 
Apollo's  Banquet, — and  in  every  edition  of  Pills  to  purge  Melan&holy. 

In  180  Loyal  Songs,  p.  219,  is  "  The  Creditors'  Complaint  against  the  Bankers ; 
or,  The  Iron  Chest  the  best  Security  :^— 

Since  bankers  are  grown  BO  brittle  of  late, 

That  money  and  bankers  together  are  flown, 
I'll  chest  up  my  money  ;  and  then,  'spite  of  fate, 

Let  'em  all  break  their  necks — my  money's  my  own. 

To  the  tune  of  There  was  a  Lass  of  Cumberland"     It  consists  of  ten  stanzas  ; 
and  commences : — 

"  Bankers  are  now  such  brittle  ware,  An  iron  chest  is  still  the  best,  [they, 

They  break  just  like  a  Venice  glass  ;        'Twill  keep  your  coin  more  safe  than 

If  you  trust  them,  then  have  a  care,         For,  when  they've  feathered  well  their  nest, 

Lest  your  coin  to  foreign  lands  do  pass.  Then  the  rooks  willjly  away" 
In  the  same  collection  are  two  on  James  II. ,  then  Duke  of  York.  The  first, 
p.  176,  "  The  honour  of  great  York  and  Albany.  To  a  new  tune"  The  second, 
p.  177,  "  Loyalty  respected,  and  Faction  confounded.  To  an  excellent  new  tune." 
The  music  of  There  was  a  Lass  of  Cumberland  is  printed  as  the  tune  in  question. 
The  last  commences  with  the  line, — 

"  Let  the  cannons  roar  from  sea  to  shore." 

In  the  Roxburghe  Collection,  ii.  368,  is  "  The  Northern  Lad ;  or,  The  Fair 
Maid's  Choice,  who  refused  all  for  a  Plowman,  counting  herself  therein  most 
happy,  &c.  To  the  tune  of  There  was  a  Lass  in  Cumberland"  The  printer's 
name  is  cut  off  this  copy,  which  is  a  version  of  the  ballad  differing  from  that  in 
the  Pills  and  in  the  Douce  Collection.  It  commences  : — 
"  I  am  a  lass  o'  th'  North  Countrey,  But  to  led  to  me,  to  led  to  me, 

And  I  was  born  and  bred  a-whome  ;  The  lad  that  gangs  to  bed  with  me, 

Many  a  lad  has  courted  me,  A  jovial  plowman  must  he  le, 

And  swore  that  they  to  woo  me  come.        The  lad  that  comes  to  led  to  me" 
The  Douce  copy,   p.  43,   is  entitled   "  Cumberland  Nelly ;    or,   The  North 
Country  Lovers,  &c.    Tune  of  The  Lass  that  comes  to  led  to  me"   It  commences : 
"  There  was  a  lass  of  Cumberland, 
A  bonny  lass  of  high  degree  : 
There  was  a  lass,  her  name  was  Nell, 
The  blithest  lass  that  e'er  you  see. 

Oh  !  to  bed  to  me,  to  bed  to  me,"  &c. 

In  the  same  collection,  p.  44,  is  "  Cumberland  Laddy  ;  or,  Willy  and  Nelly 
oi  the  North ;"  to  the  same  tune.  The  first  printed  by  J.  Conyers,  at  the 
Black  Raven  in  Duck  Lane, — the  second  by  Coles,  Vere,  Wright,  and  Clarke. 

In  Youth's  Delight  on  the  Flagelet,  the  tune  is  entitled  To  led  to  me  ;  or,  The 
Northern  Lass  : — in  Apollo's  Banquet,  To  led  we'll  go. 


504 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD    MUSIC. 


Another  song  entitled  "  The  Cumberland  Lass,"  commencing — 
"  In  Cumberland  there  dwells  a  maid, 

Her  charms  are  past  compare," 

will  be  found  in  "  A  Complete  Collection  of  Old  and  New  English  and  Scotch 
Songs,"  i.  179,  8vo.,  1735.     It  is  in  the  wrong  metre  for  this  tune. 

Moderate  time,  and  with  expression. 


There   was      a  lass    of     Cum-berland,     A    bon-ny  lass  of    high  degree,  There 


3 


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COME,  OPEN  THE  DOOR,  SWEET  BETTY. 

In  the  Pepys  Collection,  iii.  62,  and  in  the  Roxburghe,  ii.  238,  are  copies  of 
the  ballad,  entitled  "  John's  earnest  request ;  or,  Betty's  compassionate  love  ex- 
tended to  him  in  a  time  of  distress.  To  a  pleasant  new  tune  much  in  request." 
Printed  for  P.  Brooksby,  at  the  Golden  Ball  in  Pye  Corner.  It  consists  of  nine 
stanzas,  the  first  of  which  is  here  printed  to  the  tune. 

This  air  will  be  found  in  the  ballad  operas  of  Flora,  1729,  The  Cobblers'  Opera, 
1729,  and  Achilles,  1733.     The  following  words,  adapted  to  it  in  Flora,  became 
popular,  and  were  reprinted  in  The  Syren  (12mo.,  1735),  and  other  song-books. 
In  The  Livery  Rake,  the  air  is  named  from  them. 
"  O  fly  from  this  place,  dear  Flora,  Dearest  creature,  exchange  for  the  better, 

Thy  gaoler  has  set  thee  free,  Confinement  can  have  no  charms, 

And  before  the  next  blush  of  Aurora         Think  which  of  your  prisons  is  sweeter, 

You'll  find  a  kind  guardian  in  me.  This,  or  a  young  lover's  arms." 

In  Burns'  remarks  on  the  songs  in  Johnson's  Scot's  Musical  Museum,  he  speaks 
of  "  old  words"  to  "  Blink  o'er  the  burn,  sweet  Betty,"  and  says,  "  All  that 
I  remember  are — 


Blink  over  the  burn,  sweet  Betty, 

It  is  a  cauld  winter  night ; 
It  rains,  it  hails,  it  thunders, 

The  moon  she  gives  nae  light. 
It's  a'  for  the  sake  o'  sweet  Betty, 

That  ever  I  tint  my  way ; 
Sweet,  let  me  lie  beyond  thee, 

Until  it  be  break  o'  day. 


O  Betty  will  bake  my  bread, 

And  Betty  will  brew  my  ale, 
And  Betty  will  be  my  love 

When  I  come  over  the  dale. 
Blink  over  the  burn,  sweet  Betty, 

Blink  over  the  burn  to  me, 
And  while  I  hae  life,  dear  lassie, 

My  am  sweet  Betty  thou  't  be." 


REIGN   OF  CHARLES   II. 


505 


The  Scotch  tune,  "  Blink  over  the  burn,  sweet  Betty,"*  bears  no  resemblance 
to  "  Come,  open  the  door,  sweet  Betty," — nor  do  the  Scotch  words,  in  any  early 
collection,  resemble  the  English ;  but  the  song  quoted  by  Burns,  and  since  adopted 
in  Wood's  Songs  of  Scotland,  is  evidently  taken  from  the  following  ballad. 

Very  slowly,  and  with  expression. 


f  T 

Come,  o  -  pen  the  door,  sweet    Bet   -    ty,      For       'tis     a    cold  win-ter's 


2 


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me    lie         be  -  yond     thee,      Un   -   til     it       is  break     of       day. 


"  Come,  open  the  door,  sweet  Betty,"  re-appears  in  the  first  part  of  a  tune 
called  Tom  Nokes'  Jigg.  The  time  is  changed ;  it  is  quick,  and  in  |  measure, — but 
evidently  from  the  same  root.  It  is  to  be  found  in  the  first  edition  of  Apollo* }s 
Banquet,  1669.  Tom  Nokes  (from  whom  it  derives  its  name)  was  a  favourite 
actor  in  the  reign  of  Charles  the  Second.  The  following  notice  of  Nokes  and 
Nell  Gwyn  is  from  the  appendix  to  Downes'  Roscius  Anylicanus,  edition  of 
1789 :— 


1  It  has  been  stated  that  the  first  line  of  "  Blink  o'er 
thi  burn"  is  quoted  by  Shakespeare  in  King  Lear,  actiii., 
BC.  6  :— 

"  Wantest  thou  eyes  at  trial,  Madam? 

Come  o'er  the  bourn,  Bessy,  to  me;" 

bin  the  allusion  is  to  an  English  ballad  by  William  Birch, 
entitled  "A  Songe  betwene  the  Quenes  Majestie  and 
Er  ijlande,"  a  copy  of  which  is  in  the  library  of  the  Society 
of  Antiquaries.  England  commences  the  dialogue,  in- 
vit  ng  Queen  Elizabeth  in  the  following  words  :— 


"  Come  over  the  born,  Bessy,  come  over  the  born,  Bessy, 

Swete  Bessy,  come  over  to  me." 

Another,  "  Come  o'er  the  burne,  Bessie,"  will  be  found 
in  Addit.  MSS.  Brit.  Mus.  No.  5665,  with  music.  I  may 
here  remark,  that  the  tune  to  Take  thy  old]cloak  about 
thee  (one  of  the  ballads  quoted  by  Shakespeare)  is 
evidently  formed  out  of  Green  Sleeves.  The  earliest 
known  copy  of  the  words  is  in  English  idiom,  in  Bishop 
Percy's  folio  manuscript,  and  I  have  little  doubt  that 
both  words  and  music  are  of  English  origin. 


506 


ENOLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


"  At  the  Duke's  theatre,  Nokes  appeared  in  a  hat  larger  than  Pistol's,  which  took 
the  town  wonderful,  and  supported  a  bad  play  by  its  pure  effect.  Dryden,  piqued  at 
this,  caused  a  hat  to  be  made  the  circumference  of  a  hinder  coach-wheel ;  and  as  Nelly 
(Nell  Gwyn)  was  low  of  stature,  and  what  the  French  call  mignonne  and  piquante, 
he  made  her  speak  under  the  umbrella  of  that  hat,  the  brims  thereof  being  spread  out 
horizontally  to  their  full  extension.  The  whole  theatre  was  in  a  convulsion  of  ap- 
plause; nay,  the  very  actors  giggled,  a  circumstance  none  had  observed  before. 
Judge,  therefore,  what  a  condition  tbe  merriest  Prince  alive  was  in,  at  such  a  con- 
juncture !  'Twas  beyond  odso  and  odsfish,  for  he  wanted  little  of  being  suffocated 
with  laughter." 

Cheerfully.  ToNoKESJio. 


THERE  WERE  THREE  TRAVELLERS. 

In  a  Collection  of  Satirical  Songs  by  the  Earl  of  Rochester  (Harl.  MSS., 
No.  6913),  is  "  A  new  ditty  to  an  old  tune  of  Three  Travellers"  beginning — 
"  I'll  shew  you  the  Captains  of  Aubrey  Vere, 

With  a  hey  ho,  langled  down  dilly  ; 
Fit  Captains  to  serve  with  so  noble  a  peer, 

Who  has  never  a  penny  of  money" 

A  copy  of  the  ballad  in  the  Bagford  Collection  (643,  m.  9,  p.  88)  is  entitled 
"  The  Jovial  Companions ;  or,  The  Merry  Travellers,  who  paid  their  shot  where 
ever  they  came,  without  ever  a  stiver  of  money :  To  an  excellent  North-country 
tune"  Printed  by  C.  Bates,  at  the  Sun  and  Bible,  in  Pye  Corner.  It  is  also 
contained  in  Pills  to  purge  Melancholy,  vi.  177. 

Cheerfully.        ^  ^^      , 


There  were  three  travellers,  travellers  three,  With  a  hey  down,  ho  down,  langtreedown  deny,  And 


-J *- 


f 


"I*"     *  »'  * 

they  would  go    tra  -  vel   the  North  Country,  Without    e  -  ver  a    eti-  ver  of 


mo  -  ney. 


^— p-:  -4=3=Hf-H  T~TT '  & 


The  story  is,  that  the  three  travellers  make  themselves  so  agreeable  to  the 
hostess,  wherever  they  go,  that  they  are  suffered  to  depart  scot-free, — a  very 
pleasant  theory. 


REIGN    OF   CHARLES    II. 


507 


WILLY  WAS  SO  BLITHE  A  LAD. 

This  "  Northern  Song"  is  contained  in  the  first  edition  of  Playford's  Choice 
Ayres,  Book  I.  It  bears  a  strong  family  likeness  to  the  "  rare  Northern  tune," 
Never  love  thee  more  (ante  Vol.  L,  p.  380). 

Moderate 


[O]       Wil  -  ly     was        so       blithe     a     lad,    Ne'an    like     was    in      the 


m 


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town;         At    Wake  and  Was-sail     Wil-ly  had  For    dan  -  cing  chief    re-nown 


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~T 

*        *-" 

-•-                       ~m-    •    -^~ 

He       pitch'd  the  bar,  and    hurl'd  the  stean,  Ne'a 

man  could  him   out    -   gang,    And 

^ 

"^"""*       ^        H       '                   i         ^ 

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if       he 


strave    with      a    -  ny  man,     He       gar'd      him  lig        a 


lang. 


=¥ 


TO  ALL  YOU  LADIES  NOW  AT  LAND. 

This  ballad  was  written  by  Lord  Buckhurst,  afterwards  Earl  of  Dorset,  when 
at  sea  during  the  first  Dutch  war,  1604-5.  It  has  been  said  to  have  been  written 
"  the  night  before  the  engagement ; "  but,  in  all  probability,  was  penned  during 
the  Duke  of  York's  first  cruise,  in  November,  1664,  when  an  action  was  avoided 
by  the  Dutch  retiring  to  port. 

The  proof  is,  that  it  is  mentioned  by  Pepys  in  his  Diary,  under  the  date  of 
Jan.  2,  1664-5.  He  says,  "  To  my  Lord  Brouncker's  by  appointment,  in  the 
Piazza,  Covent  Garden ;  where  I  occasioned  much  mirth  with  a  ballet  I  brought 
with  me,  made  from  the  seamen  at  sea  to  the  ladies  in  town." 


508 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


The  statement  that  it  was  "  made  the  night  before  the  engagement,"  which  action 
took  place  in  June,  1665,  is  irreconcileable  with  Pepys'  possession  of  a  copy  in 
the  preceding  January,  and  has  been  carefully  analysed  by  Lord  Braybrooke,  in 
his  notes  upon  Pepys' s  Diary,  v.  241,  edit.  1849.  It  rests  upon  the  authority  of 
Matthew  Prior,  who  was  born  in  1664,  and  who  had  probably  heard  the  story 
with  a  little  embellishment. 

In  Merry  Drollery  Complete,  1670,  is  the  song  "  My  mistress  is  a  shuttlecock," 
to  this  tune.  In  A  Pill  to  purge  State  Melancholy,  12mo.,  1715,  is  "The 
Soldiers'  Lamentation  for  the  loss  of  their  General,"  &c.,  to  the  tune  of  "  To 
you  fair  ladies  ;"  and  the  same  was  printed  in  broadside  with  the  date  of  1712. 
Also,  "  News  from  Court,  a  ballad  to  the  tune  of  To  all  you  ladies  now  at  land, 
by  Mr.  Pope,"  1719.  In  the  Gentleman's  Magazine  for  July,  1731,  "To  all 
you  Ladies  now  at  Bath." 

The  tune  is  in  Watts'  Musical  Miscellany,  vol.  iii.,  1730,  and  in  the  Convivial 
Songster,  1782 ;  in  the  ballad-operas  of  The  Jovial  Crew,  The  Collier's  Opera, 
The  Lover's  Opera,  T/ie  Court  Legacy,  Polly,  A  Cure  for  a  Scold,  &c. ;  and 
(barbarously  printed)  in  Pills  to  purge  Melancholy,  vi.  272. 

./Cheerfully  and  smoothly. 


all  you    la  -  dies     now  at  land, 


first  would  have  you    un-derstand   How      hard  it       is     to  write  :    The     muses  now,  and 


Nep-tune  too,  We  must  im-plore    to     write    to  you,  With  a     fa,  la  la  la,  la  la,     la  la  la  la. 


^ 


3 


For  though  the  Muses  should  prove  kind, 

And  fill  our  empty  Drain  ; 
Yet  if  rough  Neptune  rouse  the  \vii>d 

To  wave  the  azure  main, 
Our  paper,  pen,  and  ink,  and  we, 
Roll  up  and  down  our  ships  at  sea, 

With  a  fa  la,  &c. 


Then  if  we  write  not  by  each  post, 

Think  not  we  are  unkind ; 
Nor  yet  conclude  our  ships  are  lost 

By  Dutchmen  or  hy  wind : 
Our  tears  we'll  send  a  speedier  way, 
The  tide  shall  bring  them  twice  a-day. 

With  a  fa  la,  &c. 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES   II. 


509 


The  king,  with  wonder  and  surprise, 
Will  swear  the  seas  grow  bold  ; 

Because  the  tides  will  higher  rise, 
Than  e'er  they  did  of  old : 

I'.ut  let  him  know  it  is  our  tears 

Brings  floods  of  grief  to  Whitehall  stairs. 
With  a  fa  la,  &c. 

Should  foggy  Opdam  chance  to  know 

Our  sad  and  dismal  story  ; 
The  Dutch  would  scorn  so  weak  a  foe, 

And  quit  their  fort  at  Goree  : 
For  what  resistance  can  they  find 
From  men  who've  left  their  hearts  behind? 
With  a  fa  la,  &c. 

Let  wind  and  weather  do  its  worst, 

Be  you  to  us  but  kind  ; 
Let  Dutchmen  vapour,  Spaniards  curse, 

No  sorrow  shall  we  find : 
Tis  then  no  matter  how  things  go, 
Or  who's  our  friend,  or  who's  our  foe, 

With  a  fa  la,  &c. 

To  pass  our  tedious  hours  away, 

We  throw  a  merry  main  ; 
Or  else  at  serious  ombre  play  ; 

But  why  should  we  in  vain 
Each  other's  ruin  thus  pursue  ? 
We  were  undone  when  we  left  you. 

With  a  fa  la,  &c. 


But  now  our  fears  tempestuous  grow, 

And  cast  our  hopes  away  : 
Whilst  you  regardless  of  our  woe, 

Sit  careless  at  a  play  : 
Perhaps  permit  some  happier  man 
To  kiss  your  hand,  or  flirt  your  fan. 

With  a  fa  la,  &c. 

When  any  mournful  tune  you  hear, 

That  dies  in  every  note  ; 
As  if  it  sigh'd  with  each  man's  care, 

For  being  so  remote : 
Think  then  how  often  love  we've  made 
To  you,  when  all  those  tunes  were  play'd. 
With  a  fa  la,  &c. 

In  justice  you  cannot  refuse, 

To  think  of  our  distress ; 
When  we  for  hopes  of  honour  lose 

Our  certain  happiness  ; 
All  those  designs  are  but  to  prove 
Ourselves  more  worthy  of  your  love. 

With  a  fa  la,  &c. 

And  now  we've  told  you  all  our  loves, 

And  likewise  all  our  fears ; 
In  hopes  this  declaration  moves 

Some  pity  for  our  tears  ; 
Let's  hear  of  no  inconstancy, 
We  have  too  much  of  that  at  sea. 

With  a  fa  la,  &c. 


THE  FAIR  ONE  LET  ME  IN. 

A  black-letter  copy  of  this  ballad  in  the  Roxburghe  Collection,  ii.  240,  is 
entitled,  "Kind  Lady;  or,  The  Loves  of  Stella  and  Adonis:  A  new  court  song, 
much  in  request.  To  a  new  tune,  or  Hey,  boys,  up  go  we,  The  Charming  Nymph, 
or  Jenny,  gin."  It  commences — 

"  The  night  her  blackest  sables  wore,"  &c. 

Tho  "  new  tune"  soon  became  popular,  and  many  other  ballads  were  sung  to  it. 
In  the  same  volume  of  the  Roxburghe  Collection  are  "The  Good  Fellow's 
Frolic;  or,  Kent  Street  Club:  To  the  tune  of  The  fair  one  let  me  in,  p.  198; — 
"  The  love-sick  Maid  of  Wapping,"  p.  295  ;— and  a  third  ballad  at  p.  270. 

In  the  Douce  Collection,  p.  55,  is  "  The  despairing  Maiden  reviv'd  by  the 
return  of  her  dearest  love,"  &c.  "To  the  tune  of  The  fair  one  let  me  in,  or 
Emy  Fame,  or  Jenny,  gin;"  commencing — 

;'  As  I  walkt  forth  to  take  the  air,  And  for  to  view  the  lilies  fair, 

One  morning  in  the  Spring,  To  hear  the  small  birds  sing,"  &c. 

Tho  words  of  the  original  song,  "  The  night  her  blackest  sables  wore,"  or  "  The 
fair  one  let  me  in,"  were  written  by  D'Urfey,  and  the  tune  composed  by  Thomas 
Farmer.  They  were  published  together  in  "A  new  Collection  of  Songs  and 
Poems,  by  Thomas  D'Urfey,  Gent.  Printed  for  Joseph  Hindmarsh,  at  the  Black 


510  ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD  MUSIC. 

Bull,  in  Cornhill,"  1683  (8vo.) ;  and  there  entitled,  "  The  generous  Lover,  a 
new  song,  set  by  Mr.  Tho.  Farmer."  In  the  same  year,  they  were  included  in 
the  fourth  book  of  "  Choice  Ayres  and  Songs  to  sing  to  the  Theorbo-lute  or  Bass- 
viol:  being  most  of  the  newest  Ayres  and  Songs  sung  at  Court,  and  at  the 
Public  Theatres ;  Composed  by  several  Gentlemen  of  His  Majesty's  Musick,  and 
others ; "  and  the  tune  alone,  printed  in  "  The  Genteel  Companion  for  the  Re- 
corder, by  Humphrey  Salter,  Gent."  It  then  passed  into  Pills  to  purge 
Melancholy,  and  was  included  in  the  first  volume  of  every  edition ;  the  tune  was 
also  introduced  into  many  ballad-operas. 

I  may  here  remark  that  the  Pills  of  1719,  having  been  made  up  by  D'Urfey, 
the  two  first  volumes  consist  exclusively  of  his  songs.  Older  songs  which  were 
contained  in  the  first  and  second  volumes  of  prior  editions  were  then  transferred 
from  the  first  to  the  third,  from  the  second  to  the  fourth,  and  some  to  the  fifth. 
He  removed  only  two  or  three  of  his  own  songs. 

Although  there  can  be  no  doubt  of  the  authorship  of  the  words  and  music  of 
this  song,  it  has  been  claimed  as  Scotch.  About  fifty  years  after  its  first  publica- 
tion, the  tune  appears  in  a  corrupt  form,  in  Thomson's  Orpheus  Caledonius,  ii.  14 
(1733).  The  alterations  may  have  arisen  from  having  been  traditionally  sung,  or 
may  have  been  made  by  Thomson.  There  are  also  a  few  changes  in  the  words,  such 
as  the  name  of  "  Stella  "  altered  to  "  Nelly,"  and  "  she  rose  and  let  me  in  "  to 
"  she  raise  and  loot  me  in."  These  were  copied  from  vol.  ii.  of  Allan  Ramsay's 
Tea-table  Miscellany,  in  which  the  song  is  marked  "  z,"  as  being  old. 

Allan  Ramsay  was  not  particular  as  to  the  nationality  of  his  songs, — it  sufficed 
that  they  were  popular  in  Scotland.  His  collection  includes  many  of  English  origin ; 
and  several  of  the  tunes  to  which  the  songs  were  to  be  sung  are  English  and 
Anglo- Scottish.  Ritson  claimed  this,  in  his  Essay  on  Scottish  Song,  as  "  an  English 
song  of  great  merit,  which  has  been  scotified  by  the  Scots  themselves."  Upon 
which,  Mr.  Stenhouse,  in  his  notes  to  Johnson's  Scot's  Musical  Museum,  asks, 
"  Could  any  person  in  his  sound  senses  affirm  that  such  lines  as  the  following,  in 
Playford's  edition  of  the  song,  printed  in  his  fourth  volume  of  Choice  Ayres  and 
Songs,  with  the  music,  in  1683,  were  not  only  English,  but  English  of  great  merit, 
too  ?  "  Mr.  Stenhouse's  opinion  of  the  merits  or  demerits  of  the  song  are  of 
little  importance :  it  suffices  to  say  that  Burns  differed  from  him ; — but  to 
assert  that  the  copy  in  Playford's  Choice  Ayres  is  not  English,  betrays  an  excess 
of  nationality  that  made  him  utterly  regardless  of  his  own  future  credit  for 
veracity.  In  the  forty  lines,  of  which  the  song  consists,  there  is  not  a  single 
Scotch  word, — not  even  one  that  could  be  mistaken  for  Scotch,  unless  it  were 
"bern"  for  "child!"  If  Mr.  Stenhouse  had  only  a  pocket  dictionary,  which 
did  not  contain  old  words,  he  certainly  used  a  copy  of  Percy's  Reliques  of  Ancient 
Poetry,  in  the  glossary  to  which  he  would  have  found  "  barne,  berne — man, 
person.  "  If  "  bairn  "  had  been  the  word,  the  mistake  would  have  been  more 
excusable,  because  it  is  the  more  common  form  in  Scotland ;  but  whether  written 
"  barn,"  "  bern,"  "  beam,"  or  "  bairn,"  all  are  English,  and  words  in  use  at 
that  time.  D'Urfey  spells  it  "  beam,"  in  his  Songs  and  Poems,  as  in  Bailey's 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES    II. 


511 


Dictionary.  "Awd  men  are  twice  bairnes"  is  one  of  the  Yorkshire  proverbs, 
at  ~he  end  of  Tlie  Praise  of  Yorkshire  Ale,  by  G.  M.,  Gent.,  8vo.,  York, 
1697.  It  would  have  been  unnecessary  to  refer  at  such  length  to  Mr. 
Stenhouse's  "  notes,"  if  they  had  not  been  transferred  to  more  recent  works ;  but, 
in  tie  first  place,  the  editor  of  Messrs.  Blackie's  Book  of  Scottish  Song  repeats 
his  statement,  that  "  the  original  Scotch  words  are  to  be  found  in  Play  ford's 
Choice  Ayres"  In  the  second,  Mr.  Stenhouse  telling  us  that  this  song  was 
"  originally  written  by  Francis  Semple,  Esq.,  of  Beltrees,  about  the  year  1650," 
it  has  been  recently  printed  among  poems  by  Francis  Sempill.  Even  the 
learned  editor  of  Wood's  Songs  of  Scotland  does  not  question  statements  so 
audaciously  put  forth,  although  he  has  frequently  had  occasion  to  convict  Mr. 
Stenhouse  of  misquoting  the  contents  of  music-boooks  that  he  pretended  to  have 
read,  but  was  unable  to  decipher. 


i_j  j  j  JST 

I    •  >  .  i 

The  n 

ight      her    blackest 

•      J    1 

sa  -  bles  wore,     All     j 

1                           I*«w, 

J  •  ^  J  ^ 

^loom  -  y    were     t 

he 

d            •               1 

fi 

^•''jJ'V  (*  —  p  — 

~CT  ;  c  — 

^  P  S 

-^  r 

—  -  —  ^  •  ' 

L    1                   1 

J  ^  J 

3    p«jj  f 


p^ 


skies, 
=f=P 


And      glit-tering  stars  there    were     no  more  Than   those       in        Stel   -    la's 


? 


ey,;s,     When        at     her   fa  '  ther'8   gate       I  knockt,  Where 


ad       of    -      ten 


— & 


be  -n,         And  shroud  -  ed    on  -  ly        in      her  smock,  The      fair  one  let 


on  -  ly 

-J-J-ftj — ,-^r -f   *}- 


m. 


In  D'Urfey's  /S'o^s  aw^  Poems,  the  last  line  is  "  This  angel  let  me  in,"  which 
in  my  copy  is  altered  by  a  contemporary  hand  to  "  The  fair  one,"  as  it  stands  in 
all  <  »ther  copies. 


512 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


MAD  ROBIN. 

This  tune  is  in  The  Dancing  Master  of  1686  (additional  sheet),  and  in  all  later 
editions.  Also  in  Potty,  1728  ;  The  Lovers'  Opera,  1729 ;  The  Stage  Mutineers, 
1733  ;  and  many  other  ballad -operas. 

"  'Tis  but  a  day  or  two  ago  since  our  mistress  turn'd  away  her  old  servant,  because 
he  would  not  play  Mad  Robin,  which  the  organist  has  promised  to  do.  I  will  say 
that  for  him,  the  old  organist  was  an  excellent  musician,  but  somewhat  of  a  hu- 
mourist; he  would  have  his  own  way,  and  play  his  own  tunes." — History  of 
Robert  Powel,  the  Puppet-showman,  8vo.,  1715. 

I  have  not  succeeded  in  finding  the  song  of  Mad  Robin,  and  have  therefore 
taken  the  first  and  last  stanzas  of  a  ballad  contained  in  a  manuscript  of  the  time 
of  James  L,  now  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  Payne  Collier.  I  have  no  authority 
for  coupling  them  with  the  tune,  but  prefer  those  old  words  to  any  written 
expressly  to  the  air  in  the  ballad-operas. 

Smoothly,  and  moderate  time. 


Love    me    lit  -  tie,      love  me       long,         la      the  bur-den         of  my  song, 


m 


-3  :  '  ^    ]  J= 

J    J--J- 

"~~i  —  «  —  i  —  j  — 

-    .   r 

Love      that  is       too      hot 

—  1  R—  i  —  j  <sr 

—  •  •  0  — 
and       strong 

J 

Burn  -  eth    soon       to       wa 

-f  —  J  h 

ste. 

^  r~ft- 

UJ  •  ?  J  J  ^ 

r  •  F   •   fo   IP 

31 

-i  —  i  —  r: 

—  j  —  &  1— 

Q'm  (•  )•  •H'a  —  F 

L  [j_ 

p 

_u  HT— 

-J  J  J—  E 

i  5  —  P  —  I11  —  T~h 

•6  —  HE  —  r 

p                        L     I   P 

IP      r      s      it 

r   r 

Still,         I  would  not     have 

1                           •         ^ 

' 

thee   cold,  Nor  too     back  -  ward  nor     too 

I 

bold; 

9 

- 

[•  p            i 

1 

J 

• 

5Z 

G 

r      j         j 

a 

g«f         i 

i 

K  —  i  i          -  J  • 

—  1  1  

1 

r~p  —  J  —  i  —  J—  H 

—  H  H  j  — 

i~~i  —  1  —  J  M~1 

r"!!7 

—  *  a  —  •  jE: 

~d  H  1    •    ^  H 

—  -.  —  !  —  H- 

P           -5-             » 

Love    that     last  -  eth       till 

0  

'tis          old, 

—  P        •  — 

-5-    i    -S-           3  . 

Fa  -  deth    not        in     haste. 

1  —  a  1  1  n- 

<a  \— 

-f  —  0  «^- 

—  ^"rr~r 

J 

O 

r    ~  ...  L 

Winter's  cold,  or  summer's  heat, 
Autumn's  tempests  on  it  beat, 
It  can  never  know  defeat, 
Never  can  rebel : 


Such  the  love  that  I  would  gain, 
Such  love,  I  tell  thee  plain, 
Thou  must  give,  or  woo  in  vain, 
So,  to  thee,  farewell. 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES   II.  513 

THE  LEATHER  BOTTEL. 

Although  I  have  not  found  any  copy  of  this  ballad  printed  before  the  reign 
of  Charles  II.,  there  appears  reason  for  believing  it  to  be  of  much  earlier  date. 
The  irregularity  in  the  number  of  lines  in  each  stanza, — eight,  ten,  and  some- 
times twelve  in  the  earlier  copies, — gives  it  the  character  of  a  minstrel  produc- 
tion, such  as  Richard  Sheale's  Chevy  Chace,  rather  than  of  the  Eldertons, 
Delonys,  or  Martin  Parkers  of  the  reigns  of  Elizabeth  and  James,  who  all 
observed  a  just  number  of  lines  in  their  ballads.  The  word  "  bottle  "  was  not 
pronounced  "bottel"  in  the  reign  of  Charles  II.,  or  even  in  the  time  of 
Shakespeare ;  such  pronunciation  belongs  rather  to  the  era  of  Chaucer  and  Piers 
Ploughman,  than  to  the  later  period.  The  Rev.  Arthur  Bedford,  in  his  Great 
Abuse  of  Music,  8vo,  1711,  speaks  of  the  commencement  of  the  ballad, — 

"  'Twas  God  above  that  made  all  things,"  &c., 
ending  the  stanza  with — "  So  I  wish  his  soul  in  heav'n  may  dwell 

That  first  devised  the  leather  bottell," 

as  irreverent ;  but  I  believe  it  by  no  means  to  have  been  intentionally  so,  but  rather 
that  the  rambling  beginning  is  another  proof  of  its  antiquity.  A  very  early  ballad, 
written  by  a  priest  in  the  reign  of  Queen  Mary  (a  copy  of  which  is  in  the  library 
of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries),  commences  in  a  very  similar  manner,  and  the 
metre  is  so  like  that  it  might  be  sung  to  the  same  tune.  It  is  entitled  "  A  new 
Ballade  of  the  Marigolde,"  and  opens  thus  : — 

"  The  God  above,  for  man's  delight,  And  flowres  that  are  so  flourishyng  : 

Hath  heere  ordaynde  every  thing,  Amonges  all  which  that  I  beholde 

Sonne,  Moone  and  Sterres  shinying  so       (As  to  my  minde  best  contentyng), 
bright,  [spring,  I  doo  commende  the  Marigolde." 

With  all  kind  frnites,  that  here  doth 

In  the  seventh  stanza — 

"  To  Marie  our  Queene,  that  flowre  so        For  her  enduryng  paciently 
This  Marigolde  I  doo  apply,    [sweete,        The  stormes  of  such  as  list  to  scokle 
For  that  the  name  doth  serve  so  meete        At  her  dooynges,  without  cause  why, 
And  properlee  in  each  partie,  Loth  to  see  spring  this  Marigolde. 

At  the  end,  "  God  save  the  Queene.  Quod  William  Forrest,  Freest"*  Printed 
by  R  ichard  Lant,  in  Aldersgate  Street. 

But,  to  return  to  The  Leather  Bottel.  Copies  are  to  be  found  in  the  Bagford, 
Roxlurghe,  and  other  Collections ;  in  the  list  of  those  printed  by  Thackeray ; 
in  Wit  and  Drollery,  1682 ;  in  The  New  Academy  of  Compliments,  1694  and 
1713  ;  in  Pills  to  purge  Melancholy;  in  Dryden's  Miscellany  Poems ;  and  in 
a  succession  of  others  to  the  present  day.  Mr.  Sandys  contributed  a  Somerset- 
shire version  to  Mr.  Dixon's  Ballads  and  Songs  of  the  Peasantry  of  England. 

We  find  it  alluded  to  in  "Hey  for  our  Town,  or  a  fig  for  Zommersetshire " 
(Douce  Coll.,  p.  96):— 

"  Come,  sing  us  a  merry  catch,  quo'  Bob, 

Quo'  scraper,  what's  the  words  ? 
In  praise  o'  th'  Leather  Bottel,  quo'  Bob, 
For  we'll  be  merry  as  lords." 

•  In  ihe  same  volume  in  the  library  of  the  Society  of       Antiquaries,  is  a  ballad  on  the  marriage  of  Queen  Mary 

and  Philip,  by  John  Hey  wood. 


514 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


In  Westminster  Drollery,  Part  II. ,  1672,  and  in  Pills  to  purge  Melancholy, 
i.  267  (1707),  are  two  versions  of  a  similar  ballad  in  praise  of  the  Black  Jack. 
The  first  has  the  burden — 

"  And  1  wish  his  heirs  may  never  want  sack, 

That  first  devis'd  the  bonny  black  jack." 

There  is  a  version  of  the  tune  in  Pills  to  purge  Melancholy,  but  the  traditional 
copy  is  so  well  known,  that  I  give  it  in  preference. 


-^<*1          1          N      i                        iw 

I 

Er* 

1 

I] 

//\\  —  ft~o  1^  — 

~J  1 

—  -L-J—  *- 

—  «       J—  - 

-J  —  J  —  ' 

—  4- 

VTT  H  —  w~9,  — 

—  «^  

_j  ^_. 

• 

—  t  —  •  — 

c/ 

m               m 

'Twas   God     a 

-    bove  that  made     all  things,  The  heav'ns,the     earth,     and 

p3 

^  1  ,_,  

f  )  4  u.  fi  dTT- 

(P  5 

9                *| 

-j  —  =j  —  d  si  — 

-r  «  —  p  s— 

1 

'r            .1 

all  therein,  The  ships  that  on  the   sea  do  swim  To  guard  from  foes  that  none  come  in  ;  And 


!=3^i4^_iJ^f^-4-iMf]^^-|'-^fe^p-^l 


let  them    all   do  what  they  can,  'Twas  for  one  end,  —  the  use  of  man,  So  I  wish  in  heaven  his 


^ 


1  fe  —  ^^^*\  a  J  =  •  = 

1  

1  = 

i  j   rj  j 

^_i_3    i 

~F  ' 

j..., 

H^1 

J 

—  1  1  —  | 

*                  '                T 

soul  may  dwell,  That  first      found            out 

the 

i 

leather 

T                •  L^» 

hot      -      -     tel. 

J                   l^^^l 

—  j  a  1  sp- 

*     -  1       *1 

i             * 

~ 

— 

—  I  —  =| 

*           1      J                ' 

j  ' 

. 

-\  

I 

1  !  

Now,  what  do  you  say  to  these  cans  of  wood  ? 
Oh  no,  in  faith  they  cannot  be  good  ; 
For  if  the  bearer  fall  by  the  way, 
Why,  on  the  ground  your  liquor  doth  lay  : 
But  had  it  been  in  a  leather  bottel, 
Although  he  had  fallen,  all  had  been  well. 
So  I  wish  in  heav'n,  &c. 


Then  what  do  you  say  to  these  glasses  fine  ? 
Oh,  they  shall  have  no  praise  of  mine, 
For  if  you  chance  to  touch  the  brim, 
Down  falls  the  liquor  and  all  therein  ; 
But  had  it  been  in  a  leather  bottel, 
And  the  stopple  in,  all  had  been  well. 
So  I  wish,  &c. 


KEIQN  OF   CHARLES    II.  515 

Then  what  do  you  say  to  these  black  pots  three  ?  At  noon,  the  haymakers  sit  them  down, 

If  a  man  and  his  wife  should  not  agree,    [spill :  To  drink  from  their  bottles  of  ale  nut-brown  ; 

Why  they'll  tug  and  pull  till  their  liquor  doth  In  summer  too,  when  the  weather  is  warm, 

In  a  leather  bottel  they  may  tug  their  fill,  A  good  bottle  full  will  do  them  no  harm. 

And  pull  away  till  their  hearts  do  ake,  Then  the  lads  and  the  lasses  begin  to  tattle, 

And  yet  their  liquor  no  harm  can  take.  But  what  would  they  do  without  this  bottle  ? 
So  I  wish,  &c.  So  I  wish,  £c. 

Then  what  do  you  say  to  these  flagons  fine  ?        There's  never  a  Lord,  an  Earl,  or  Knight, 

Oh,  they  shall  have  no  praise  of  mine,  But  in  this  bottle  doth  take  delight ; 

For  when  a  Lord  is  about  to  dine,  For  when  he's  hunting  of  the  deer, 

And  sends  them  to  be  filled  with  wine,  He  oft  doth  wish  for  a  bottle  of  beer. 

The  man  with  the  flagon  doth  run  away,  Likewise  the  man  that  works  in  the  wood, 

Because  it  is  silver  most  gallant  and  gay.  A  bottle  of  beer  will  oft  do  him  good. 
So  I  wish,  &c.  So  I  wish,  &c. 

A  leather  bottel  we  know  is  good,  And  when  the  bottle  at  last  grows  old, 

Far  better,  than  glasses  or  cans  of  wood,  And  will  good  liquor  no  longer  hold, 

For  when  a  man's  at  work  in  the  field,  Out  of  the  side  you  may  make  a  clout, 
Your  glasses  and  pots  no  comfort  will  yield  ;        To  mend  your  shoes  when  they're  worn  out ; 

But  a  good  leather  bottle  standing  by,  Or  take  and  hang  it  up  on  a  pin, 

Will  raise  his  spirits,  whenever  he's  dry.  'Twill  serve  to  put  hinges  and  odd  things  in. 
So  I  wish,  &c.  So  I  wish,  &c. 

As  to  leather  bottles,  Heywood  thus  enumerates  the  various  descriptions,  in  his 
Fhilocothonista,  4to.,  1635,  p.  45  : — "  Other  bottles  we  have  of  leather,  but  they 
most  used  amongst  the  shepheards  and  harvest  people  of  the  countrey;  small 
jacks  we  have  in  many  ale-houses  of  the  citie  and  suburbs,  tipt  with  silver ;  be- 
sides the  great  black-jack  and  bombards  at  the  court,  which,  when  the  Frenchmen 
first  saw,  they  reported  at  their  returne  into  their  countrey,  that  the  Englishmen 
used  to  drink  out  of  their  boots."  These  bombards,  according  to  Taylor,  the 
water-poet,  each  held  a  gallon  and  a  half,  in  the  reign  of  James  I. ;  and  the 
merchants  of  London,  who  had  to  pay  a  tax  of  two  bombards  of  wine  to  the 
Lieutenant  of  the  Tower,  out  of  every  ship  that  brought  wine  into  the  river 
Thames,  contended,  but  unsuccessfully,  that  they  had  been  unduly  increased 
in  size.  "  When  the  bottle  and  jack  stand  together,  0  fie  on't, 

The  bottle  looks  just  like  a  dwarf  to  a  giant ; 
Then  have  we  not  reason  the  jacks  to  choose, 
For  they  will  make  boots,  when  the  bottle  mends  shoes." 

TURN  AGAIN,  WH1TTINGTON; 

"  The  tradition  of  Whittington' s  cat,"  says  Mr.  J.  H.  Burn,  "  has  served  to 
amuse  and  delight  the  childhood  of  many,  many  thousands ;  nor  is  it  possible  in 
more  adult  years  to  shake  off  the  delusion  cherished  and  imbibed  in  our  youthful 
dreams.  Still  it  has  no  reality;  it  is  a  pleasing  fiction,  so  agreeable  to  our 
better  feelings,  so  happy  in  its  believed  results,  that  regret  is  excited  when  it 
happens  not  to  be  true." 

"  Sir  Richard  Whittington,  thrice  Lord  Mayor  of  London,  in  the  years  1397, 
1406,  and  1419,  was  born  in  1360,  the  son  of  Sir  William  Whittington,  Knight, 
a  id  dame  Joan  his  wife.  He  was  therefore  not  a  poor  boy ;  and  the  story  of  his 

2L 


516  ENGLISH    SONG   AND    BALLAD    MUSIC. 

halting,  a  tired,  justifiable  runaway,  and  resting  on  a  stone  at  Holloway,  while 
Bow-bells  merrily  sounded  to  his  hearing — 

"Turn  again  Whittington,  thrice  Lord  Mayor  of  London," 

has  no  other  origin  than  a  flourish  of  fancy  created  by  some  poetical  brain." 
(Catalogue  of  the  Beaufoy  Tokens ,  p.  161.) 

The  earliest  notice  I  have  observed  of  Turn  again,  Whittington,  as  a  tune  (if 
a  mere  change  upon  bells  may  come  under  that  denomination),  is  in  Shirley's 
Constant  Maid,  act  ii.,  sc.  2,  4to.,  1640,  where  the  niece  says — 
"  Faith,  how  many  churches  do  you  mean  to  build 

Before  you  die  ?  six  bells  in  every  steeple, 

And  let  them  all  go  to  the  city  tune, 

Turn  again,  Whittington, — who,  they  say, 

Grew  rich,  and  let  his  land  out  for  nine  lives, 

'Cause  all  came  in  by  a  cat." 

Mr.  Burn  points  out  various  earlier  notices  of  Whittington  and  his  cat,  as  in 
Eastward  Hoe  (printed  in  1605),  where  Touchstone  assures  Golding  he  hopes  to 
see  him  reckoned  one  of  the  worthies  of  the  city  of  London,  "  when  the  famous 
fable  of  Whittington  and  his  puss  shall  be  forgotten." 

The  story  of  the  cat  is,  perhaps,  immediately  derived  from  Arlotto's  "  Novella 
delle  Gatte,"  contained  in  his  Facetice,  which  were  printed  soon  after  his  death 
in  1483.  The  story  is  there  told  of  a  merchant  of  Genoa,  but  it  is  probably  of 
Eastern  origin.  The  late  Sir  William  Gore  Ouseley,  in  his  travels,  speaking  of 
an  island  in  the  Persian  Gulf,  relates,  on  the  authority  of  a  Persian  MS.,  that, 
"  in  the  tenth  century,  one  Keis,  the  son  of  a  poor  widow  in  Siraf,  embarked 
for  India  with  a  cat,  his  only  property.  There  he  fortunately  arrived  at  a  time 
when  the  palace  was  so  infested  by  mice  or  rats,  that  they  invaded  the  king's 
food,  and  persons  were  employed  to  drive  them  from  the  royal  banquet.  Keis 
produced  his  cat ;  the  noxious  animals  soon  disappeared,  and  magnificent  rewards 
were  bestowed  on  the  adventurer  of  Siraf,  who  returned  to  that  city,  and  after- 
wards, with  his  mother  and  brothers,  settled  on  the  island,  which  from  him  has 
been  denominated  Keis,  or  according  to  the  Persians,  Keish." 

The  numerous  charities,  and  the  public  works,  with  which  his  name  was  asso- 
ciated, would  justly  transmit  the  name  of  Sir  Richard  Whittington  to  posterity. 
"  Amongst  others,  he  founded  a  house  of  prayer,  with  an  allowance  for  a  master, 
fellows,  choristers,  clerks,  &c.,  and  an  alms-house  for  thirteen  poor  men,  called 
Whittington  College.  He  entirely  rebuilt  the  loathsome  prison,  which  was  then 
standing  at  the  west  gate  of  the  city,  and  called  it  Newgate.  He  built  the  better  half 
of  St.  Bartholomew's  Hospital,  in  West  Smithfield;  and  the  fine  library  in  Grey 
Friars,  now  called  Christ's  Hospital;  as  also  a  great  part  of  the  east  end  of 
Guildhall,  with  a  chapel  and  a  library,  in  which  the  records  of  the  city  might  be 
kept."  Grafton,  in  his  Chronicle,  relates  an  anecdote  of  him,  which  is  not  else- 
where recorded.  In  a  codicil  to  his  will,  he  commanded  his  executors,  as  they 
should  one  day  answer  before  God,  to  look  diligently  over  the  list  of  the  persons 
indebted  to  him,  and  if  they  found  any  who  was  not  clearly  possessed  of  three 
times  as  much  as  would  fully  satisfy  all  the  claim,  they  were  freely  to  forgive 


REIGN    OF    CHARLES    II. 


517 


it.  He  also  added,  that  no  man  whatever  should  be  imprisoned  for  any  debt 
due  to  his  estate.  "  Look  upon  this,  ye  aldermen,"  says  the  historian  empha- 
tic-ally, "  for  it  is  a  glorious  glass  !  "  a 

The  ballad  was  entered  at  Stationers'  Hall  a  few  months  later  than  a  drama 
on  the  same  subject.  The  following  extracts  are  from  the  registers  of  the 
Company.  On  Feb.  8, 1604-5,  entered  to  Tho.  Pavier,  "  The  History  of  Richard 
"Whittington,  of  his  lowe  birthe,  his  great  fortune,  as  yt  was  plaied  by  the 
Prynce's  Servants;"  and  on  July  6  (1605),  to  Jo.  Wright,  "a  ballad  called 
The  wondrous  Lyfe  and  memorable  Death  of  Sir  Ri :  Whittington  now  sometyme 
Lo :  Maior  of  the  honorable  Citie  of  London." 

Wright  was  the  printer.  The  ballad  (or  another  on  the  same  subject)  was 
written  by  Richard  Johnson,  author  of  The  Seven  Champions  of  Christendom >  &c., 
and  is  contained  in  his  Crowne  Garland  of  G-oulden  Roses,  1612.  Copies  are 
also  in  the  Douce  Collection,  fol.  103 ;  in  Old  Ballads,  i.  132,  1723  ;  in  Evans's 
Collection,  ii.  325,  1810;  and  in  Mackay's  Songs  of  the  London  Prentices  and 
Trades;  &c. 

In  Pills  to  purge  Melancholy,  iii.  40,  1707,  the  tune  is  called  Turn  again, 
Whittington ;  in  Hawkins's  transcripts  of  virginal  music,  The  Bells  of  Osney  ;b  and 
as  the  ballad  of  "  Sir  Richard  Whittington "  was  to  be  sung  to  the  tune  of 
Dainty,  come  tlwu  to  me,  this  may  be  another  name  for  the  same.  A  fourth 
seoms  to  be  Whit  ting  torts  Bells  ;  for  Ward,  in  The  London  Spy,  says  "  he'd 
rather  hear  an  old  barber  ring  Whittington^  s  Bells  upon  the  cittern,"  than  all 
the  music-houses  then  afforded. 


Moderate  time. 


£E3^ 


Here  m  list  I  tell  the  praise  Of  worthy  Whittington  ,  Known  to  be  in  his  days  Thrice  Mayor  of  London. 

*  J. 


^U 


But  of  poor  parentage  Born  was  he,  as  we  hear,     And,  in  his  ten-der  age,  Bred  up  in     Lanca-shire. 


•  Kor  more  about  Sir  Richard  Whittington,  see  Anti- 
gua/ ian  Repertory,  ii.  343 ;  Rimbault's  Fly  Leaves, 
ii.  75;  Burn's  Descriptive  Catalogue  of  London  Traders1 
Tavrn  and  Coffee-House  Tokens;  &c. 

b  'The  bells  of  Osney  Abbey,"  says  Hawkins,  "were 
verj  famous :  their  several  names  were  Douce,  Clement, 
Aus  in,  Hautecter,  Gabriel,  and  John.  Near  old  Wind- 
sor,' he  adds,  "is  a  public-house,  vulgarly  called  The 


Bells  of  Bosely;  this  house  was  originally  built  for  tlie 
accommodation  of  bargemen,  and  others,  navigating  the 
river  Thames  between  London  and  Oxford.  It  has  a  sign 
of  six  bells,  i.e.,  the  bells  of  Osney."  (History,  8vo.,  615.) 
I  am  told  that  the  sign  is  now  altered  to  The  Five  Bells  of 
Ouseley,  and  that  the  house  is  famous  for  its  excellent 
ale.  "The  great  Bells  of  Oesney,"  is  one  of  the  rounds 
for  three  voices  in  Deuteromelia,  1609. 


518 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


JOAN'S  PLACKET  IS  TORN. 

The  earliest  notice  I  have  found  of  this  air,  is  in  Pepys's  Diary  ;  where,  under 
date  of  22nd  June,  1667,  he  speaks  of  a  trumpeter,  on  board  the  Royal  Charles, 
sounding  the  tune  of  Joan's  Placket  is  torn. 

It  is  contained  in  The  Dancing  Master  of  1686  (additional  sheet),  and  in  all 
subsequent  editions ;  also  in  the  ballad-operas  of  Achilles,  The  Bays'  Opera,  and 
Love  in  a  Riddle. 

Colley  Gibber's  song,  u  When  I  followed  a  lass  that  was  fro  ward  and  shy," 
which  was  written  to  the  tune,  for  Love  in  a  Riddle,  in  1729,  was  transferred  by 
Bickerstaff  to  Love  in  a  Village,  about  thirty  years  later,  without  acknowledg- 
ment of  the  source  from  which  he  derived  it. 

In  the  Collection  of  Loyal  Songs,  1685  and  1694,  is  one  entitled,  "  The  plot 
eram'd  into  Jone's  Placket:  To  the  tune  of  Jontfs  Placket  is  torn"  It  is  also 
one  of  the  tunes  called  for  by  "  the  hobnailed  fellows"  in  The  History  of  Robert 
Powel,  the  Puppet-sheivman,  8vo.,  1715. 

As  to  the  word  "  placket,"  in  "  An  exact  Chronologic  of  memorable  things  "  in 
Wit's  Interpreter,  3rd  edit.,  1671,  it  is  said  to  be  "  sixty-six  years  since  maids  began 
to  wear  plackets."  According  to  Middleton,  the  placket  is  "  the  open  part "  of  a 
petticoat ;  and  the  word  is  not  altogether  obsolete,  since  the  opening  in  the  petti- 
coats of  the  present  day  is  still  called  "  the  placket  hole,"  in  contradistinction  to 
the  pocket  hole. 

A  very  good  song  has  been  written  to  this  tune  by  Charles  Mackay  (entited 
"  The  Return  Home  ")  ;  but  I  have  not  'discovered  the  original  words. 

Moderate  time. 


Joan's     placket  is  torn, 


^ 


r~  i      fj-f 

!  J     J rl 


& 


•=1 — h 


P  •  •  _  .  p  ^"^^  f 

^£gj-f       E 


•*• 


m 


=3 


-#    -*- 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES   II. 


519 


The  Rev.  G.  R.  Gleig,  in  his  Family  History  of  England,  ii.  Ill,  prints  a  piece 
of  music,  which,  according  to  tradition,  was  "  the  air  played  by  the  band  at 
Fofcheringay  Castle,  while  Mary,  Queen  of  Scots,  was  proceeding  to  execution." 
It  is  the  tune  of  Joan's  Placket,  turned  into  a  slow  march ;  but  as  Queen  Mary 
was  executed  within  the  castle,  and  there  was  no  procession  with  drums  and 
trumpets,  or  music  of  any  kind  (according  to  all  accounts),  the  story  is  not  very 
probable.  Some  of  my  readers  may  nevertheless  desire  to  see  it  in  that  form; 
and  as  Joan's  Placket  is  certainly  a  trumpet  tune,  it  is  possible  that  it  may  have 
been  played  outside  the  castle  on  that  day. 

Very  slow,  and  sustained. 


THE  BAFFLED  KNIGHT. 

This  tune  is  contained  in  Youth's  Delight  on  the  Flagelet,  ninth  and  eleventh 
edi  tions.  It  may  be  in  earlier  editions,  but  I  have  never  seen  any  other  than  the 
tw<>  in  my  possession.  The  date  of  the  ninth  has  been  cut  off  in  binding;  the 
eleventh  is  of  1697.  It  is  also  in  the  ballad-opera  of  Silvia,  or  The  Country 
Bvrial,  8vo,  1731,  but  is  an  indifferent  version. 

The  story  of  the  rakish  young  knight  outwitted  by  the  maiden,  has  been 
repeatedly  versified.  The  earliest  I  have  seen,  is,  "  Yonder  comes  a  courteous 


520 


ENGLISH    SONG    AND    BALLAD    MUSIC. 


Knight,"  already  printed  (i.  62).  The  second,  entitled  "  The  baffled  Knight,  or 
Lady's  Policy,"  is  reprinted  by  Percy,  and  commences — 

"  There  was  Knight  was  drunk  with  wine.'' 

The  third  is  contained  in  Pills  to  purge  Melancholy,  iii.  1707,  or  v.  1719  ;  and  in 
A  Complete  Collection  of  old  and  new  English  and  Scotch  Songs,  8vo,  1735.  It 
has  a  separate  tune  (see  Pills),  and  is  in  stanzas  of  eight  lines,  commencing — 

"  There  was  a  Knight  and  he  was  young." 

A  copy  of  the  fourth  is  in  the  Roxburghe  Collection  (i.  306),  entitled  "The 
politick  Maid  :  Or — "A  dainty  new  ditty,  both  pleasant  and  witty, 

Wherein  you  may  see  the  Maid's  policie." 

"  To  a  pleasant  new  tune."     Subscribed  Rpchard]  Cpimsall],  and  "  printed  fcr 
Thomas  Lambert,  at  the  signe  of  the  Horse-shoe,  in  Smithfield." 
"  There  was  a  Knight  was  wine-drunk,  Sing,  loud  whistle  in  the  wind, 

As  he  rode  on  the  way,  lllow  merry,  merry ; 

And  there  he  spied  a  bonny  lasse  Up  and  down  in  yonder  dale, 

Among  the  cocks  of  hay.  With  hey  tro,  nonney,  nonney. 

The  tune  here  printed,  belongs  to  the  second  of  the  above.  In  Silvia,  the  first 
line,  "  There  was  a  Knight  was  drunk  with  wine,"  is  given  at  full  length.  It  is 
also  referred  to,  under  the  title  of  The  laffled  Knight,  in  a  black-letter  ballad  of 
"  The  West  Country  Lawyer  :  Or  The  witty  Maid's  good  fortune,"  &c.,  "  to  the 
tune  of  The  laffled  Knight"  (Rox.  ii.  578)  ;  commencing — 

"A  youthful  lawyer,  fine  and  gay,  '  Good  morrow,  then,  the  lawyer  cried, 

Was  riding  unto  the  city,  '  I  prithee,  where  art  thou  going?' 

Who  met  a  damsel  on  the  way,  Quoth  she,  '  To  yonder  meadow's  side, 

Right  beautiful,  fair,  and  witty.  My  father  is  there  a  mowing,' "  &c. 

Moderate  time. 


TT 

§>-  ft  j  h         i       J=r  .-  |J  -f-  f     ^_£ 

It        was       a    Knight  was     drunk  with  wine,   A     riding       a  -  long 

•»•!     r           =H==   •                      J       ^    J 

JEZEjB  —  «  —  si  a  —                 »  sz  m  T- 

the 
1" 

—  HHV-  -1  1  —  *  

i-f-"-    -^  —  ^ 

__•__.  —  1  

[ 

I 


la- 


way,   Sir  ;  And    there  he  met  with  a       la  -  dy     fine,  A  -  mong  the  cocks  of    hay,    Sir, 


^M*^ 


For  continuation  of  the  words,  see  Percy's  Reliqnes  of  Ancient  Poetry. 

THE  WILLOW  TREE. 

When  I  printed  this  tune  among  the  National  English  Airs,  in  1839,  I  was 
but  imperfectly  acquainted  with  its  history.  Mr.  Macfarren  had  noted  down  the 
air  from  hearing  an  old  ballad-singer  in  Lancashire,  and  could  recollect  but  one 
stanza : —  "  0  this  willow  tree  will  twist, 

And  this  willow  tree  will  twine,"  &c. 


REIGN    OF   CHARLES    II.  521 

These  lines  I  have  since  found  to  form  part  of  a  ballad  commencing,  "  I  sowed 
the  seeds  of  love,"  which  is  still  in  print  among  the  ball  ad- venders  in  Seven 
Dials,  and  was  published  from  one  of  their  copies  in  1846,  in  Songs  and  Ballads 
of  the  Peasantry  of  England,  by  Mr.  J.  H.  Dixon. 

I  spoke  of  the  air  as  one  of  the  common  ballad- tunes  sung  about  the  counties 
of  Derbyshire,  Warwickshire,  and  Lancashire ;  and  that  in  a  burlesque  at  the 
Manchester  Theatre,  some  years  before,  one  of  the  fraternity  of  blind  ballad- 
singers  had  been  imitated,  chanting  rhymes  to  the  tune,  with  pauses  at  the  end 
of  each  phrase,  as  peculiarly  characteristic  of  their  manner.  I  have  since  learned 
that  the  late  Mrs.  Honey,  having  caught  the  air  from  another  ball  ad- singer,  had 
introduced  the  ballad  on  the  London  stage,  in  The  Loan  of  a  Lover  ;  and  that 
the  history  of  the  words  is  given  in  Whittakers  History  of  the  Parish  of 
Whalky  (p.  318,  4to.,  1801.) 

Dr.  Whittaker  tells  us  that  Mrs.  Fleetwood  Habergham,  of  Habergham  Hall, 
Lancashire,  "  undone  by  the  extravagance,  and  disgraced  by  the  vices  of  her 
husband"  (who  squandered  his  large  patrimony,  till,  in  1689,  even  the  mansion- 
house  and  demesne  were  swallowed  up  by  the  foreclosure  of  a  mortgage), 
"  soothed  her  sorrows  by  some  stanzas,  yet  remembered  among  the  old  people  of 
the  neighbourhood,  of  which  the  following  allusions  to  the  triumphs  of  her 
early  days,  and  the  successive  offers  she  had  rejected,  under  the  emblem  of 
flowers,  are  simple  and  not  inelegant : " — 

"  The  gardener  standing  by,  Tn  June  the  red  rose  sprung, 

Proffered  to  chuse  for  me  But  was  no  flower  for  me  ; 

The  pink,  the  primrose,  and  the  rose,          I  pluck'd  it  up,  lo  !  hy  the  stalk, 
But  I  reins' d  the  three.  And  planted  the  willow  tree. 

The  primrose  I  forsook  The  willow  I  now  must  wear, 

Because  it  came  too  soon,  With  sorrows  twin'd  among, 

The  violet  I  overlook!  That  all  the  world  may  know 

And  vow'd  to  wait  till  June.  I  falsehood  lov'd  too  long." 

Dr.  Whittaker  says,  "  A  sentimental  fine  lady  of  the  present  day  would  have 
thrown  her  story  into  the  shape  of  a  novel :  the  good  old  gentlewoman's  ballad  is 
at  least  the  more  tolerable  of  the  two." 

From  the  circumstances  under  which  they  were  written,  the  words  may  be 
dated  as  not  long  after  1689,  and  in  all  probability  were  written  to  the  tune 
of  Come,  open  the  door,  siveet  Betty  (ante  p.  505),  which  was  then  in  the 
height  of  its  popularity.  Although  the  traditional  version  consists  of  but  one 
strain,  and  is  in  common  time,  such  metamorphose  is  by  no  m  eans  unusual  in 
airs  preserved  solely  by  tradition.  The  resemblance  is  still  clearly  traceable. 
Another  traditional  version  will  be  found  in  Albyn's  Anthology,  i.  40,  fol.,  1816, 
or  Wood's  Songs  of  Scotland,  iii.  85,  8vo.,  1850. 

Mr.  Alexander  Campbell,  the  editor  of  Albyn's  Anthology,  gives  the  following 
account : — "  This  sweetly  rural  and  plaintive  air,  like  many  of  the  ancient 
Border  Melodies  "  (he  did  not  know  how  far  south  of  the  border  it  might  be 
traced)  "  has  but  one  part,  or  rather  one  measure.  It  was  taken  down  by  the 
editor  from  the  singing  of  Mr.  Hogg"  (the  Ettrick  Shepherd)  "  and  his  friend, 
Mr.  Pringle,  author  of  the  pathetic  verses  to  which  it  is  united;"  commencing, 
"  I'll  bid  my  hejfct  be  still." 


522 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD    MUSIC. 


Mr.  Campbell  also  gives  three  stanzas  "  of  the  original  Border  ditty,  which 
was  chanted  to  the  melody."     These  were  supplied  by  Miss  M.  Pringle,  of  Jed- 
burgh.     They  are  evidently  a  paraphrase  of  Mrs.  Habergham's  ballad,  as  the 
two  following  will  shew  : — 
"  0  once  my  thyme  was  young, 
It  fkmrish'd  night  and  day; 
But  by  there  came  a  false  young  man, 


And  he  stole  my  thyme  away. 


Within  my  garden  gay, 

The  rose  and  lily  grew ;  [away, 

But  the  pride  o'  my  garden  is  wither'd 

And  it's  a'  grown  o'er  wi'  rue." 
The  tune  was  not  improved  in  transmission  to  the  Border,  as  may  be  seen  by 
comparing  the  copy  in  Albyn's  Anthology,  or  Wood's  Songs  of  Scotland  (in  both 
of  which  Mr.  Thomas  Pringle's  song  is  united  to  it),  with  the  Lancashire  version 
here  printed. 

The  following  lines  were  written  to  the  air  by  Mr.  H.  F.  Chorley,  for  the 
National  English  Airs.     They  are  entitled  "  The  Widow's  Song  :" — 


OH  !  leave  me  to  dream  and  weep, 
Or  lift  ye  the  churchyard  stone, 

And  send  me  my  dead,  through  the 

twilight  deep, 
For  I  sit  by  my  hearth  alone  ! 

They  were  three  of  the  blythest  fays  ! 

But  their  mirth — it  all  is  done  ! 
Oh  I  never  could  think  in  those  glad,  glad 

I  must  sit  by  my  hearth  alone !  [days  ! 


The  spring  'mid  her  bloom  goes  by, 
And  the  summer's  glorious  sun, 

Ere  I  know  there  are  flowers,  or  a  bright 

blue  sky, 
While  I  sit  by  my  hearth  alone  ! 

Then  leave  me  to  dream  and  weep  ! 

Or  lift  ye  the  church-yard  stone  : 
I  am  weary,  weary  ;  better  sleep, 

Than  sit  by  my  hearth  alone  ! 


From  a  variety  of  traditional  versions,  I  have  selected  the  following.  The 
Seven  Dials  copies  are  very  corrupt,  and  I  am  informed  that  they  are  frequently 
reprinted  from  the  dictation  of  ballad-singers,  who  require  a  supply  for  sale, 
instead  of  from  earlier  copies. 

In  modei  ate  time,  and  with  simplicity. 

! 


sow'd     the  seeds     of        love. 


When     small    hirds  they     do 


REIttN   OF    CHARLES    II. 


523 


My  garden  was  planted  full 

Of  flowers  every  where, 
But  for  myself  I  could  not  choose, 

The  flower  I  held  so  dear. 

IV [y  gardener  was  standing  by, 
And  he  would  choose  for  me ; 

tie  chose  the  primrose,  the  lily,  and  pink, 
But  those  I  refus'd  all  three. 

The  primrose  I  did  reject, 

Because  it  came  too  soon  ; 
The  lily  and  pink  I  overlook'd, 

And  vow'd  I  would  wait  till  June. 

In  June  came  the  rose  so  red, 
And  that's  the  flower  for  me  ; 

Uut  when  I  gather'd  the  rose  so  dear, 
I  gain'd  but  the  willow  tree. 

Oh  !  the  willow  tree  will  twist, 
And  the  willow  tree  will  twine ; 


And  would  I  were  in  the  young  man's  arms, 
That  ever  has  this  heart  of  mine. 

My  gardener,  as  he  stood  by, 

He  bade  me  take  great  care, 
For  if  I  gather'd  the  rose  so  red, 

There  groweth  up  a  sharp  thorn  there. 

I  told  him  I'd  take  no  care, 

Till  I  did  feel  the  smart, 
And  still  did  press  the  rose  so  dear 

Till  the  thorn  did  pierce  my  heart. 

A  posy  of  hyssop  I'll  make, 

No  other  flow'r  I'll  touch, 
That  all  the  world  may  plainly  see 

I  love  one  flow'r  too  much. 

My  garden  is  now  run  wild, 

When  shall  I  plant  anew  ? 
My  bed  that  once  was  fill'd  with  thyme 

Is  all  o'errun  with  rue. 


YOUNG  JEMMY. 

There  are  two  ballads  on  Charles  the  Second's  natural  son,  the  Duke  of 
Monmouth,  that  were  sung  to  this  tune,  and  both  printed  during  his  father's 
reign,  when  the  Duke  was  out  of  favour  at  court. 

Of  the  first  ballad  there  are  two  copies;  one  in  the  King's  Library,  Brit. 
Mus.,  entitled  "Young  Jemmy:  An  excellent  new  Ballad:  To  an  excellent  new 
tune"  dated  1681 ;  and  the  second  in  the  Roxburghe  Collection,  ii.  140,  called 
"England's  Darling;  or,  Great  Britain's  Joy  and  Hope  in  that  noble  Prince, 
James,  Duke  of  Monmouth : 

Brave  Monmouth,  England's  glory,        May'st  thou  in  thy  noble  father's  love  remain, 
Hated  of  none  but  Papist  and  Tory,      Who  happily  over  this  land  doth  reign. 
Tune  of  Young  Jemmy,  or  Philander. " a     Printed   by  J.  Wright,  J.  Clark, 
W.  Thackeray,  and  T.  Passinger.     It  commences — 

"  Young  Jemmy  is  a  lad  A  true  and  faithful  English  heart, 

That's  royally  descended,  Great  Britain's  joy  and  hope, 

With  every  virtue  clad,  And  bravely  will  maintain  their  part, 

By  every  tongue  commended  ;  In  spite  of  Turk  and  Pope,"  &c. 

The  second  ballad  is  entitled  "Young  Jemmy;  or,  The  Princely  Shepherd: 
Boing  a  most  pleasant  and  delightful  new  song : 

In  blest  Arcadia,  where  each  shepherd  feeds 
His  numerous  flocks,  and  tunes,  on  slender  reeds, 
His  song  of  love,  while  the  fair  nymphs  trip  round, 
The  chief  amongst  'em  was  Young  Jemmy  found  : 
For  he  with  glances  could  enslave  each  heart, 
But  fond  ambition  made  him  to  depart 
The  fields,  to  Court ;  led  on  by  such  as  sought 
To  blast  his  virtues, — which  much  sorrow  brought. 


For  Philander,  see  i.  280. 


524  ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 

To  a  new  Play-house  tune,  or  In  January  last,3-  or  The  Gfvwttn.99*   Printed  by  P. 

Brooksby,  at  the  Golden  Ball  in  West  Smithfield  (Rox.  ii.  556).    Commencing — 

"  Young  Jemmy  was  a  lad  A  face  and  shape  so  wondrous  fine, 

Of  royal  birth  and  breeding,  So  charming  every  part, 

With  every  beauty  clad,  That  every  lass  upon  the  green 

And  every  swain  exceeding  :  For  Jemmy  had  a  heart,"  &c. 

Both  these  ballads  have  been  reprinted  in  Evans's  Collection,  iii.  206  and  211 
(1810).  The  tune  is  in  The  Genteel  Companion  for  the  Recorder,  1683;  in 
180  Loyal  Songs,  1685  and  1694;  in  The  Village  Opera,  1729;  in  Love  and 
Revenge,  or  The  Vintner  Outwitted,  N.D.  ;  in  The  Bay's  Opera,  1730 ;  &c. 

There  are  two  others,  to  the  tune,  in  180  Loyal  Songs ;  the  first,  "Old  Jemmy, 
tune  -of  Young  Jemmy"  It  is  a  counter-panegyric  upon  James  II.,  when  Duke  of 
York,  by  Mat.  Taubman  ;  commencing — 

"  Old  Jemmy  is  a  lad 

Right  lawfully  descended." 

The  second,  "A  new  song  on  the  arrival  of  Prince  George  [of  Denmark],  and 
his  intermarriage  with  the  Lady  Anne,"  afterwards  Queen  Anne ;  commencing — 
"  Prince  George  at  last  is  come  ; 

Fill  every  man  his  bumper,"  &c. 

In  the  Roxburghe  Collection,  ii.  504,  is  "  The  West-country  Nymph ;  or,  The 
loyal  Maid  of  Bristol,"  &c.,  to  the  tune  of  Young  Jemmy;  beginning — 
"  Come,  all  you  maidens  fair,  In  Bristol  city  fair 

And  listen  to  my  ditty  ;  There  liv'd  a  damsel  pretty." 

In  the  early  part  of  the  last  century,  the  Pretender  was  called  "  Young 
Jemmy,"  and  the  tune  became  a  favorite  with  the  Jacobites.  "  I  never  can  pass 
through  Cranbourn  Alley,  but  I  am  astonished  at  the  remissness  or  lenity  of  the 
magistrates  in  suffering  the  Pretender's  interest  to  be  carried  on  and  promoted  in 
so  public  and  shameful  a  manner  as  it  there  is.  Here  a  fellow  stands  eternally 
bawling  out  his  Pye-Corner  pastorals  in  behalf  of  Dear  Jemmy,  Lovely  Jemmy, 
&c.  I  have  been  credibly  informed,  this-man  has  actually  in  his  pocket  a  com- 
mission, under  the  Pretender's  great  seal,  constituting  him  his  Ballad-singer  in 
Ordinary  in  Great  Britain ;  and  that  his  ditties  are  so  well  worded,  that  they 
often  poison  the  minds  of  many  well-meaning  people :  that  this  person  is  not 
more  industrious  with  his  tongue  in  behalf  of  his  master,  than  others  are,  at  the 
same  time,  busy  with  their  fingers  among  the  audience ;  and  the  monies  collected 
in  this  manner  are  most  of  those  mighty  remittances  the  Post-boy  so  frequently 
boasts  of  being  made  to  the  Chevalier." — From  "  A  View  of  London  and  West- 
minster :  or,  The  Town  Spy.  Containing  an  account  of  the  different  customs, 
tempers,  manners,  policies,  &c.,  of  the  PEOPLE  in  the  several  most  noted  Parishes 
within  the  Bills  of  Mortality,  respectively,"  &c.  By  a  German  Gentleman. 
2nd.  edit.,  8vo.,  1725. 

»  For  In  January  last,  see  Index.  "  The  Gowlin  is  a  yellow  flower 

"  The  Gowlin  is  called  "a  new  Playhouse  tune  "  in  the  That  Srows  uPon  the  Plains' 

ballad,  the  last  stanza  of  which  explains  that-  Which  oftentimes  i«  gathered 

By  nymphs  and  shepherd  swains,    &c. 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES   II. 


525 


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MY  LODGING  IT  IS  ON  THE  COLD  GROUND. 


This  is  a  song  in  the  play  of  The  Rivals  (an  alteration  of  Fletcher's  Two 
Noble  Kinsmen),  the  performance  of  which  Pepys  witnessed  twice,  "at  the 
Duke's  house,"  in  the  year  1664;  but  which  acquired  its  principal  celebrity  in 
or  about  1667,  when  Moll  Davis  and  Better  ton  performed  the  principal 
characters.  Downes,  who  was  prompter  at  the  theatre,  from  1662  to  1706,  thus 
speaks  of  it:  "  The  Rivals,  a  play,  wrote  by  Sir  William  Davenant:  having 
a  very  fine  interlude  in  it,  of  vocal  and  instrumental  music,  mixt  with  very 
diverting  dances.  .  .  .  All  the  women's  parts  admirably  acted;  chiefly  Cel[an]ia, 
a  shepherdess,  being  mad  for  love;  especially  in  singing  several  wild  and  mad 
son^s,  My  lodging  it  is  on  the  cold  ground,  &c.  She  performed  that  so  charm- 
ingly, that,  not  long  after,  it  raised  her  from  her  bed  on  the  cold  ground  to  a  Bed 
Royal."  Roscius  Anglicanus,  edit.  1781,  p.  32.  Downes  does  not  here  mention 
the  representative  of  Celania,  but  the  name  of  Mrs.  Davis  is  found  in  the  printed 


526 


ENGLISH   SONG   AND   BALLAD    MUSIC. 


list  of  characters  in  the  play,  4to.,  1668.  Charles  II.  took  her  off  the  stage,  and 
had  a  daughter  by  her,  named  Mary  Tudor,  who  was  married  to  Francis,  second 
Earl  of  Derwentwater. 

The  original  air  of  My  lodging  is  on  the  cold  ground  was  composed  by 
Matthew  Lock,  and  is  included  among  the  violin  tunes  at  the  end  of  The  Dancing 
Master  of  1665 ;  also  in  MusicKs  Delight  on  the  Cithren,  1666,  and  in  Apollo's 
Banquet,  1669.  In  the  two  former  it  is  entitled  "  On  the  cold  ground ; "  in  the 
latter,  "  I  prithee,  love,  turn  to  me." 

The  following  is  Matthew  Lock's  air : — 

Rather  slow. 


3EES 


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My       lodging  it  is    on  the     cold        ground,  And      oh  !    ve-ry  hard  is  my 


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— Mr-ft 


fare,         But  that  which  troubles  me  most,       is     The  un  -  kind-ness  of    my       dear. 


=J  V  I    1  I 


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Yet       still        I    cry,  "O    turn,      Love,"  And  "Prithee,  Love, turn  to         me, 


For 


3=H=±mJ 


S 


I'll  crown  thee  with  a  garland  of  straw,  then, 

And  I'll  marry  thee  with  a  rush  ring; 
My  frozen  hopes  shall  thaw,  then, 

And  merrily  we  will  sing  : 
O  turn  to  me,  my  dear  love, 

And  prithee,  love,  turn  to  me, 
For  thou  art  the  man  that  alone  canst 

Procure  my  liberty. 


But  if  thou  wilt  harden  thy  heart  still 

And  be  deaf  to  my  pitiful  moan, 
Then  I  must  endure  the  smart  still, 

And  tumble  in  straw  alone ; 
Yet  still  I  cry,  O  turn  love, 

And  prithee,  love,  turn  to  me, 
For  thou  art  the  man  that  alone  art 

The  cause  of  my  misery. 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES    II. 


527 


The  popularity  of  the  song  was  very  great,  and  may  be  traced  in  an  uninter- 
rupted stream  from  that  time  to  the  present.  The  words  were  reprinted  in 
Mer-y  Drollery  Complete,  Part  II.,  1670,  under  the  title  of  "  Phillis,  her 
Lamentation;"  and  in  the  same,  a  parody  on  it,  called  "Women's  Delight." 
Another  parody,  "  My  lodging  is  on  the  cold  boards,"  is  in  Howard's  play,  All 
Mistaken,  1672.  Then  the  original  in  The  New  Academy  of  Compliments,  1694, 
1718,  &c. ;  in  Vocal  Music,  or  the  Songster's  Companion,  8vo.,  1775  ;  in  Johnson's 
Lottery  Song  Book,  N.D. ;  and  fifty  others.  It  was  lengthened  into  a  ballad,  and 
became  equally  popular  in  that  form.  A  copy  is  in  the  Roxburghe  Collection, 
ii.  423,  "printed  by  and  for  W.  0[nley]  for  A.  Melbourne],  and  sold  by  C. 
Bates,  at  the  Sun  and  Bible  in  Pye  Corner."  Onley  and  Milbourne  were  ballad- 
printers  in  the  reign  of  Charles  II.  Bates  I  believe  to  be  somewhat  later.  It  is 
as  follows : — 

"  The  slighted  Maid ;  or  The  pining  Lover. 

With  sighs  and  moans  she  doth  intreat  her  dear, 
Whilst  he  seems  to  be  deaf  and  will  not  hear  ; 
At  length  his  frozen  heart  begins  to  melt, 
Being  moved  with  the  passion  she  had  felt. 

To  the  tune  of  I  prithee,  Love,  turn  \to~\  me"  &c.      "Licensed  and  enter'd 
according:  to  order." 


Was  ever  maiden  so  scorned 

By  one  that  she  loved  so  dear  ? 
Long  time  have  I  sighed  and  mourned, 

And  still  my  love  will  not  hear : 
O  turn  to  me,  my  own  dear  heart, 

And  I  prithee,  love,  turn  to  me, 
For  thou  art  the  lad  I  long  for, 

And,  alas  !  what  remedy  ? 

My  lodging  is  on  the  cold  ground, 

And  very  hard  is  my  fare ; 
B'.it  that  which  troubles  me  most,  is 

The  unkindness  of  my  dear : 
0  turn  to  me,  my  own  dear  heart, 

And  I  prithee,  love,  turn  to  me, 
For  thou  art  the  lad  I  long  for, 

And,  alas !  what  remedy  ? 

0  stop  not  thine  ear  to  the  wailings 

Of  me,  a  poor  harmless  maid ; 
"You  know  we  are  subject  to  failings,— 

Blind  Cupid  hath  me  betrayed  : 
And  now  I  must  cry,  0  turn,  love, 

And  I  prithee,  love,  turn  to  me, 
For  thou  art  the  man  that  alone  art 

The  cause  of  my  misery. 


How  canst  thou  be  so  hard-hearted, 

And  cruel  to  me  alone ; 
If  ever  we  should  be  parted, 

Then  all  my  delight  is  gone  : 
But  ever  I  cry,  0  turn,  love, 

And  I  prithee,  love,  turn  to  me, 
For  thou  art  the  man  that  alone  art 

The  cause  of  my  misery. 

I'll  make  thee  pretty  sweet  posies, 

And  constant  I  ever  will  prove  ; 
I'll  strew  thy  chamber  with  roses, 

And  all  to  delight  my  love  : 
Then  turn  to  me,  my  own  dear  heart, 

And  I  prithee,  love,  turn  to  me, 
For  thou  art  the  man  that  alone  canst 

Procure  my  liberty. 

I'll  do  my  endeavour  to  please  thee 

By  making  thy  bed  full  soft ; 
Of  all  thy  sorrows  I'll  ease  thee 

By  kissing  thy  lips  full  oft : 
Then  turn  to  me,  my  own  dear  heart, 

And  I  prithee,  love,  turn  to  me, 
For  thou  art  the  man  that  alone  canst 

Procure  my  liberty. 


528 


ENGLISH    SONG    AND    BALLAD    MUSIC. 


But  thou  wilt  harden  thy  heart,  still, 

And  be  deaf  to  my  pitiful  moan, 
So,  I  must  endure  the  smart,  still, 

And  tumble  in  straw,  all  alone  : 
Whilst  still  I  cry,  0  turn,  love, 

And  I  prithee,  love,  turn  to  me, 
For  thou  art  the  man  that  alone  art 

The  cause  of  my  misery. 

If  that  thou  still  dost  disdain  me, 

I  never  will  love  thee  more ; 
Thy  cruelty  never  shall  pain  me, 

For  I'll  have  another  in  store  : 
But  still  I  cry,  0  turn,  love, 

And  I  prithee,  love,  turn  to  me, 
For  thou  art  the  man  that  alone  art 

The  cause  of  my  misery. 

By  hearing  her  pitiful  clamour, 

The  passion  of  love  he  felt; 
He  could  no  longer  disdain  her, 

His  frozen  heart  it  did  melt : 
For  ever  she  cried,  0  turn,  love, 

And  I  prithee,  love,  turn  to  me, 
For  thou  art  the  man  that  alone  canst 

Procure  my  liberty. 


He  said,  My  love,  I  will  please  thee, 

Thy  heaviness  grieves  me  sore, 
But  let  not  sorrow  now  seize  thee, 

I  never  will  grieve  thee  more ; 
I'll  turn  to  thee,  my  own  kind  heart, 

Dear  love,  I'll  turn  to  thee, 
For  I  am  the  man  that  now  am  come 

To  procure  thy  liberty. 

I'll  crown  thee  with  a  garland  of  straw,  then, 

And  marry  thee  with  a  rush  ring ; 
My  frozen  heart  it  will  thaw  then, 

And  merrily  we  will  sing  : 
But  ever  she  cried,  0  turn,  love, 

And  I  prithee,  love,  turn  to  me, 
For  thou  art  the  man  that  alone  canst 

Release  my  misery. 

Most  lovingly  he  embrac'd  her, 

And  call'd  her  his  heart's  delight  ; 
And  close  by  his  side  he  plac'd  her, — 

All  sorrows  were  vanquished  quite. 
And  now  she,  for  joy,  cried,  Turn,  love, 

And  I  prithee,  love,  turn  to  me, 
For  thou  art  the  man  that  alone  hast 

Released  me  of  misery. 


The  following  ballads,  sung  to  the  tune,  are  in  the  Roxburghe  Collection : — 

Vol.  ii.  88.  "  The  Courteous  Health ;  or,  The  Merry  Boys  of  the  Times. 
He  that  loves  sack,  doth  nothing  lack,  He  that  denies  Bacchus'  supplies 

If  he  but  loyal  be ;  Shews  mere  hypocrisy." 

"  To  a  new  tune,  Come,  boys,  Jill  us  a  bumper,  or  My  lodging  is  on  the  cold  ground;79 
with  the  burden,  "  A  brimmer  to  the  King,"  and  beginning — 

"  Come,  boys,  fill  us  a  bumper,  She's  grown  sick  of  a  Rumper, 

We'll  make  the  nation  roar ;  That  sticks  on  the  old  score,"  &c. 

Vol.  in.  196.  "  The  Old  Man's  Complaint ;  or,  The  unequal  matcht  Couple," 
&c.  "Tune  of  I  prithee,  love,  turn  to  me" 

Vol.  ii.  520.  "  Wit  bought  at  a  dear  rate,"  &c.      "  To  the  tune  of  Turn, 
love,  I prethee,  love,  turn  to  me."     Printed  by  F.  Coles ;  and  begins — 
"  If  all  the  world  my  mind  did  know, 
I  would  not  care  a  pin,"  &c. 

Vol.  iii.  144.  "The  faithful  Lover's  Farewell;  or,  Private  News  from  Chat- 
ham," &c.,  "  To  the  tune  of  My  lodging  is  on  the  cold  ground."  Printed  for 
Sarah  Tyus,  at  the  Three  Bibles,  on  London  Bridge."  Begins — 

"  As  I  in  a  meadow  was  walking,  I  heard  two  lovers  a-talking, 

Some  two  or  three  weeks  ago,  And  trampling  to  and  fro,"  &c. 


REIGN    OF   CHARLES    II.  529 

There  are  many  more  in  other  collections  of  ballads ;  as,  for  instance,  in  that 
formed  by  Mr.  Halliwell  (see  Nos.  106,  118,  161,  and  335,  in  the  printed 
catalogue)  ;  but  enough  have  already  been  quoted  to  prove  the  extreme  and  long- 
continued  popularity  of  My  lodging  is  on  the  cold  ground. 

The  only  difficulty  is  in  ascertaining  the  precise  time  when  Matthew  Lock's 
tune  was  discarded,  and  that  now  universally  known  took  its  place.  I  have 
not  found  the  former  in  print  after  1670,  but  it  may  have  been  included 
in  some  of  the  editions  of  Apollo's  Banquet,  between  1670  and  1690,  which 
I  have  never  seen.  The  air  now  known  is  printed  on  all  the  broadsides,  with 
music,  of  the  last  century ;  and  it  is  possible  that  the  ballad-singers  may  have 
altogether  discarded  Matthew  Lock's  tune,  and  adopted  another, — a  liberty  sub- 
sequently taken  with  Carey's  air  to  his  ballad  of  Sally  in  our  Alley,  although 
quite  as  melodious  as  that  which  they  substitued.  There  is  a  song  to  the  tune  of 
My  Ivdging  it  is  on  the  cold  ground  in  The  Rape  of  Helen,  1737,  but  that  ballad- 
opera  is  printed  without  music.  The  words  and  music  are  printed  in  Vocal  Music, 
or  Tie  Songster's  Companion,  8vo.,  1775,  and  it  has  been  a  stock-song  in  print 
from  that  time.  At  the  commencement  of  the  present  century  it  acquired  a  new 
impetus  of  popularity  from  the  singing  of  Mrs.  Harrison,  at  Harrison  and 
Knyvett's  concerts ;  and  subsequently  from  that  of  Mrs.  Salmon.  About  this 
time  it  was  claimed  as  an  Irish  tune  by  the  late  T.  Moore  including  it  among  his 
Irish  Melodies.  I  believe  there  is  no  ground  whatever  for  calling  it  Irish.  The 
late  Edward  Bunting,  who  was  engaged  to  note  down  all  the  airs  played  by  the 
harpers  of  the  different  provinces  of  Ireland,  when  they  were  collected  together 
at  Belfast,  in  1792,  and  who  devoted  a  long  life  to  the  collection  of  Irish  music, 
distinctly  assured  me  that  he  did  not  believe  it  to  be  Irish, — that  no  one  of  the 
harpors  played  the  tune, — and  that  it  had  no  Irish  character.  I  do  not  think  a 
higher  authority  as  to  Irish  music  could  be  quoted,  or  one  more  tenacious  of  any 
infringement  upon  airs  which  he  considered  to  be  of  truly  Irish  origin.  I  might 
add  the  testimony  of  Dr.  Crotch,  Messrs.  Ayrton,  T.  Cooke,  J.  Augustine  Wade, 
and  others,  both  Irish  and  English,  who  have  expressed  similar  opinions  to  that 
of  Bunting ;  but,  in  fact,  there  is  a  total  want  of  evidence,  external  and  internal, 
of  it*  being  an  Irish  tune.  About  the  same  time  that  Moore  claimed  it,  it  was 
printed  in  Dublin,  in  Clifton's  "  British  Melodies." 

.  The  curious  will  find  a  copy  of  the  song  for  the  voice,  with  accompaniment  for 
the  virginals  or  harpsichord,  reprinted  from  one  of  the  broadsides,  in  Nat. 
Eng.  Airs. 

In  Ritson's  Scottish  Songs,  i.  187,  1794,  there  is  a  song  written  by  J.  D., 
commencing,  "  I  lo'e  na  a  laddie  but  ane,  to  the  tune  of  Happy  Dick  Dawson" 
The  tune  there  printed  is  a  version  of  My  lodging  is  on  the  cold  ground,  curtailed 
in  each  alternate  phrase  to  suit  words  in  a  shorter  metre.  I  have  not  looked 
for  r,he  song  of  Happy  Dick  Dawson,  but  believe  that  "  I  lo'e  na  a  laddie 
but  ane"  was  first  printed  to  that  tune  in  1790,  in  the  third  volume  of 
Johnson's  Scots'  Musical  Museum. 


530 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


The  following  is  the  popular  air,  with  the  words  usually  sung. 

Slowly  and  gracefully. 


My       lodging,  it    is  on  the       cold     ground,  And    oh !    ve-ry    hard  is    my 


fare,         But      that  which  grieves  me     more,  love,  Is  the  cold-ness     of   my    dear. 


* 


to 


Br^'tJ  iE-*^ia 


Yet       still  he  cried,     O        turn,       love,      I  pray  thee,  love,  turn    to 


thou  art  the     on 
ores. 


ly       girl,      love,    That      art        a  -  dor'd    by 

,  .  l&^V 


m 


With  a  garland  of  straw  I'll  crown  thee,  love,  But,  if  thou  wilt  harden  tin7  heart,  love, 

I'll  marry  thee  with  a  rush  ring ;  ^And  be  deaf  to  my  pitiful  moan, 

Thy  frozen  heart  shall  melt  with  love,  Then  I  must  endure  the  smart,  love, 

So,  merrily  I  shall  sing.  And  tumble  in  straw,  all  alone. 

Yet  still  he  cried,  &c.  Yet  still  he  cried,  &c. 

LAY  TOE  BENT  TO  THE  BONNY  BllOOM. 

This  ballad  and  tune  are  contained  in  the  second  volume  of  the  early  editions 
of  Pitts  to  purge  Melancholy ,  and  in  the  fourth  volume  of  the  later. 

Copies  of  the  ballad  are  also  in  the  Pepys  (iii.  19),  Douce  (169),  and  Halli- 
well  Collections  (No.  253).     It  is  entitled  "  A  noble  riddle  wisely  expounded; 
or,  The  Maid's  answer  to  the  Knight's  three  questions : — 
She,  with  her  excellent  wit  and  civil  carriage, 
Won  a  young  knight  to  joyn  with  her  in  marriage. 
This  gallant  couple  now  are  man  and  wife, 
And  she  with  him  doth  lead  a  pleasant  life." 
"  The  tune  is  Lay  the  lent  to  the  bonny  broom." 


REIGN   OF   CHAKLES   II. 


531 


The  copy  in  the  Halliwell  Collection  was  printed  for  F.  Coles,  T.  Vere,  and 
W.  Grilbertson,  who  all  commenced  publishing  before  the  Restoration.  It  is  in 
W.  Thackeray's  list  of  ballads,  and  the  copy  in  the  Douce  Collection  was  printed 
by  Thomas  Norris,  at  the  Looking-glass  on  London  Bridge. 

I  imagine  it  to  be  of  earlier  date  than  any  copy  I  have  found,  and  probably 
deri/ed  from  a  minstrel  ballad.  The  late  T.  Dibdin  informed  me  that  the  tune 
was  introduced  as  a  duet  in  O'Keefe's  comedy,  The  Highland.  Reel,  in  1788. 
I  have  not  seen  that  copy. 


There  was  a   Lady     in    the  North  Country,     Lay  the    bent  to  the     bon    -  ny 


b   A     ' 

—  1                   m  u  |_3 

—  1 

0 



f: 

*  *  ' 

? 


s 


— 
^J 


p 


bro'>m,  And  she  had  love  -  ly     daughters     three,     Fa,  la,       la,  la,   la  la,   la  la,     re 


t 


There  was  a  knight  of  noble  worth, 

Lay  the  bent,  fyc. 

Who  also  lived  in  the  North,  Fa,  la,  8fC. 
This  knight,  of  courage  stout  and  brave, 
A  wife  he  did  desire  to  have  ; 


He  knocked  at  the  lady's  gate, 

One  evening  when  it  was  late. 

The  eldest  sister  let  him  in, 

And  pinn'd  the  door  with  a  silver  pin. 


The  knight  offers  to  marry  the  youngest,  if  her  wit  should  equal  her  good 
loot  s  ;  and,  to  test  it,  proposes  to  ask  three  questions. 


"  iiind  sir,  in  love,  O  then,"  quoth  she, 
"  Tell  me  what  your  three  questions  be  ? 
"  (3  what  is  longer  than  the  way, 
Oi1  what  is  deeper  than  the  sea, 
Or  what  is  louder  than  a  horn, 
Or  what  is  sharper  than  a  thorn, 
O  •  what  is  greener  than  the  grass, 
Or  what  is  worse  than  woman  was  ?  " 
"  O  love  is  longer  than  the  way, 
And  hell  is  deeper  than  the  sea, 
And  thunder's  louder  than  the  horn, 


And  hunger's  sharper  than  a  thorn  ; 

And  poison's  greener  than  the  grass, 

And  the  Devil's  worse  than  woman  was.' 

When  she  these  questions  answered  had, 

The  knight  became  exceeding  glad. . . 

And  after,  as  'tis  verified, 

He  made  of  her  his  lovely  bride. 

So  now,  fair  maidens  all,  adieu, 

This  song  I  dedicate  to  you, 

And  wish  that  you  may  constant  prove. 

Unto  the  man  that  vou  do  love. 


COME,  LASSES  AND  LADS. 

The  earliest  copy  I  have  found  of  this  still  popular  ballad  is  in  Westminster 
Drollery,  Part  II.,  1672,  entitled  "The  rural  dance  about  the  May-pole:  The 
tune,  the  first  Figure-Dance  at  Mr.  Young's  Ball,  in  May  '71."  It  is  also 
printed  with  the  tune  (but  the  words  much  altered  and  abbreviated)  in  Pills  to 
purge  Melancholy,  vol.  i.  of  the  early  editions,  and  vol.  iii.  of  1719.  The  copy 
in  Tixall  Poetry,  4to.,  1813,  taken  from  an  old  manuscript,  contains  a  final 
stanza  not  to  be  found  in  Westmmster  Drollery. 

2  M 


532 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


The  tune  has  passed  through  all  the  processes  of  alteration  that  tradition  so 
frequently  engenders,  till  at  last  it  has  become  difficult  to  trace  any  resemblance 
between  the  present  version  and  the  primitive  one.  The  following  is  the  tune  as 
printed  in  the  Pills  : — 


Lightly  and  cheerfully. 


You    lass -es  and  lads,  Take   leave  of  your  Dads,  And  a  -  way  to  the  May-pole 

J    .      -^    J1 _ .    . 


iii&fi: 


-8- 


j     i 


MjaJ 


r  e '  r-r 


•*-^* 

hie,         There    ev'-ry  he    Has    got  him  a  she,  And  the  minstrels  standing       by. 


S3 


f 


rr 


For       Wil  -  ly  has  got      his         Gill,         And  John-ny     has      his         Joan,  To 


r   -r:     ^7— 


jig    it,      jig      it,          jig       it,        jig       it,         jig         it     up       and         down. 


The  following  is  the  traditional  tune.     The  words  are  in  several  other  collec- 
tions besides  those  above-mentioned,  and  are  still  in  print  in  Seven  Dials. 

Lightly  and  cheerfully. 


Come,     Lass -es  and  Lads,  get     leave  of  your  Dads,  And  a-way     to  the  May -pole 

•* *- 


hie,         For    ev'-ry   fair    has  a  sweetheart  there,  And  the  fiddler's  standing         by. 


-rr  **-FT      ^        ^  * 


REIGN   OP   CHARLES    II. 


For      Wil-ly  shall  dance  with      Jane,      And     John-ny  has  got       his      Joan, 

w=j: 


To 


trip      it,    trip       it,        trip       it,     trip      it,         Trip      it     up      and         down, 


To 


trip      it,  trip       it,          trip       it,     trip      it,          Trip       it      up      and         down 


Strike  up,  says  Wat, — agreed,  says  Matt, 

And  I  prithee,  fiddler,  play  ; 
Content,  says  Hodge,  and  so  says  Madge, 

For  this  is  a  holiday. 
Then  every  lad  did  doff 

His  hat  unto  his  lass, 
And  every  girl  did  curtsey,  curtsey, 

Curtsey  on  the  grass. 

Begin,  says  Hal, — aye,  aye,  says  Mall, 

We'll  lead  up  Packington's  Pound ; 
No  DO,  says  Noll,  and  so  says  Doll, 

We'll  first  have  Sellinger's  Round. 
Then  every  man  began 

To  foot  it  round  about, 
And  every  girl  did  jet  it,  jet  it, 

Jet  it  in  and  out. 

You  re  out,  says  Dick, — not  I,  says  Nick, 

'Twas  the  fiddler  play'd  it  wrong  ; 
'Tis  true,  says  Hugh,  and  so  says  Sue, 

And  so  says  every  one. 
The  fiddler  then  began 

To  play  the  tune  again, 
And  every  girl  did  trip  it,  trip  it, 

Trip  it  to  the  men. 

Let's  kiss,  says  Jane, — content,  says  Nan, 

And  so  says  every  she  ; 
Hov  many  ?  says  Batt, — why  three,  says  Matt, 

For  that's  a  maiden's  fee. 


The  men,  instead  of  three, 

Did  give  them  half  a  score  ; 
The  maids  in  kindness,  kindness,  kindness, 

Gave  'em  as  many  more. 

Then,  after  an  hour,  they  went  to  a  bow'r, 

And  play'd  for  ale  and  cakes  ; 
And  kisses  too, — until  they  were  due 

The  lasses  held  the  stakes. 
The  girls  did  then  begin 

To  quarrel  with  the  men, 
And  bade  them  take  their  kisses  back, 

And  give  them  their  own  again. 

Now  there  they  did  stay  the  whole  of  the  day, 

And  tired  the  fiddler  quite 
With  dancing  and  play,  without  any  pay, 

From  morning  until  night. 
They  told  the  fiddler  then 

They'd  pay  him  for  his  play, 
And  each  a  twopence,  twopence,  twopence, 

Gave  him,  and  went  away. 

[Good  night,  says  Harry, — good  night,  says 

Good  night,  says  Dolly  to  John  ;     [Mary  ; 
Good   night,    s.ays  Sue,    to  her  sweetheart, 

Good  night,  says  every  one.  [Hugh  ; 

Some  walk'd,  and  some  did  run  ; 

Some  loiter'd  on  the  way, 
And  bound  themselves  by  kisses  twelve 

To  meet  the  next  holiday.] 


584  ENGLISH    SONG  AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 

ROGER  DE  COVEHLEY. 

This  still  popular  dance-tune,  from  which  Addison  borrowed  the  name  of  Sir 
Roger  de  Coverley  in  The  Spectator,  is  contained  in  Play  ford's  Division  Violin, 
1685 ;  in  The  Dancing  Master  of  1696,  and  all  subsequent  editions ;  also  in 
many  ballad-operas,  and  more  recent  publications. 

In  a  manuscript  now  in  my  possession,  which  was  written  about  the  commence- 
ment of  the  last  century,  but  contains  tunes  of  a  much  earlier  date,  it  is  entitled 
"  Old  Roger  of  Ooverlay  for  evermore,  a  Lancashire  Hornpipe ;  "  in  The  Dancing 
Master,  "  Roger  of  Coverly ;"  in  the  ballad-opera  of  Polly,  "  Roger  a  Coverly ; " 
in  Robin  Hood,  "Roger  de  Coverly;"  and  in  Tom  Jones,  1769,  "Sir  Roger 
de  Coverley." 

There  is  a  song  with  the  burden,  "  0  brave  Roger  a  Cauverly,"  in  Pills  to 
purge  Melancholy,  vi.  31 ;  and  which  I  suppose  should  be  to  the  tune,  although 
four  bars  of  Old  Sir  Simon  the  King  are  printed  above  it.  Both  are  in  J  time. 
It  commences  very  abruptly,  as  if  it  were  a  fragment,  instead  of  an  entire  song — 
•  "  She  met  with  a  countryman  But  as  for  John  of  the  Green, 

In  the  middle  of  all  the  Green ;  I  care  not  a  pin  for  he. 

And  Peggy  was  his  delight,  Bulls  and  bears,  and  lions  and  dragons, 

And  good  sport  was  to  be  seen.  And  O  brave  Roger  a  Cauverly ; 

But  ever  she  cried,  Brave  Roger,  Pigging  and  n^ig gins,  pints  and  Jlagons, 

I'll  drink  a  whole  glass  to  thee ;  O  brave  Roger  a  Cauverly" 

These  J  tunes  are  not  found  in  the  earliest  editions  of  The  Dancing  Master, 
perhaps,  because  they  were  originally  jig  and  hornpipe  tunes,  rather  than  country- 
dances.  I  cannot,  in  any  other  way,  account  for  not  having  met  with  early  copies 
of  tunes  to  such  well-known  ballads  as  Arthur  a  Bradley  (so  frequently  mentioned 
by  Elizabethan  dramatists),  which,  from  the  metre  of  the  words,  must  have  been 
sung  to  an  air  in  J  time,  and  in  all  probability  to  this. 

According  to  Ralph  Thoresby's  MS.  account  of  the  family  of  Calverley,  of  Cal- 
verley,  in  Yorkshire,  the  dance  of  Roger  de  Coverley  was  named  after  a  knight 
who  lived  in  the  reign  of  Richard  I.  Thoresby  was  born  in  1658.  The  following 
extract  from  his  manuscript  was  communicated  to  Notes  and  Queries,  i.  369,  by 
Sir  Walter  Calverley  Trevelyan,  Bart. : — "Roger,  so  named  from  the  Archbishop 
[of  York],  was  a  person  of  renowned  hospitality,  since,  at  this  day,  the  obsolete 
known  tune  of  Roger  a  Calverley  is  referred  to  him,  who,  according  to  the  custom 
of  those  times,  kept  his  Minstrels,  from  that,  their  office,  named  Harpers,  which 
became  a  family,  and  possessed  lands  till  late  years  in  and  about  Calverley,  called 
to  this  day  Harpersroids  and  Harper's  Spring" 

Another  correspondent  of  Notes  and  Queries,  vi.  37,  says  that  in  Virginia,  U.S., 
the  dance  is  named  My  Aunt  Margery,  but  I  find  no  English  authority  for 
the  change. 

It  is  mentioned  as  one  which  "  the  hob-nailed  fellows  "  call  for,  in  The  History 
of  Robert  Poivel,  the  Puppet- showman,  8vo.,  1715.  "Upon  the  prelude's  being 
ended,  each  party  fell  to  bawling  and  calling  for  particular  tunes.  The  hob- 
nail'd  fellows,  whose  breeches  and  lungs  seem'd  to  be  of  the  same  leather,  cried 
out  for  Cheshire  Rounds,  Roger  of  Coverly,  Joan's  Placket,  and  Northern  Nancy" 

Finally,  it  is  known  in  Scotland  under  the  name  of  "  The  Mautman  comes  on 


REIGN    OF   CHARLES    IT. 


535 


Monday,"  from  a  song,  which,  on  the  authority  of  The  Tea  Talk  Miscellany, 
was  written  by  Allan  Ramsay. 

As  this  old  favorite  has  again  come  into  fashion  (not  only  here,  but  also  at 
foreign  Courts),  a  description  of  the  figure,  as  now  danced,  may  interest  some  of 
my  readers. 

FIGURE  OF  ROGER  DE  COVERLEY. — The  couples  stand  as  in  other  English  country- 
dances,  the  gentlemen  facing  the  ladies.  First — The  gentleman  at  the  top  and  the 
lady  at  the  bottom  of  the  dance  advance  to  the  centre,  and  turning  round  each  other 
(giving  the  right  hand)  return  to  places  (four  bars  of  music).  Second — The  same 
figure  repeated,  but  giving  the  left  hand  (four  bars).  Third — The  same  couple 
advance  a  third  time,  the  gentleman  bowing  and  the  lady  courtesying,  retire  (four 
bars).  The  fourth  is  a  chain  figure,  the  first  gentleman  gives  his  right  hand  to  his 
partner  and  left  to^the  second  lady,  right  to  partner  and  left  to  third  lady,  and  so  on, 
tho  lady,  in  like  manner,  at  the  same  time,  giving  her  right  hand  to  her  partner  and 
left  to  every  gentleman,  till  they  reach  the  bottom  of  the  dance.  They  then  hold  up 
th3ir  hands  joined,  and  every  couple  pass  under  them  (beginning  with  the  second 
geitleman  and  his  partner)  and  turning  outwards,  i.e.,  gentlemen  to  the  right  and 
ladies  to  the  left,  return  to  places.  Then  the  figure  recommences  with  the  second 
gentleman  (now  at  the  top)  and  the  first  lady,  now  at  the  bottom  of  the  dance. 


iNi^M-^gBim^y^i 


536 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD    MUSIC. 


THE  NORTHUMBERLAND  BAGPIPES. 

In  the  Roxburghe  Collection,  ii.  363,  and  Bagford,  643,  m.  10,  p.  159,  is  the 
ballad  of  "  The  merry  Bagpipes  :  the  pleasant  pastime  betwixt  a  jolly  shepherd 
and  a  country  damsel  on  a  Midsummer's  day  in  the  morning.  To  the  tune  of 
March,  boys,  &c."  Licensed  according  to  order,  and  printed  by  G.  Bates,  next 
door  to  the  Crown  Tavern  in  West  Smithfield.  I  have  not  found  the  song  of 
"  March,  boys  ;"  but  this  ballad  is  printed,  with  the  tune,  in  Pills  to  purge  Me- 
lancholy, ii.  136,  1700,  under  the  title  of  The  Northumberland  Bagpipes.  It  is 
here  arranged  with  the  bagpipe  drone. 


-^      uneerjutiy. 

—  1  f 

wfr^  —  *=?={ 

N    n  i-n 

5  —  ^  J    P 

|J    n  i    i  I 

S3Z                          1           J        _••••          j       JJ"'IIJ         •     •     •       • 
<J                                     •*-                                       -•--•--*•-•- 

A       shep  -herd      sat  him      un-der  a  thorn,  He  pull'd  out  his  pipe,  andbe 

"k  (  * 

v>—k 

^  

5 

\)  \  /  —     

K  .  ...  „   I     S,   i  1    I-*.. 

~l  —  T-^i  

—  r  r 

r~i  —  n 

L  JT3  j-*1-^- 

H  f  r  j  ^  j 

-.     JJ      1  N 

h  i  >h 

J  J*  J  H 

b~*   -        * 

kiJ      L           »               1 

*    J 

.  •      !     J    I 

*  •  *  ^  •  I' 

H-         -^                                         «                          -     .    —      -_^             9   •  ~ 

-  gan  for  to  play,  It    was  on   a   Midsummer  day  in  the  morn,  For  ho-nor  of  that 

J           A         -4-        J     A 

*"     *• 

10  -  liday. 

Z              m  •  1  1 

r 

\—  H 

4  —  P- 

-ii  —  i—  i  —  r- 

!  —  ^  —  ^ 

'-v-i  —  i- 

i     h    |  —  r«H 

-,  —  i   J.  J'h 

•       ^ 

9           !        p 

• 

J   J 

n             1 

1              • 

W- 

m      *  m    J       «  J 

III             1 

T          r 

A    dit  -  ty     he     did 
To  thee,    to  thee,  derry, 

_ 

^               -t      \J*      +     •      •' 
goes  to  the  tune     of    Cater  Bor-dee,   And 
thee,    to     thee,  derry,  derry  to   thee,  And 

chant     a  -  long,  That 
derry    to     thee,     To 

|r--K 

C"~-                                            I 

^^                                                   '"-' 

L 

• 

^Z3                                                   ^5 

. 

J 

*     a      J        m   J 

i 

E 

B 

g^ 

i 

H 

• 

3 

•<    m        */  m 

|  J 

c    ! 

~p 

J 

1 

• 

J 

m       — 

'  3 

v         «           p          . 

J 

i     ;    w 

J 

J 

J 

•    • 

•{    • 

•M 

this 

J 

was  the  bur  -  den 

J 

~  9 

of 

d 

his    song, 
-&- 

If    thou     wilt 

9 

pipe,  lad, 

£3 

^ 

I'll   dan 

ce     to 

thee. 
1 

21 

J    • 

1  

:  

•LI 

—  ^^  Lj..^  i  —  a  1  —  ^^  ui 

And  whilst  this  harmony  he  did  make, 
A  country  damsel  from  the  town, 

A  basket  on  her  arm  she  had, 
A  gathering  rushes  on  the  down  : 


Her  bongrace  was  of  wended  straw, 
From  the  sun's  beams  her  face  to  free, 

And  thus  she  began,  when  she  him  saw, 
If  thou  wilt  pipe,  lad,  I'll  dance  to  thee,  &c. 


WHEN  BUSY  FAME. 

Busy  Fame  was  a  popular  tune  at  the  end  of  the  reign  of  Charles  II.,  and 
continued  in  favour  for  at  least  half  a  century.  Several  ballads  that  were  to  be 
sung  to  it,  have  already  been  mentioned ;  the  following  are  in  the  Halliwell 
Collection : — 


REIQN    OF   CHARLES   II. 


537 


No.  47.  "  Coridon  and  Parthenia,  the  languishing  shepherd  made  happy,  or 
faithful  love  rewarded,  being  a  most  pleasant  and  delectable  new  Play  Song  : 
Here  mournful  love  is  turn'd  into  delight, 
To  this  we  a  chaste  amorist  invite." 

To  the  tune  of  When  lusy  Fame.  Printed  for  F.  Coles,  T.  Vere,  J.  Wright, 
J.  Clarke,  W.  Thackery,  and  T.  Passinger.  Also,  another  copy,  printed  by 
P.  Brooksby. 

ISo.  180.  u  The  Life  of  Love,"  &c.  "  To  the  tune  of  The  fair  one  let  me  in, 
or  Busy  Fame."  Printed  for  P.  Brooksby,  &c. 

3To.  349.  "The  trepanned  Virgin;  or,  Good  Advice  to  Maidens,"  &c.  "Tune, 
When  lusie  Fame."  Printed  for  Coles,  Vere,  Wright,  &c. 

The  song,  "  When  busy  Fame,"  is  in  Playford's  Choice  Ayres,  v.  19,  1684  ; 
in  Pills  to  purge  Melancholy,  iii.  249,  1707,  and  v.  164,  1719.  It  was  composed 
by  T.  Farmer. 


-^  Moderate 

time. 

5T^^ 

1  m-  —  f- 

When 

bu    -    sy  Fame  o'er 

all        the  plain,  V 

1         — 

lin     -  da's    prais  -  es 

,-)  .  ri  p  

_<q  ^  

—  53  "=  ' 

H 

—  Lz  —  !  

Cs 

1                    1 

1 

^1 

c^ 

• 

1 

1          T~ 

-J.             CS                        GJ 

f^-7->.     !   i   in-E^=£ 
±rgr±_J_N   <r±t=}— fc 


rung,          And      on     their     oat  -en     pipes  each  swain  Her  match-less   beau-ty  sung; 


:E==* 


m 


Che     en  -  vious  nymphs  were  forc'd  10  yield,  She    had  the  sweet  -  est    face:          No.  . 


1 


e;n    -    u  -  lous     dis  -  putes     were     held      But      for      the     se  -  cond    place. 


Young  Coridon,  whose  stubborn  heart 
No  beauty  e'er  could  move, 

That'smil'd  at  Cupid's  bow  and  dart, 
And  brav'd  the  God  of  JLove, 


^         I 
Would  view  this  nymph,  and  pleas'd,  at  first, 

Such  silent  charms  to  see, 
With  wonder  gaz'd,  then  sigh'd,  and  «urs'd 

His  curiosity. 


538 


ENGLISH   SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


BARBARA  ALLEN. 

Under  this  name,  the  English  and  Scotch  have  each  a  ballad,  with  their 
respective  tunes.  Both  ballads  are  printed  in  Percy's  Reliques  of  Ancient 
Poetry,  and  a  comparison  will  shew  that  there  is  no  similarity  in  the  music. 
It  has  been  suggested  that  for  "  Scarlet "  town,  the  scene  of  the  ballad, 
we  should  read  "Carlisle"  town.  Some  of  the  later  printed  copies  have 
"Beading"  town. 

In  the  Douce  Collection  there  is  a  different  ballad  under  this  title, — a  New- 
castle edition,  without  date. 

Goldsmith,  in  his  third  Essay,  says,  "  The  music  of  the  finest  singer  is 
dissonance  to  what  I  felt  when  our  old  dairy-maid  sung  me  into  tears  with 
Johnny  Armstrong's  Last  Crood  Night,  or  The  Cruelty  of  Barbara  Allen" 

A  black-letter  copy  of  this  ballad,  in  the  Roxburgh e  Collection,  ii.  25,  is 
entitled  "  Barbara  Allen's  Cruelty ;  or,  The  Young  Man's  Tragedy :  With 
Barbara  Allen's  Lamentation  for  her  unkindness  to  her  Lover  and  herself.  To 
the  tune  of  Barbara  Allen"  Printed  for  P.  Brooksby,  J.  Deacon,  J.  Blare, 
and  J.  Back. 

The  following  is  the  version  printed  by  Percy :  the  tune  from  tradition,  and 
scarcely  one  is  better  known : — 


Pfl.  0     —  1 

^    1  si 

H^  J    J  i 

rd^~1  1 

4    ^  J^ 

F^rH=a 

Ji  "     -  -^ 

-J-d—  »Ml4- 

1  •  •  i  C  1 

9                            |-        ...                *      "      *      •     •              9               00 

In    Scarlet  Town,  where    I  was  born,  There  was  a  fair  maid  dwellin',    Made 

J.i                               i 

i 

-      i 

3                 h» 

J 

it  A   r   • 

.  r      * 

o                  1 

*            J        J 

I 

^r9!  —  i  —  Hn 

1  —  P^i  ~ 

r-^r—  j  —  s 

i—  rr-  

L3  *  J  —  *^H 

3  J  j  —  Js.. 

H    *    j     j    - 

^r  j,.-  

9 
ev'-ry  youth      cry, 

_3  ,  —  =—  — 

Well-a-day?    Her 

•          -9- 

name  was  Bar  -  bara 

_J  ,  

Al-  len. 
i  1-|  

i                f* 

i                r 

2                         J 

-S               U 

All  in  the  merry  month  of  May, 

When  green  buds  they  were  swellin', 

Young  Jemmy  Grove  on  his  death-bed  lay, 
For  love  of  Barbara  Allen. 

He  sent  his  man  unto  her  then, 

To  the  town  where  she  was  dwellin' ; 

You  must  come  to  my  master  dear, 
Giff  your  name  be  Barbara  Allen. 

For  death  is  printed  on  his  face, 

And  o'er  his  heart  is  stealin' ; 
Then  haste  away  to  comfort  him, 

O  lovely  Barbara  Allen. 


Though  death  be  printed  on  his  face, 
And  o'er  his  heart  is  stealin', 

Yet  little  better  shall  he  be 
For  bonny  Barbara  Allen. 

So  slowly,  slowly,  she  came  up, 
And  slowly  she  came  nigh  him  ; 

And  all  she  said,  when  there  she  came, 
Young  man,  I  think  you're  dying. 

He  turn'd  his  face  unto  her  straight, 
With  deadly  sorrow  sighing  ; 

O  lovely  maid,  come  pity  me, 
I'm  on  my  death-bed  lying. 


REIGN  OF   CHARLES   II. 


539 


If  on  your  death-bed  you  do  lie, 
What  needs  the  tale  you're  telliri' ; 

I  cannot  keep  you  from  your  death  ; 
Farewell,  said  Barbara  Allen. 

He  turn'd  his  face  unto  the  wall, 

As  deadly  pangs  he  fell  in  : 
Adieu  !  adieu  !  adieu  to  you  all, 

Adieu  to  Barbara  Allen. 

As  she  was  walking  o'er  the  fields, 
She  heard  the  bell  a  knellin' ; 

And  every  stroke  did  seem  to  say, 
Unworthy  Barbara  Allen, 

She  turn'd. her  body  round  about, 
And  spied  the  corpse  a  coming  ; 

Lay  down,  lay  down  the  corpse,  she  said, 
That  I  may  look  upon  him. 

With  scornful  eye  she  looked  down, 
Her  cheek  with  laughter  swellin' ; 


Whilst  all  her  friends  cried  out  amain, 
Unworthy  Barbara  Allen. 

When  he  was  dead,  and  laid  in  grave, 
Her  heart  was  struck  with  sorrow, 

O  mother,  mother,  make  my  bed, 
For  I  shall  die  to-morrow. 

Hard-hearted  creature  him  to  slight, 

Who  loved  me  so  dearly  : 
O  that  I  had  been  more  kind  to  him 

When  he  was  alive  and  near  me  ! 

She,  on  her  death-bed  as  she  lay, 
Begg'd  to  be  buried  by  him  ; 

And  sore  repented  of  the  day, 
That  she  did  e'er  deny  him. 

Farewell,  she  said,  ye  virgins  all, 
And  shun  the  fault  I  fell  in  : 

Henceforth  take  warning  by  the  fall 
Of  cruel  Barbara  Allen. 


O  BRAVE  ARTHUR  OF  BRADLEY. 

"  Sing  him  Arthur  of  Bradley,  or,  /  am  the  Duke  of  Norfolk." 

Wycheiiey's  Gentleman's  Dancing  Master,  1673. 

When  I  first  read  the  ballad  of  "  Arthur  of  Bradley,"  it  struck  me  imme- 
diately that  it  must  have  been  sung  to  the  tune  of  Roger  de  Coverley.  The  words 
ran  so  glibly  to  the  tune,  that  I  could  scarcely  forbear  to  hum  it  over  to  them. 
I  si  ill  retain  the  impression,  and  the  probabilities  are  strengthened  by  having  traced 
Ro<jer  de  Coverley  to  an  earlier  date,  and  as  a  Lancashire  hornpipe.  In  the 
ballad,  Arthur  calls  upon  the  piper  to  play  "  a  hornpipe,  that  went  fine  on  the 
bagpipe,"  and  no  other  dance  is  mentioned  at  the  wedding.  There  are  many 
places  called  Bradley,  in  England,  and,  among  them,  one  in  Yorkshire,  another 
in  Lancashire,  and  a  third  in  Derbyshire. 

All  the  black-letter  copies  of  the  ballad  of  "  Arthur  of  Bradley"  that  I  have 
noticed,  direct  it  to  be  sung  "to  a  pleasant  new  tune ;"  so  that,  unless  a  copy 
of  Roger  de  Coverley  can  be  found  under  the  name  of  "  Arthur  of  Bradley,"  or 
"  Saw  ye  not  Pierce  the  Piper  ?"  the  identification  will  remain  doubtful.  One 
thing,  however,  is  certain, — that  "  Arthur  of  Bradley"  must  have  been  sung  to 
a  tune  in  |  time,  and  to  one  that  consisted  of  twelve  bars.  £  time  is  common  to 
English  jig  and  hornpipe  tunes. 

'*  Arthur-a-Bradley"  is  referred  to  by  Ben  Jonson,  Dekker,  and  other  Eliza- 
bethan dramatists;  in  Braithwait's  Strappado  for  the  Divell ;  and  in  the  ballad  of 
"  Eobin  Hood's  birth,  breeding,  valour,  and  marriage."  See  also  Gifford's  notes 
to  his  edition  of  Ben  Jonson,  iv.,  401,  410,  and  533. 

The  ballad  is  printed  in  "  An  Antidote  against  Melancholy :  made  up  in  pills, 
compounded  of  witty  ballads,  jovial  songs,  and  merry  catches,"  1661,  and  in 
Ritson's  "  Robin  Hood,"  ii.  210.  Ritson  retains  the  title  of  the  black-letter 
'copies,  "  A  Merry  Wedding  ;  or,  0  brave  Arthur  of  Bradley." 


540 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD    MUSIC. 


The  first  stanza  is  here  adapted  to  a  second  version  of  Roger  de  Ooverley. 
Gaily. 


See  ye  not  Pierce  the  piper,  His  cheeks  as  big  as  a  mitre,  A  piping  among  the  swains  That 


±da 


1 


dance  on  yonder  plains?  Where  Tib  and  Tim  do  trip  it,  And  youths  to  the  hornpip6  nip  i*»  With 


ev1  -  ry  one  his  carriage  To    go      to     yon -der  marriage,  Not  one  should  stay   be-hind,  But 

'=Ss=±= 


f=± 


=P 


go  with     Arthur  of  Bradley,    Oh  !  fine  Arthur  ol     Brad-ley,  Arthur   of  Brad- ley, 


J 


There  are  two  other  ballads  of  "  Arthur-a-Bradley," — one  commencing,  "  All 
in  the  merry  month  of  May"  (included  in  the  third  volume  of  the  Roxburghe 
Ballads),  and  the  second,  "  Come,  neighbours,  and  listen  awhile,"  reprinted  in 
"  Ancient  Poems,  Ballads,  and  Songs  of  the  Peasantry  of  England,"  by  J.  H. 
Dixon.  Both  are  evidently  of  later  date  than  the  above. 

There  may  have  been  a  fourth  ballad,  for  Gayton,  in  his  Festivous  Notes  on 
Don  Quixote,  4to.,  1654,  p.  141,  says,  "  ?Tis  not  alwaies  sure  that  'tis  merry  in 
hatt  when  beards  wag  all,  for  these  men's  beards  wagg'd  as  fast  as  they  could  tug 
'em,  but  mov'd  no  mirth  at  all :  They  were  verifying  that  song  of — 
'  Heigh,  brave  Arthur  o'  Bradley, 
A  beard  without  haire  looks  madly.' " 
The  last  line  is  not  to  be  found  in  any  of  the  above-mentioned. 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES    II.  541 

UNDER  THE  GREENWOOD  TREE. 

This  ballad,  and  the  tune  (noted  down  in  common  time,  and  without  bars),  are 
found  among  Ashmole's  Manuscripts,  at  Oxford  (36  and  37,  fol.  194,  b). 

There  are  two  versions  in  The  Dancing  Master  of  1686, — the  first  in  common, 
and  the  second  in  5  time :  the  first  entitled  Under  the  Greenwood  Tree, — the 
second  (in  the  additional  sheet),  Oh!  how  they  frisk  it,  or  Leather  Apron. 

I  have  only  observed  one  other  copy  in  common  time,  and  that  is  in  The 
Dancing  Master  of  1690.  In  all  later  editions,  and  in  Pills  to  purge  Melancholy, 
it  is  in  £  time,  which  the  words  seem  to  require. 

The  popularity  of  the  tune  may  be  inferred  from  the  great  number  of  ballad- 
operas  in  which  it  was  introduced.  Among  these  may  be  reckoned  The  Devil  to 
pay,  The  Jovial  Crew,  The  Village  Opera,  The  Cobblers'  Opera,  The  Mad  Captain, 
Tlie  Court  Legacy,  The  Devil  of  a  Duke,  and  The  Woman  of  Taste. 

Ashmole's  copy  of  the  words  differs  somewhat  from  the  black-letter  ballads  ; 
aod,  if  written  at  the  time  when  he  is  stated  to  have  been  intent  upon  music, — 
soon  after  his  father's  death,  in  1634, — it  may  be  from  forty  to  fifty  years  older 
than  any  printed  copy  that  I  have  observed,  the  earliest  of  which  was  published 
by  Brooksby.a 

Ashmole  noted  down  the  tune  without  bars,  and  bars  were  in  general  use  in  the 
reign  of  Charles  II.,  but  not  so  in  that  of  Charles  I.b  The  words  in  his  copy 
begin  thus : — 

"  In  summer  time,  when  leaves  grow  green,  There's  Jeffry  and  Tom,  there's  Ursula  and 

And  birds  sit  on  the  tree,  With  Roger  and  bonny  Bettee ;    [John, 

Let  all  the  lords  say  what  they  can,  Oh !  how  they  do  firk  it,  caper  and  jerk  it, 

There's  none  so  merry  as  we.  Under  the  Greenwood  Tree. 

The  ballads  of  "  King  Edward  the  Fourth  and  the  Tanner  of  Tamworth,"  and 
"  Robin  Hood  and  the  Curtal  Friar,"  commence  precisely  as  in  Ashmole's  copy, 
ai id,  the  metre  of  all  being  the  same,  it  appears  very  probable  that  they  were  sung 
to  one  tune,  and  therefore,  that  this  air  may  yet  be  traced  back  to  the  reign  of 
Elizabeth.  Another  ancient  ballad,  "  Robin  Hood  and  the  Monk,"  begins  in  a 
similar  manner,  and  the  eighth  line  corresponds  with  the  burden  of  this  ballad. 

The  tune  is  sometimes  entitled  Caper  and  firk  it  (i.e.,  caper  and  frisk  it)  as  in 
"  The  fair  Maid  of  Islington ;  or,  The  London  Vintner  over-reach'd :  To  the  tune 
of  Bellinger's  Round,  or  Caper  and  firk  it."  (Bagford  643  m.  10,  p.  113.) 
Commencing — 

"  There  was  a  fair  Maid  of  Islington,         And  she  would  to  fair  London  go, 

As  I  heard  many  tell,  Fine  apples  and  pears  to  sell,"  &c. 

In  is  included  among  the  tunes  of  Christmas  Carols  in  "  A  Cabinet  of  Choice 
J  ewels ;  or,  The  Christian's  Joy  and  Gladness,  set  forth  in  sundry  pleasant  new 

a  The  earliest  date  that  I  have  noted  to  any  ballad  century  ;  but,  in  England,  each  part  was  usually  printed 

p  inted  by  Brooksby,  is  April  12,  1677,  when  Sir  Roger  separately,  and  then  bars  were  thought  unnecessary. 

L  Estrange  licensed  to  him,  "A  Kind  Husband;  or,  The  Dancing  Masters  of  1651  and  1652,  being  for  one 

Advice  for  Married  Men.  To  the  tune  of  The  Ladiet'  instrument,  have  no  bars ;  but  the  wore  in  the  moral  play, 

Lelight,  or  Never  let  a  man  take  heavily."  A  copy  in  The  four  Elements,  printed  by  Rastell  (to  which  Dr. 

trie  Rawlinson  Collection  of  "  Olde  Balades,"  Bodleian  Dibdin  assigns  the  date  of  1510),  is  barred.  So  far  as 

I  ibrary.  I  have  observed,  all  music  in  the  ordinary  notation,  even 

b  Bars  were  used  to  music  in  score  in  the  fifteenth  for  one  voice  or  one  instrument,  was  barred  after  1660. 


542 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


Christmas  Carols,"  1688.  These  are  "  A  carol  for  Christmas  Day,  to  the  tune  of 
Over  hills  and  hir/h  mountains  ;  for  Christmas  Day  at  night,  to  the  tune  of  My 
life  and  my  death  ;  for  St.  Stephen's  Day,  to  the  tune  of  0  cruel  bloody  fate ;  for 
New  Year's  Day,  to  the  tune  of  Caper  and  jerk  it ;  and  for  Twelfth  Night,  to  the 
tune  of  0  Mother,  Roger.*  A  copy  of  this  curious  collection  is  in  Wood's  Library, 
at  Oxford. 

"A  delightful  song  in  honour  of  Whitsontide,  to  the  tune  of  Caper  and 
jerk  it"  is  contained  in  Canterbury  Tales,  &c.,  printed  in  Bow  Churchyard.  It 
commences —  "  Now  Whitson  holidays  they  are  come, 

Each  lass  shall  find  her  mate." 

There  are  many  more  ballads  to  the  tune.  The  following  eight  stanzas  are 
selected  from  the  original,  which  is  very  long,  and  in  two  parts.  In  the  black- 
letter  copies  (two  of  which  are  in  the  Douce  Collection),  it  is  entitled,  "The 
West-country  Delight;  or,  Hey  for  Zommersetshire,*'  &c. ;  in  the  Pills,  "  The 
Countryman's  Delight." 
^Cheerfully. 


J 


Sum  -  mer  time,    when  flow'rs  do     spring,  And     birds    sit     on      each 


—  h^  —  ^H  ~w~ 

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-tee,        Oh !  how  they  do  jerk       it,        Ca  -  per  and  firk      it,      Under  the  greenwood 


»  Of  these  tunes,  "  My  life  and  my  death  are  both  in  with  his  kisses,"  is  to  be  found  in  Pills  to  purge  Melan- 
your  power"  is  the  composition  of  Mr.  William  Turner  choly,  and  in  The  Dancing  Master ;  and  the  remaining  are 
(see  Theater  of  Music,  Book  i.,  1685) ;  "  O  Mother,  Roger  contained  in  this  collection. 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES   II. 


tree.  In      Sum  -  mer  time  when  flow'rs  do    spring,  And  birds     sit     on     each 


tree,         Let  Lords  and  Knights  say  what  they  will,  There's  none  so  merry  as        we. 


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O;ir  music  is  a  little  pipe, 

That  can  so  sweetly  play  ; 
We  hire  Old  Hal  from  Whitsuntide, 

Till  latter  Lammas-day ; 
On  sabbath  days  and  holy-days, 

After  ev'ning  prayer  comes  he  ;a 
And  then  do  we  skip  it,  caper  and  trip  it, 

Under  the  green-wood  tree. 

In  summer  time,  &c. 

Come,  play  us  Adam  and  Eve,  says  Dick  ; 

What's  that  ?  says  little  Pipe  ; 
The  Beginning  of  the  World?  quoth  Dick  ; 

For  we  are  dancing-ripe  ; 
Is't  that  you  call  ?  then  have  at  all — 

He  play'd  with  merry  glee  ; 
O  then  did  we  skip  it,  caper  and  trip  it, 

Under  the  green- wood  tree. 

In  summer  time,  &c. 

O  er  hills  and  dales,  to  Whitsun-ales, 

We  dance  a  merry  fytte  ; 
When  Susan  sweet  with  John  doth  meet, 

She  gives  him  Hit  for  Hit — 
From  head  to  foot  she  holds  him  to  't, 

And  jumps  as  high  as  he  ; 
Oa  how  they  spring  it,  flounce  and  fling  it, 

Under  the  green-wood  tree. 

In  summer  time,  &c. 

M/  lord's  son  must  not  be  forgot, 

So  full  of  merry  jest ; 
Ho  laughs  to  see  the  girls  so  hot, 

A.nd  jumps  it  with  the  rest. 

•  Bishop  Earle,  in  his  Microcosmographie,  describing 
a  "Pain  countryfellow,  or  downright  clown,"  says, 
"  Sun  lay  he  esteems  a  day  to  make  merry  in,  and 
thinks-  a  hag-pipe  as  essential  to  it  as  evening  prayer. 
He  \v  tlks  very  solemnly  after  service,  with  his  hands 
coupl*  d  hehind  him,  and  censures  "  ( i.  e.,  criti- 
cises) "the  dancing  of  his  parish."  Burton,  in  his 


No  time  is  spent  with  more  content, 

In  camp,  in  court,  or  city, 
So  long  as  we  skip  it,  frisk  it  and  trip  it, 

Under  the  green-wood  tree. 

In  summer  time,  &c. 

We  oft  go  to  Sir  William's  ground, 

And  a  rich  old  cub  is  he  ; 
And  there  we  dance  around,  around, 

But  never  a  penny  we  see. 
From  thence  we  get  to  Somerset, 

Where  men  are  frolic  and  free, 
And  there  do  we  skip  it,  frisk  it  and  trip  it, 

Under  the  green-wood  tree. 

In  summer  time,  &c. 

We  fear  no  plots  of  Jews  or  Scots, 

For  we  are  jolly  swains  : 
With  plow  and  cow,  and  barley-mow, 

We  busy  all  our  brains  ; 
No  city  cares,  nor  merchant's  fears 

Of  wreck  or  piracy  ; 
Therefore  we  skip  it,  frisk  it  and  trip  it, 

Under  the  green-wood  tree. 

In  summer  time,  &c. 

On  meads  and  lawns  we  trip  like  fauns, 

Like  fillies,  kids  and  lambs  ; 
We  have  no  twinge  to  make  us  cringe, 

Or  crinkle  in  the  hams  ; 
When  the  day  is  spent,  with  one  consent, 

Again  we  all  agree, 
To  caper  it  and  skip  it,  trample  and  trip  it, 

Under  the  green-wood  tree. 

In  summer  time,  &c. 

Anatomy  of  Melancholy,  says:  "  Young  lasses  are  never 
better  pleased,  than  when,  as  upon  a  holiday,  after  even- 
song, they  may  meet  their  sweet-hearts,  and  dance  about 
a  May-pole,  or  in  a  Town-green,  under  a  shady  elm." 
b  For  The  Beginning  of  the  World,  or  Sellenger's  Round, 
see  ante  vol.  i.,  p.  69. 


544  ENGLISH   SONG  AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 

An  answer  to  the  preceding  Somersetshire  ballad  will  be  found  in  the  Douce 
Collection,  and  to  be  sung  to  the  same  tune.  It  is  "  Hey  for  our  town,  but  a  fig 
for  a  Zommersetshire ; "  and  commences — 

"  In  winter  time,  when  flow'rs  do  fade,        Let  lords  and  ladies  play  at  cards, 

And  birds  forsake  the  tree,  There's  none  so  merry  as  we,"  &c. 

The  burden  is  "  Under  the  holly-bush  tree." 

THE  OLD  LANCASHIRE  HORNPIPE. 

•'  There  is  a  Lancashire  Hornpipe  in  my  throat ;  hark !  how  it  tickles,  with  doodle,  doodle,  doodle." 

Ford's  The  Witch  of  Edmonton. 

At  page  12  of  an  edition  of  The  Dancing  Master,  the  exact  reference  to  which 
I  have  mislaid  (perhaps  in  one  of  the  volumes  of  Walsh's  Compleat  Country 
Dancing  Master),  this  tune  is  entitled  The  Old  Lancashire  Hornpipe.  In  Apollo's 
Banquet,  1669,  1690,  and  1693,  it  is  called  A  Jigg,  and  has  twelve  divisions  or 
variations.  There  were  hornpipes  of  various  descriptions;  some  being  called 
jig-hornpipes,  or  hornpipe-jigs,  others  bagpipe-hornpipes.  One  of  the  former 
will  be  found  in  the  first  edition  of  Apollo's  Banquet ;  and  several  of  the  latter 
in  "  An  extraordinary  Collection  of  pleasant  and  merry  humours ;  containing 
Hornpipes,  Jiggs,  North-Country  Frisks,  Morrises,  Bagpipe-Hornpipes,  and 
Rounds,"*  &c.  The  hornpipe-jig  in  Apollo's  Banquet  (although  not  so  barred) 
is  in  2  time.  About  1697,  Thomas  Marsden  published  a  "  Collection  of  original 
Lancashire  Hornpipes  ;  "  but  I  have  not  been  able  to  find  a  copy  in  any  library, 
public  or  private. 

In  Vanbrugh's  comedy  of  ^Esop,  act  v.,  the  trumpets  were  to  sound  a  melan- 
choly air  till  -ZEsop  appeared,  and  then  the  violins  and  hautboys  to  "  strike  up  a 
Lancashire  Hornpipe." 

The  instrument  called  the  hornpipe,  from  which  the  dance  derived  its  name, 
was  in  use  in  England  as  late  as  the  reign  of  Charles  II. ,  and  perhaps  later. 
It  is,  in  all  probability,  the  same  as  the  pib-corn  (which  means  horn-pipe)  said  to 
be  still  in  use  in  Wales.  The  pipe  of  the  latter  is  of  hollow  wood,  with  holes  for 
the  fingers  at  regulated  distances,  and  with  horn  at  each  end ;  a  small  piece  for 
the  mouth,  and  a  larger  for  the  escape  of  the  sound. 

Chaucer  mentions  the  hornpipe  as  a  Cornish  instrument, — 

"Controve  he  would,  and  foule  faile,       In  Floites  made  he  discordaunce, 
With  Hornpipes  of  Cornwaile.  And  in  his  musike  with  misehannce,"  &c. 

Romaunt  of  the  JRose. 

In  the  sixteenth  and  seventeenth  centuries,  the  counties  most  famous  for  the 
dance  of  the  hornpipe  were  Derbyshire,  Nottinghamshire,  and  Lancashire.  Ben 
Jonson,  in  his  Love's  Welcome  at  Welbeck,  says, — 

"  Your  firk-hum  jerk-hum  to  a  dance,         To  wonder  at  the  hornpipes  here 
Shall  fetch  the  fiddles  out  of  France,         Of  Nottingham  and  Derbyshire ;  " 

•  There  were  three  publications  under  this  title,  which  printed  by  John  Young,  at  the  Dolphin  and  Crown,  at  the 

I  have  not  had  the  opportunity  to  compare.     The  first,  West  end  of  St.  Paul's  Church,  without  date.     A  copy  of 

mentioned  by  Bagford  as  having  been  printed  by  Daniel  the  last  is  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  George  Daniel,   of 

Wright  in  1710  (small  oblong  of  35  pages) ;  the  second  in  Canonbury. 
the  British  Museum,  a.  10.5,  dated  1720;  and  the  third 


REIGN    OF   CHARLES   II.  545 

and  he  gives  a  song  to  the  hornpipe  tune,  which  was  to  be  accompanied  on  the 
bagpipe. 

Under  an  engraving  of  Hale,  the  Derbyshire  piper,  by  Sutton  Nicholls,  are  the 
music  of  his  hornpipe  and  the  following  lines : — 

"  Before  three  monarchs  I  my  skill  did  prove 
Of  many  lords  and  knights  had  I  the  love  ; 
There's  no  musician  e'er  did  know  the  peer 
Of  HALE  THE  PIPER  in  fair  Darby -shire. 
The  consequence  in  part  you  here  may  know, 
Pray  look  upon  his  Hornpipe  here  below." 

Quoted  from  Daniel's  Merry  England. 

In  "  Old  Meg  of  Herefordshire  for  a  Mayd  Marian,  and  Hereford  town  for  a 
Morris  Dance,"  1609,  the  especial  credit  for  hornpipes  is  given  to  Lancashire. 
"  The  Court  of  Kings  for  stately  Measures ;  the  city  for  light  heels  and  nimble 
footing ;  the  country  for  shuffling  dances  "  [jigs  ?]  ;  "  Western  men  for  gambols ; 
Middlesex  men  for  tricks  above  ground;  Essex  men  for  the  Hay;  Lancashire 
for  Hornpipes;  Worcestershire  for  bagpipes;  but  Herefordshire  for  a  Morris- 
dance,  puts  down  not  only  all  Kent,  but  very  near  (if  one  had  line  enough  to 
measure  it)  three  quarters  of  Christendom." 
Michael  Drayton,  in  his  Polyolbion,  also  says — 

"  The  neat  Lancastrian  nymphs,  for  beauty  that  excell, 

That,  for  the  Hornpipe  round,  do  bear  away  the  bell ; " 
and  again — "  Ye  lustie  lasses,  then,  in  Lancashire  that  dwell, 
For  beautie  that  are  sayd  to  beare  away  the  bell, 
Your  countries  Hornpipe  yee  so  minsingly  that  tread,"  &c. 
Hornpipes  were  not  then  danced  only  by  one  or  two  persons,  as  now ;  Drayton, 
above,  speaks  of  the  "  hornpipe  round."     So  George  Peele,  in  his  Arraignment 
of  Paris,  1584— 

"  The  round  in  a  circle  our  sportance  must  be, 

Hold  hands  in  a  hornpipe,  all  gallant  in  glee ; " 
and  again  Drayton — 

"  So  blyth  and  bonny  now  the  lads  and  lasses  are, 
And  ever  as  anon  the  bagpipe  up  doth  blow, 
Cast  in  a  gallant  Round,  about  the  hearth  they  goe, 
And  at  each  pause  they  kisse  :  was  never  seene  such  rule, 
In  any  place  but  heere,  at  Boon -fire,  or  at  Yeule  ; 
And  every  village  smokes  at  Wakes  with  lusty  cheere, 
Then,  Hey,  they  cry,  for  Lun,  and  Hey  for  Lancashire." 

Spenser,  also,  in  his  Pastorals,  mentions  the  hornpipe  as  a  dance  for  many 
persons —    "  Before  them  yode  a  lustie  tabrere, 

That  to  the  many  a  home  pype  playd, 
Whereto  they  dauncen,  eche  one  with  his  mayd  ; 
To  see  these  folks  make  so  jovisaunce, 
Made  my  heart  after  the  pype  to  daunce." 

I  suppose  the  manner  of  dancing  the  hornpipe  in  Lancashire  differed,  in  some 
way,  from  that  of  other  counties ;  because  in  one  of  the  bills  of  public  enter- 


546 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


tainments  quoted  by  Mr.  Daniel,  in  his  Merry  England,  of  about  the  year  1691, 
John  Sleepe  advertises  "  a  young  man  that  dances  a  hornpipe,  the  Lancaster  way, 
extraordinary  finely." 

Lancashire  was  equally  famous  for  pipers  and  fiddlers  ;  for  a  note  upon  whom 
I  refer  the  reader  to  Gilford's  Ben  Jonson,  v.  436  ;  but  Lincolnshire  disputed 
with  Worcestershire  the  honor  of  the  bagpipes.  In  Drayton's  Blazons  of  the  Shires, 
he  says  —  "  Beane-belly  Lestershire,  her  attribute  doth  beare, 

And  bells  and  bagpipes  next,  belong  to  Lincolneshire  ;" 
and  again,  in  his  twenty-fifth  Song,  — 

"  Thou,  Wytham,  mine  own  town,  first  water'd  with  my  source, 
As  to  the  Eastern  sea  I  hasten  on  my  course, 
Who  sees  so  pleasant  plains,  or  knows  of  fairer  scene  ? 
Whose  swains  in  shepherd's  gray,  and  girls  in  Lincoln  green, 
Whilst  some  the  rings  of  bells,  and  some  the  bagpipes  ply, 
Dance  many  a  merry  Round,  and  many  a  Hydegy." 

A  variety  of  notices  about  Lincolnshire  bagpipes  have  been  collected  by  the 
commentators  on  Shakespeare.  The  bagpipe  was  quite  a  rustic  instrument,  and 
generally  held  in  contempt.  "  It  seems  you  never  heard  good  music,  that  com- 
mend a  bagpipe,"  is  a  figurative  speech  in  Middleton's  Any  thing  for  a  quiet  life; 
and  again,  in  The  Witch,  "  'Twill  be  a  worthy  work  to  put  down  all  these  pipers  ; 
'tis  a  pity  there  should  not  be  a  statute  against  them,  as  against  fiddlers."  Ben 
Jonson  says,  "  A  rhyme  to  him  is  worse  than  cheese  or  a  bagpipe,"  &c.,  &c. 
The  contemptuous  similes  to  the  bagpipe  by  dramatists,  such  as,  "  that  snuffles 
in  the  nose  like  a  decayed  bagpipe,"  are  extremely  numerous." 


Cheerfully. 


B 


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REIGN    OF   CHAKLES   II.  547 

THE  WAITS. 

Waits,  or  Waights,  seem  originally  to  have  been  a  kind  of  musical  watchmen, 
who,  in  order  to  prove  their  watchfulness,  were  required  to  pipe  at  stated  hours  of 
the  night.  The  hautboy  was  also  called  a  waight, — perhaps  from  being  the  pipe 
upon  which  they  commonly  played, — but  there  are  early  instances  of  the  use  of 
other  pipes  by  Waits,  as  in  a  passage  quoted  by  Mr.  Sandys,  from  the  old  lay  of 
Richard  Cceur-de-Lion : — 

"  A  wayte  ther  com  in  a  kernel  (battlement), 
And  pypyd  a  moot  in  a  flagel." 

This  "  flagel"  was  probably  a  pipe  of  which  the  "  flagelet"  (or,  as  now  spelled, 
"flageolet"),  is  the  diminutive. 

Mr.  Sandys  remarks  that  "  in  the  time  of  Henry  the  Third,  Simon  le  Wayte 
held  a  virgate  of  land  at  Buckingham,  in  Northamptonshire,  on  the  tenure  of 
being  castle-wayte,  or  watch,';  and  the  same  custom  was  observed  in  other  places." 
(Christmas-Tide,  p.  83.)  Mr.  E.  Smirke,  who  quotes  many  such  cases,  in 
his  Observations  on  Wait  Service  mentioned  in  the  Liber  Winton,  or  Winchester 
Domesday,  adds  that,  in  the  earldom  of  Cornwall,  they  who  held  their  lands  by 
the  tenure  of  keeping  watch  at  the  castle-gate  of  Launceston,  "  owed  suit  to  a 
special  court,  in  the  nature  of  a  court  baron,  called  the  '  Curia  vigilise,'  '  Curia  de 
gayte,'  or  i  Wayternesse  Court,'  of  which  many  records  are  still  extant  in  the 
offices  of  the  Exchequer,  and  among  the  records  of  the  Duchy."  (Archaeological 
Journal,  No.  12,  Dec.  1846.) 

The  duties  of  a  wayte  are  thus  defined  in  the  Liber  niger  Domus  Regis  (pub- 
lished, with  additions,  by  Stephen  Batman),  which  contains  an  account  of  the  mu- 
sicians, and  others,  retained  in  the  household  establishment  of  King  Edward  IV. : 

"  A  WAYTE,  that  nightely  from  Mychelmas  to  Shreve  Thorsdaye  pipethe  watche 
within  this  courte  fowere  tymes  ;  in  the  Somere  nightes  three  tymes,  and  makethe 
ban  gayte  at  every  chambere  doare  and  offyce,  as  well  for  feare  of  pyckeres  and  pillers. 
He  eatethe  in  the  halle  with  Mynstrelles,  and  takethe  lyverey  at  nighte  a  loafe,  a 
galone  of  ale,  and  for  Somere  nightes  two  candles  [of]  pich,  and  a  bushel  of  coles ; 
and  for  Wintere  nightes  halfe  a  loafe  of  bread,  a  galone  of  ale,  four  candles  pich,  a 
bushel  coles  :  Daylye  whilst  he  is  presente  in  Court  for  his  wages,  in  Cheque-roale, 
allowed  \\i\d.  ob.  or  else  \i\d.  by  the  discresshon  of  the  Steuarde  and  Tressorore,  and 
that  after  his  cominge  and  deservinge  :  Also  cloathinge  with  the  Houshold  Yeomen 
or  Mynstrelles  lyke  to  the  wages  that  he  takethe  :  An  he  be  sycke,  he  taketh  two 
loa^  es,  two  messe  of  great  meate,  one  galone  ale.  Also  he  partetli  with  the  houshold 
of  general  gyfts,  and  hathe  his  beddinge  carried  by  the  Comptrolleres  assignment ; 
and.  under  this  yeoman,  to  be  a  Groome-Waitere.  Yf  he  can  excuse  the  yeoman  in 
his  absence,  then  he  takethe  rewarde,  clotheinge,  meat,  and  all  other  things  lyke  to 
otht  r  Grooms  of  Houshold.  Also  this  Yeoman- Waighte,  at  the  making  of  Knightes 
of  the  Bathe,  for  his  attendance  upon  them  by  nighte-time,  in  watchinge  in  the 
Chappelle,  hathe  to  his  fee  all  the  watchinge  clothing  that  the  Knight  shall  wear 
upon  him." 

Three  waytes  were  included  among  the  minstrels  in  the  service  of  Edward  III. 

The  musicians  of  towns  and  corporations  were  also  termed  waits.  The  city  of 
London  had  its  waits,  who  attended  the  Lord  Mayor  on  public  occasions,  such  as 

2  N 


548  ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 

Lord  Mayor's  Day,  and  on  public  feasts  and  great  dinners.  They  are  described 
as  having  blue  gowns,  red  sleeves,  and  caps,  every  one  having  his  silver  collar 
about  his  neck. 

In  1599,  Morley  thus  speaks  of  them  in  his  dedication  of  his  Consort  Lessons, 
for  six  instruments,  to  the  Lord  Mayor  and  Aldermen  : — "  But,  as  the  ancient 
custom  of  this  most  honorable  and  renowned  city  hath  been  ever  to  retain  and 
maintain  excellent  and  expert  musicians,  to  adorn  your  Honour's  favours,  feasts, 
and  solemn  meetings, — to  those,  your  Lordship's  Wayts,  I  recommend  the  same, 
— to  your  servants'  careful  and  skilful  handling." 

When  Charles  II.,  on  his  restoration,  passed  through  the  city  of  London  to 
Whitehall,  he  was,  according  to  Ogilby,  entertained  with  music  from  a  band  of 
eight  waits  at  Crutched  Friars,  of  six  at  Aldgate,  and  six  in  Leadenhall  Street. 
Roger  North,  who  lived  in  his  reign,  says  :  "  As  for  corporation  and  mercenary 
musick,  it  was  chiefly  flabile"  (i.  e.,  for  wind  instruments),  "  and  the  professors, 
from  going  about  the  streets  in  a  morning,  to  wake  folks,  were  and  are  yet  called 
Waits,  quasi  Wakes."  I  doubt  this  derivation,  for  the  meaning  of  the  word  seems 
rather  to  be  "  to  watch"  than  "  to  awaken"  (in  the  glossary  to  Tyrwhitt's 
Chaucer,  we  find  "  Wake,  v.  Sax.,  To  watch,"  and  "  Waite,  v.  Fr.,  To  watch")  ; 
but  the  passage  proves  that  waits  then  went  about  the  streets  at  unseasonable 
hours,  as  they  now  do,  within  a  few  days  of  Christmas,  in  order  to  earn  a 
Christmas-box. 

In  Davenant's  Unfortunate  Lovers,  Rampiro  says  : — 

"  the  ficllers  do 

So  often  waken  me  with  their  grating  gridirons 
And  good  morrows,  I  cannot  sleep  for  them." 

John  Cleland,  in  his  "  Essay  on  the  Origin  of  the  Musical  Waits  at  Christmas," 
appended  to  his  "  Way  to  things  by  words  and  to  words  by  things,"  8vo.,  1766, 
says  :  "  But  at  the  ancient  Yule,  or  Christmas  time  especially,  the  dreariness  of 
the  weather,  the  length  of  the  night,  would  naturally  require  something  extra- 
ordinary to  wake  and  rouse  men  from  their  natural  inclination  to  rest,  and  from 
a  warm  bed  at  that  hour.  The  summons,  then,  to  the  Wakes  of  that  season  were 
given  by  music,  going  the  rounds  of  invitation  to  the  mirth  or  festivals  which  were 
awaiting  them.  In  this  there  was  some  propriety — some  object ;  but  where  is 
there  any  in  such  a  solemn  piece  of  banter  as  that  of  music  going  the  rounds  and 
disturbing  people  in  vain  ?  For  surely  any  meditation  to  be  thereby  excited  on 
the  holiness  of  the  ensuing  day  could  hardly  be  of  great  avail,  in  a  bed  between 
sleeping  and  waking.  But  such  is  the  power  of  custom  to  perpetuate  absurdities." 

In  nearly  all  the  books  of  household  expenditure  in  early  times,  we  find  dona- 
tions to  waits  of  the  towns  through  which  the  traveller  passed.  In  those  of  Sir 
John  Howard,  of  Henry  VII. ,  and  of  Henry  VIII. ,  there  are  payments  to  the 
waits  of  London,  Colchester,  Dover,  Canterbury,  Dartford,  Coventry,  Northampton, 
and  others.  Will.  Kemp,  in  his  celebrated  Morris-dance  from  London  to  Norwich, 
says  that  few  cities  have  waits  like  those  of  Norwich,  and  none  better ;  and  that, 
besides  their  excellency  in  wind  instruments,  their  rare  cunning  on  the  viol  and 
violin,  they  had  admirable  voices,  every  one  of  them  being  able  to  serve  as  a 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES   II. 


549 


chorister  in  any  cathedral  church.  One  Richard  Reede,  a  wait  of  Cambridge,  is 
mentioned  by  Mr.  Sandys,  as  having  received  20s.  for  his  attendance  at  a 
gentleman's  mansion  during  the  Christmas  of  1574. 

Some  of  the  tunes  which  the  waits  of  different  towns  played,  are  contained  in 
The  Dancing  Master  of  1665  (among  the  violin  tunes  at  the  end),  and  others  in 
Apollo's  Banquet,  1669. 

The  York  Waits  seem  to  have  chosen  a  hornpipe  tune,  which  was  printed  in 
broadsides,  with  words  by  Mr.  Durden.  From  these  the  following  are  selected,  as 
descriptive  of  the  custom  in  that  city,  about  the  end  of  the  17th  century  : 

"  In  a  winter's  moraine'  To  find  fViP  nlpasant  r!K£r 


a  winter  s  morning, 
Long  before  the  dawning, 
Ere  the  cock  did  crow, 
Or  stars  their  light  withdraw, 
Wak'd  by  a  hornpipe  pretty, 
Play'd  along  York  city, 
By  th'  help  of  o'ernight's  bottle, 
Damon  made  this  ditty,  .... 
In  a  winter's  night, 
By  moon  or  L^nthorn  light, 
Through  hail,  rain,  frost,  or  snow, 
Their  rounds  the  music  go  ; 
Clad  each  in  frieze  or  blanket 
(For  either  heav'n  be  thanked), 
Lin'd  with  wine  a  quart, 
Or  ale  a  double  tankard. 
Burglars  scud  away, 
And  bar  guests  dare  not  stay, 
Of  claret,  snoring  sots 
Dream  o'er  their  pipes  and  pots, 


To  find  the  pleasant  Cliff, 
That  plays  the  Rigadoon. 
*  *  #  # 

Candles,  four  in  the  pound, 

Lead  up  the  jolly  Round, 

Whilst  cornet  shrill  i'  th'  middle 

Marches,  and  merry  fiddle, 

Curtal  with  deep  hum,  hum, 

Cries,  we  corne,  we  come,  come, 

And  theorbo  loudly  answers, 

Thrum,  thrum,  thrum,  thrum,  thrum. 

But,  their  fingers  frost-nipt, 

So  many  notes  are  o'erslipt, 

That  you'd  take  sometimes 

The  Waits  for  the  Minster  chimes  : 

Then,  Sirs,  to  hear  their  music 

Would  make  both  me  and  you  sick, 

And  much  more  to  hear  a  roopy  fiddler  call 

(With  voice,  as  Moll  would  cry, 


'•'  Come,  shrimps  or  cockles  buy"), 

Till  their  brisk  helpmates  wake  'em,    "  Past  three,  fair  frosty  morn, 
Hoping  music  will  make  'em  Good  morrow,  my  masters  all." 

The  following  was  composed  by  Jeremiah  Savile,  and  is  on  the  last  page  of 
PLtyford's  Musical  Companion,  1673,  entitled  THE  WAITS:— 

/ 


Fa  la   la   la    la  la  la  la,   Fa  la   la   la    la  la  la  la,   Fa  la 


la      la  la  la  lal     la,         Fa  la     la    la,         Fa      lal  la,   fa     lal  la,  fa       lal  la      la    la 


550 


ENGLISH   SONG  AND   BALLAD  MUSIC, 


The  following  is  called  The  Waits  in  The  Dancing  Master  of  1665,  and  London 
Waits  in  Apollo  s  Banquet,  1663  :— 

LONDON  WAITS. 
Smoothly  and  slowly. 


3_ 


^ 


3EE3 


Past   three    o*      clock,    and    a         cold  fros  -  ty        morn  -  ing ;  Past  three  o' 


Ettlii=ai==i 


clock,    good      mor-row,  masters        all. 


Si 


Slowly. 


COLCHESTER  WAITS,  from  Apollo's  Banquet,  1669. 
N  J        J        s 


m  -• — .         ••>>  m      .          m  ^  •     ^m      » 

iJfcte^^=Uf^~~[|~EZCr_ 

_^nn i  i  i         i 


m 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES   II. 

CHESTER  WAITS,  from  Walsh's  Compleat  Country  Dancing  Master,  iii.  36. 
Moderate  time. 


551 


g     I If 

»— t— rff 


Other  tunes  of  the  Waits  might  be  added,  as  Worksop  Waites,  from  Musical 
MSS.,  No.  610,  Brit.  Mus. ;  York  Waits,  from  the  broadsides  ;  Bristol  Waits, 
from  Apollo's  Banquet,  &c. ;  but  the  preceding  four  specimens  will  probably  be 


thought  sufficient. 


AN  OLD  WOMAN  POOR  AND  BLIND. 


This  is  one  of  the  ballads  that  were  printed  by  W.  Thackeray,  in  the  reign  of 
Charles  II.,  and  subsequently  by  Play  ford  and  his  successors,  in  all  the  editions 
of  Pills  to  purge  Melancholy,  with  the  tune. 

There  are  several  other  ballads  to  the  air  in  the  Pills,  and  among  them,  one  on 
The  Cries  of  London,  beginning,  "  Come,  buy  my  greens  and  flowers  fine ;  "  and 
a  second,  The  crafty  Cracks  of  East  Smithfield.  The  latter  has  the  burden  of 
JTm  plundered  of  all  my  gold, 

The  tune  was  introduced  into  several  of  the  ballad-operas,  such  as  The  Village 
Opera,  1729,  and  The  Fashionable  Lady,  or  Harlequins  Opera,  1730 ;  sometimes 
in  minor,  sometimes  in  a  major  key. 

In  the  Bagford  Collection  of  Ballads,  are  the  following : — 

"  The  toothless  Bride,"  &c.,  "  to  the  tune  of  An  old  woman  poor  and  Hind." 

"  The  Deptford  Plumb  Cake ;  or,  The  Four  Merry  Wives.  Tune,  An  old 
won  an  poor  and  blind." 

In  A  Pill  to  purge  State  Melancholy,  v.  ii.,  1718,  "Here's  a  health  to  great 
Eugene ; "  a  song  on  Prince  Eugene's  routing  the  Turks,  to  the  same  air. 

The  following  is  "  A  Dialogue  between  Jack  and  his  Mother.  Tune  of  Old 
loortan  poor  and  blind;"  copies  of  which  are  in  the  Roxburghe  and  other 
collections. 


552 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND    BALLAD   MUSIC. 


Jack     met      his    mo  -  ther       all        a  -  lone,    To    whom  he    did  smil  -  ing 

Iff-  ^ I 


say 


I'll      go    and    vi  -  sit    bux  -  om  Joan,  Be-cause  it    is    ho  -  li     -     day; 


£f?=5^ 


\      si      s 

J       m 

d       fi-m 

r        r      P        i* 

S1  •      •      •    i*  r 

H 

i            r 

n 

1       *J 

r     u 

Ca 

J 

J     J     J     J 

J        « 

L         1^      L        a 

•.             •     « 

And,    be  -  ing    in    my 

J-,-8    :    *^—  , 

Sunday  clothes,  I     hope  she'll  like     me       well:                  If 

=£- 

-r—  -—  H  — 

r  E 

*  —  E 

-t- 

-fid—H  —  teH 

Joan    be  kind,    My    heart     my  mind 


her     I    will    free  -  ly 


tell.1 


"  Go  to  her,  Jack,  with  all  my  heart, 

And,  when  she  is  made  thy  spouse, 
With  half  my  goods  I'll  freely  part, — 

My  wethers  and  good  milch  cows ; 
My  geese,  my  ducks,  my  cocks,  my  hens, 

My  waggons,  my  ploughs,  my  teams, 
'Cause  you  declare  in  love  you  are, 

And  must  have  a  wife,  it  seems." 

So  soon  as  this  discourse  was  done. 

Without  any  more  dispute, 
Jack  to  his  chamber  straight  did  run, 

And  put  on  his  leathern  suit ; 
His  broad-brimm'd  hat  and  ribbon  red  : 

Now,  when  he  was  thus  array 'd, 
Himself  he  view'd,  and  did  conclude 

That  he  was  a  brisk  young  blade. 


Then  he  away  to  Joan  did  ride, 

And,  when  he  came  there,  did  cry, 
"  Sweet  jewel,  wilt  thou  be  my  bride, 

My  honey,  my  sweet  piggesnie?  " 
But  buxom  Joan  began  to  frown, 

And  said  he  was  much  too  free  ; 
She  would  not  such  a  home-bred  clown, 

Her  husband  should  ever  be. 

"  Why,  what's  the  matter?  "  Jack  replied, 

Without  any  more  ado ; 
"  I'd  have  you  know,  if  hence  I  go, 

I  can  have  as  good  as  you. 
There's  Doll,  the  shepherd's  daughter  dear, 

And  Katy  of  high  degree, 
Who  has  at  least  three  mark  a  year, 

They're  ready  to  die  for  me." 


REIGN    OP   CHARLES   II.  553 

With  that  he  went  to  take  his  leave,  Then  Joan,  in  merry  humour,  smil'd, 

I  Jut,  just  as  he  turn'd  aside,  And  taking  him  round  the  waist, 

Joan  stept  and  caught  him  by  the  sleeve,  Said,  "  Prithee,  John,  be  reconcil'd, 

"  I  was  but  in  jest,"  she  cried.  It  was  but  a  word  in  haste  : 

"  What  makes  you  be  in  so  much  haste,  A  kind  and  virtuous  wife  I'll  prove, 

If  me  thou  art  come  to  woo?  I'll  honour  and  love  thee,  too." 

Wt  must  not  part,  thou  hast  my  heart,  "  Why  then,"  quoth  he,  "  I  here  agree 

1  '11  marry  with-none  but  you."  To  marry  with  none  but  you." 

GIVE  EAR  TO  A  FROLICSOME  DITTY ;   OB,  THE  RANT. 

A  black-letter  copy  of  this  ballad,  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  Payne  Collieit,  is 
entitled,  "  The  jolly  Gentleman's  frolick ;  or,  The  City  Ramble :  being  an  account 
of  a  young  Gallant,  who  wager' d  to  pass  any  of  the  Watches  without  giving  them 
an  answer  ;  but,  being  stopp'd  by  the  Constable  of  Cripplegate,  was  sent  to  the 
Counter ;  afterwards  had  before  my  Lord  Mayor,  and  was  clear'd  by  the 
intercession  of  my  Lord  Mayor's  daughter  :  To  a  pleasant  new  tune." 

A  second  ballad,  in  the  Bagford  Collection,  is  named  "  The  Ranting  Rambler ; 
or,  a  young  Gentleman's  frolick  thro'  the  City  by  night,"  &c.  "  To  a  pleasant 
new  tune,  called  The  Rant,  Dal  derra,  rara." 

These  are  different  ballads  on  the  same  subject,  and  to  the  same  tune, — the  first 
"  printed  for  C.  Bates,  at  the  Sun  and  Bible  in  Guiltspur  St. ;"  the  second  by 
Brooksby,  Deacon,  Blare,  and  Back. 

There  are  twenty  stanzas  in  the  former,  of  which  a  few  are  here  printed  with 
the  music.  The  second  has  been  republished  in  "  Songs  of  the  London  Prentices 
and  Trades,"  by  C.  Mackay.  8vo,  1841.  It  commences  thus: — 

"  I  pray  now  attend  to  this  ditty,  'Tis  of  a  young  spark  in  the  City, 

A  merry  and  frolicsome  song,  By  night  he  went  ranting  along ; 

The  Rant,  dal  derra,  ra  rara"  &c. 

A  third  ballad  is  in  the  Roxburghe  Collection,  ii.  359,  entitled  "  Mark  Noble's 
frolick,"  &c.  "  To  the  tune  of  The  New  Rant." 

The  tune  is  in  one  of  the  editions  of  Apollo's  Banquet,  entitled  TJie  City 
Ratable,  and  in  many  ballad  operas.  Among  the  last  may  be  cited  The  Beggars9 
Opera,  Don  Quixote  in  England,  The  Sturdy  Beggars,  The  Wanton  Jesuit,  and 
The  Court  Legacy. 

In  The  Beggars''  Opera,  it  is  called  "  Have  you  heard  of  a  frolicsome  ditty  ?" 
and  the  words  adapted  are  : — 

"  How  happy  could  I  be  with  either,  But/whilst  you  thus  teaze  me  together, 

Were  t'other  dear  charmer  away ;  To  neither  a  word  will  I  say, 

But,  tol  de  rol,"  dec. 

About  fifty  years  later,  we  find  it  quoted  in  Ritson's  Bishoprich  Garland,  or 
Durham  Minstrel,  as  the  tune  of  a  song  of  "  The  Hare-skin  ;"  commencing  : — 

"  Come  hither,  attend  to  my  ditty,  And,  if  you'll  be  silent  a  minute, 

All  you  that  delight  in  a  gun,  Til  tell  you  a  rare  piece  of  fun. 

Fal,  lal,"  &c. 

And  Mr.  J.  H.  Dixon  prints  a  ballad  entitled  "  Saddle  to  rags,"  which  is  still 
sun^  in  the  North  of  England,  to  the  same  air.  The  last  will  be  found  in  Ballads 
and  Songs  of  the  Peasantry  of  England,  8vo,  1846.  It  is  the  old  Btory  of  the 


554 


ENGLISH   SONG  AND  BALLAD   MUSIC. 


farmer  who,  being  overtaken  by  a  highwayman  while  on  his  road  to  pay  his  rent, 
pretends  that  his  money  is  concealed  in  his  saddle ;  the  highwayman  demanding 
it,  the  farmer  throws  the  saddle  over  the  hedge,  and  the  thief  scrambles  after  it, 
leaving  his  horse  behind.  The  opportunity  of  exchange  is  not  lost  upon  the  far- 
mer, who  rides  away  with  the  highwayman's  horse,  and  all  his  recently-acquired 
booty. 

The  Rant  is  a  dance  of  which  I  can  give  no  account.  It  seems  to  have  been  a 
rustic  dance  of  the  jig  kind.  In  Mrs  Centlivre's  Comedy,  The  Platonick  Lady, 
1707,  where  the  dancing-master  proposes  to  dance  a  Courant  with  Mrs.  Dowdy, 
she,  supposing  him  to  mean  a  Rant,  answers,  "  Ay,  a  Rant  with  all  my  heart ; " 
but  when  he  "  leads  her  about,"  she  says :  "  Hy,  hy,  do  you  call  this  dancing?  ads 
heartlikins,  in  my  thoughts  'tis  plain  walking :  I'll  shew  you  one  of  our  country 
dances  ;  play  me  a  Jig."  [Dances  an  awkward  Jiy.~\ 

Caper.     "  0  dear,  madam,  you'll  quite  spoil  your  steps." 

Mrs.  D.  "  Don't  tell  me  that — I  was  counted  one  of  the  best  dancers  in  the 
parish,  zo  I  was." 

Mrs.  Peeper.     "  Ay,  round  a  Maypole." 

Cheerfully. 


Give      ear     to     a     fro-licsome    dit-ty,  Of      one  who  a   wa  -ger  would  lay,  He'd 
But       dal    de-ra,    ra-ra,  dal    da-ra,  &c. 


pass  ev  -  ry  watch  in    the     ci  -  ty,  And       ne  -  ver    a  word  would  he    say, 


"  Stand  !  stand  !  "  says  the  bellman, 

"  The  constable  now  come  before, 
And  if  a  just  story  you  tell,  man, 

I'll  light  you  home  to  your  own  door. 
This  is  a  very  late  season, 

Which  surely  no  honest  men  keep, 
And  therefore  it  is  but  just  reason 

That  you  in  the  Compter  should  sleep." 
The  constable,  on  the  next  day,  sir, 

This  comical  matter  to  clear, 
The  gentleman  hurried  away,  sir, 

Before  my  Lord  Mayor  to  appear. 
"  My  Lord,  give  ear  to  my  story, 

While  I  the  truth  do  relate, 
The  gentleman  standing  before  you 

Was  seiz'd  by  me  at  Cripplegate. 


I  nothing  could  hear  but  his  singing, 

Wherefore  in  the  Compter  he  lay, 
And  therefore  this  morning  I  bring  him 

To  hear  what  your  Lordship  will  say."  .  . 
O  then  bespoke  my  Lord's  daughter, 

And  for  him  did  thus  intercede, 
"  Dear  father,  you'll  hear  that,  hereafter, 
.     This  is  but  a  wager  indeed."  .... 
"  Well,  daughter,  1  grant  your  petition, 

The  gentleman  home  may  repair  ; 
But  yet,  'tis  on  this  condition, 

Of  paying  my  officers  there."  .... 
Thus  seeing  he  might  be  released, 

If  he  his  fees  did  but  pay, 
He  then  was  very  well  pleased, 

And  so  he  went  singing  away. 

Dal  derra,  rara,  &c. 


REIGN  OF   CHARLES   II. 


555 


The  following  tune,  which  has  much  the  same  character  as  The  Rant,  is  con- 
tained in  the  second  and  subsequent  editions  of  The  Dancing-Master,  either  as 
Winifred's  Knot,  or  Open  the  door  to  three. 


CUPID'S  TREPAN. 

This  was  a  very  popular  ballad  tune,  and  it  acquired  a  variety  of  names  from 
the  different  ballads  that  were  sung  to  it  at  different  periods.  I  have  not, 
however,  observed  any  of  these  to  have  been  issued  by  printers  earlier  than  those 
of  tho  reign  of  Charles  II.  (Thackeray,  Coles,  &c.),  but  there  are  many  extant 
of  later  date. 

Among  the  various  names  of  the  tune,  may  be  cited,  Cupid's  Trappan;  Up 
the  green  Forest;   Bonny,  bonny  bird;   Brave  Boys ;   The  Twitcher  ;  A  Damsel 
Tm  told;   and  I  have  left  the  world  as  the  world  found  me. 
Tho  following  ballads  were  sung  to  it : — 

"  Cupid's  Trappan,  or,  The  Scorner  scorn'd,  or,  The  Willow  turn'd  into  car- 
nation :  described  in  The  Ranting  Resolution  of  a  forsaken  maid.     To  a  pleasant 
new  tune  now  all  in  fashion"     It  commences : — 
"  Onca  did  I  love  a  bonny  brave  bird,          Up  the  green  forest,  and  down  the  green  fo- 

And  thought  he  had  been  all  my  own, 
But  he  lov'd  another  far  better  than  me, 
And  has  taken  his  flight  and  is  flown, 

Brave  Boys. 

And  has  taken  his  flight  and  is  flown. 
There  are  many  copies  of  this  ballad,  and,  among  them,  two  will  be  found  in  the 
Douco  Collection,  one  of  which  is  entitled,  "  Cupid's  Trappan,  or,  Up  the  green 
Forest,"  &c. 

There  was  quite  a  ballad- contest  between  the  sexes,  sung  to  this  air,  for  in 
answer  to  the  above  we  have,  firstly,  "  A  young  man  put  to  his  shifts,  or,  The 
Ranting  Young  Man's  Resolution,"  &c.,  to  the  tune  of  Cupid's  Trappan  (Rox.,  ii. 
548,  and  Douce,  262,)  commencing — 

"Of  late  did  I  hear  a  young  damsel  complain, 

And  rail  much  against  a  young  man, 
His  cause  and  his  state  I'll  now  vindicate, 

And  hold  battle  with  Cupid's  Trappan,  Brave  Boys, 
And  hold  battle  with  Cupid? s  Trappan. 

Then  came  "  The  Plowman's  art  of  wooing"  (Rox.,  ii.  260)  :— 
"  The  brisk  young  Ploughman  doth  believe, 

If  he  were  put  to  trial, 
There's  not  a  maid  in  all  the  Shire 
Could  give  him  the  denial." 


Like  one  much  distressed  in  mind,  [rest, 
I  hoopt  and  I  hoopt,  and  I  flung  up  my 
hood,  [Brave  Boys. 

But  my  bonny  bird  I  could  not  find, 
But  my  bonny  bird  I  could  notflnd." 


556  ENGLISH   SONG  AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 

» 

Tune  of  Cupid's  Tmppan.     He  commences  thus : — 

"  I  am  a  young  man  that  do  follow  the  plough, 

But  of  late  I  have  found  out  an  art, 
And  can,  when  I  please,  with  abundance  of  ease, 

Deprive  any  maid  of  her  heart,  Brave  Boys,  &c. 

In  rejoinder  to  this,  came  "  The  Milkmaid's  Resolution  "  (Rox.,  ii.  347) : — 
"  Let  young  men  prate  of  what  they  please, 

'Cause  women  have  been  kind, 
They'll  find  no  more  such  fools  as  these, 

To  please  each  apish  mind." 
Tune,  Cupid* s  Trappan ;  commencing: — 

"  Of  late  I  did  hear  a  young  man  domineer, 

And  vapour  of  what  he  could  do, 
But  I  think  he  knew  how  to  manage  the  plough, 

Far  better  than  maidens  to  woo,  Brave  Boys,  &c. 

The  tune  is  found  in  The  Devil  to  pay  ;  in  The  Female  Parson,  or  The  Beau  in 
the  Suds ;  TJie  Fashionable  Lady,  or  Harlequin's  Opera ;  Love  and  Revenge,  or 
The  Vintner  outwitted ;  in  Flora,  and  other  ballad  operas.  It  was  also  printed  on 
broadsides  to  a  song  called  The  Twitcher,  sung  by  Mr.  Pack  at  the  Lincoln's  Inn 
Theatre,  commencing,  "  A  Damsel  I'm  told."  In  some  copies,  the  tune  consists 
of  but  eight  bars,  as  I  printed  it  in  National  English  Airs  (p.  68  of  the  music) , 
in  others  of  eleven ;  when  of  eight  bars,  the  burden  "  Brave  Boys,"  and  the 
repetition  of  the  last  line,  are  omitted,  but  all  the  ballads  require  them. 

After  the  ballad  operas,  came  a  variety  of  other  songs  to  be  sung  to  it,  of  which 
I  will  only  quote  three  stanzas  of  one  which  was  in  great  favour  in  the  last  cen- 
tury, and  is  still  occasionally  to  be  heard.  It  is  "  Rural  Sport,"  printed  in  The 
Musical  Companion,  or  Lady's  Magazine,  8vo.,  1741,  and  in  St.  Cecilia,  or  The 
British  Songster,  1782,  commencing — 

"  The  hounds  are  all  out,  and  the  morning  does  peep, 

Why,  how  now?  you  sluggardly  sot, 
How  can  you,  how  can  you  lie  snoring  a-sleep, 

While  we  all  on  horseback  have  got,  Brave  Boys, 

While  we  all  on  horseback  have  got  ? 
I  cannot  get  up,  for  the  overnight's  cup 

So  terribly  lies  in  my  head  ; 
Besides,  my  wife  cries,  My  dear,  do  not  rise, 

But  cuddle  me  longer  in  bed,  Dear  Boy,  &c. 
Come,  on  with  your  boots,  and  saddle  your  mare, 

Nor  tire  us  with  longer  delay, 
The  cry  of  the  hounds  and  the  sight  of  the  hare 

Will  chase  all  dull  vapours  away,  Brave  Boys,  &c. 

The  following  is  one  of  the  ballads  that  were  printed  by  Thackeray  (Rox.  iii. 
100) :  "  The  patient  Husband  and  the  scolding  Wife  :  shewing  how  he  doth  com- 
plain of  hard  fortune  he  had  to  marry  such  a  cross-grain' d  quean  as  she  was,  and 
he  wishes  all  young  men  to  be  advised  to  look  before  they  leap.  To  the  tune 
of  Bonny,  bonny  bird."  The  tune  from  Flora,  8vo.,  1729,  air  13 ;  the  ballad 
abbreviated. 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES   II. 


557 


Moderate  time. 


[Now] all   you  gal  -  lants,  in       ci  -  ty   or  town,  Come,  lis  -  ten  a  -  while  to  my 


yp -i  I  r 


song;     To    you  I'll  re  -  late,       in  seek-ing  a       mate,  How  that     I  have  done  myself 


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When  as  I  was  single,  as  some  of  you  are, 
I  was  loved,  like  other  young  men, 

I  liv'd  at  my  ease,  and  did  what  I  pleas'd, 
And  the  world  it  went  well  with  me  then. 
Brave  Boys,  &c. 

Thus  bravely  I  liv'd  without  any  control, 


I  married  in  haste,  but  at  leisure  repent, 
That  I  could  be  so  fool'd  by  a  wife  :      [sour, 

She'll  pout  and  she'll  lour,  she'll  frown  and  look 
Then  dare  I  not  stir  for  my  life. 

Thrice  happy  is  he  that  hath  a  good  wife, 
But  far  better  off  the  young  man 


And  had  silver,  good  store,  layingby;  [sherry,,-,.  ...       ..  .  ... 

j  •  T     i  jThat  settles  himself  to  live  single  through  life  : 

I  could  sing  and  be  merry,  drink  claret  and     ___     ,,  T  .   ,        .    , 

TTT  „•  T  a  Would  I  were  unmarried  again ! 

Then  who  but  "  Sweet  William  "  was  I  ? 

Brave  Boys,  &c.     Now,  honest  young  men,  you  have  need  to 
When  I  went  to  church  I  was  led  by  two  maids,  beware, 

And  the  music  did  play  gallantly ;  (For  my  part,  my  own  ruin  I've  brought,) 

My  wife  she  did  dance,  and  her  spirits  advance,  Then  of  flattering  damsels  have  a  great  care, 

Till  she  skipt  up  and  down  like  a  fly.  For  wit's  never  dear  till  'tis  bought. 

So,  bachelors  all,  now  my  leave  I  will  take, 

Take  counsel,  all  honest  young  men, 
Were  I  thut  of  this  quean,  (you  know  what  I  mean,) 

O  the  world  would  go  well  with  me  then,  Brave  Boys, 
0  the  world  would  go  well  with  me  then. 

WOMAN'S   WORK  IS  NEVER  DONE. 

This  tune  has  a  variety  of  names,  derived  from  different  ballads  that  were  sung 
to  it.  Among  these  are,  The  Doubting  Virgin  ;  or  Shall  I,  shall  I ;  0  that  2 had 
nev<>r  married  ;  Woman's  work  is  never  done  :  The  Soldier's  Departure  ;  and  per- 
haps, The  Bed-making. 


558 


ENGLISH   SONG   AND  BALLAD   MUSIC. 


In  the  Douce  Collection,  p.  190,  is  "  Shall  I,  shall  I,  no,  no,  no,"  &c.— Tune 
of  The  Doubting  Virgin  ;  "  commencing — 

"  Pretty  Betty,  now  come  to  me, 

Thou  hast  set  my  heart  on  fire,", 
and  having  the  burden  : 

"  Never  dally,  shall  .1  ?  shall  I  ? 

Still  she  answered,  No,  no,  no." 

Whenever  the  tune  of  The  Doubting  Virgin  is  referred  to  in  the  Douce  Collec- 
tion, either  Mr.  Douce,  or  some  prior  possessor,  has  pencilled  against  it,  "  0  that 
I  had  never  married,"  as  the  other  name. 

"  0  that  I  had  never. married"  is  the  first  line  of  "Woman's  work  is  never 
done,  or  The  Crown  Garland  of  Princely  Pastime  and  Mirth ;  the  Woman  has 
the  worst  of  it,  or  her  work  is  never  done.  To  the  tune  of  The  Doubting  Virgin." 
A  copy  of  this  is  in  Mr.  Payne  Collier's  Collection :  it  consists  of  seven  stanzas, 
the  first  of  which  is  here  printed  with  the  tune : — 


O      that    I     had      ne-ver    mar-ried,  Since     I 
Things  with  me    are     strangely  car  -ried,   Now     I 

1 .  J1  J.  1 


led      a       care-full   life; 
am    be  -  come  a     wife. 


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II 

In  the  Roxburghe  Collection,  i.,  534,  is  a  second  ballad  on  the  same  subject : — 

"  A  WOMAN'S  WORK  is  NEVER  DONE. 

Here  is  a  song  for  maids  to  sing,  Which  will  much  pleasure  to  them  bring. 

Both  in  the  winter  and  the  spring  :  Maids  may  sit  still,  go,  or  run, 

It  is  such  a  pretty-conceited  thing,  But  a  woman's  work  is  never  done. 

To  a  delicate  Northern  tune,  A  Woman's  work  is  never  done,  or  The  Bed's-making." 
It  commences : — 

"  As  I  was  wand'ring  on  the  way,  For  why,  quoth  she,  my  labour's  hard, 

I  heard  a  married  woman  say  And  all  my  pleasures  are  debarr'd ; 

That  she  had  lived  a  sorry  life  Both  morning,  evening,  night  and  noon, 

Ever  since  the  time  she  was  made  a  wife.       I'm  sure  a  woman's  work  is  never  done." 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES   II.  559 

After  detailing  all  the  troubles  of  married  life,  such  as,  rising  very  early  to 
sweep  and  cleanse  the  house,  to  light  the  fire,  make  her  husband's  breakfast,  send 
the  elder  children  to  school,  and  tend  upon  the  younger,  "  till  the  eleven  o'clock 
bell  doth  chime, 

Then  I  know  'tis  near  upon  dinner  time," 

and  after,  to  find  full  employment  till  night,  and  suffer  disturbed  rest  from  her 
youngest  child  during  the  night,  she  gives  the  following  advice  to  the  un- 
married : — 

"  All  you  merry  girls  that  hear  this  ditty,     You  see  that  maids  live  merrier  lives 
Both  in  the  country  and  the  city,  Than  do  the  best  of  married  wives ; 

Take  good  notice  of  my  lines,  I  pray,         And  so,  to  end  my  song  as  I  begun, 
And  make  the  use  of  the  time  you  may.     You  know  a  woman's  work  is  never  done." 

The  last  consists  of  eleven  stanzas,  black  letter,  "  printed  for  John  Andrews,  at 
the  White  Lion,  in  Pye  Corner,"  and  "  entred  according  to  order." 

The  tune  is  printed,  under  the  name  of  Woman's  work  is  never  done,  in  some  of 
the  ballad -operas,  such  as  Momus  turned  Fabulist,  or  Vulcan's  Wedding,  1729. 

In  the  Bagford  Collection,  643,  m.  10,  p.  99,  is  "  The  Soldier's  Departure  ;" 
to  a  pleasant  new  tune,  or  The  Doubting  Virgin ;  and  at  page  98,  one  to  the  tune 
of  The  Soldier's  Departure. 

THE  NORTHERN  LASS. 

Oldys,  in  his  MS.  additions  to  Langbaine,  says,  "  In  a  collection  of  Poems, 
called  Folly  in  Print,  or  a  Book  of  Rhimes,  8vo.,  1667,  p.  107,  there  is  a  ballad 
called  The  Northern  Lass.  She  was  the  Fair  Maid  of  Doncaster,  named  Betty 
Macldox ;  who,  when  an  hundred  horsemen  woo'd  her,  she  conditioned,  that  he 
who  could  dance  her  down,  she  would  marry ;  but  she  wearied  them  all,  and  they 
left  her  a  maid  for  her  pains." 

There  are  two  songs  on  the  Fair  Maid  of  Doncaster,  in  Folly  in  Print ;  the  first, 
entitled  The  Day  Starre  of  the  North,  is  preceded  by  the  following  lines : — 
•"'  A  maid  so  fair,  so  chaste  and  good,  Doth  now  in  Doncaster  reside,     ^ 

And  anciently  of  British  blood,  So  fam'd  of  all.  both  far  and  wide." 

From  Haddocks,  Princes  of  North  Wales, 

It  consists  of  sixteen  stanzas  of  four  lines,  and  commences  thus : — 
"  This  wonder  of  the  Northern  starre,  The  French,  the  Dutch,  the  Danish  fleet, 

Which  shines  so  bright  at  Doncaster,          If  ever  they  should  chance  to  meet, 
Doth  threaten  all  mankind  a  warre,  Must  all  lye  captives  at  her  feet, 

WTiich  nobody  can  deny.  Which  nobody  can  deny." 

The  above  was  evidently  written  to  the  tune  of  Grreen  Sleeves. 
The  second  song  is  entitled,  "  The  Northern  Lass ;  to  the  same  person :    to 
a  new  tune."     It  begins  thus : — 

"  There  dwells  a  maid  in  Doncaster,  Her  skin  as  sleek  as  Taffy's  leek, 

Is  named  Betty  Haddocks,  And  white  as  t'other  end  on't, 

No  fallow  deer,  so  plump  and  fair,  Like  snow  doth  melt,  so  soon  as  felt, 

E'er  fed  in  park  or  paddocks :  Could  you  but  once  descend  on't." 

The  "  new  tune  "  is  found  in  Apollo's  Banquet,  1669  (within  two  years  of  the 


560 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


date  of  the  book) ,  under  the  name  of  The  Northern  Lass*  It  is  there  arranged 
for  the  violin,  and  seems  to  have  been  copied  from  some  pipe- version  of  the  air. 
By  the  repetition  of  one  phrase,  the  second  part  of  the  tune  is  extended  to  sixteen 
bars  (instead  of  eight,  which  the  words  require),  but  if  bars  twelve  to  nineteen, 
inclusive,  were  omitted,  it  would  be  of  the  proper  ballad- length.  All  later  ver- 
sions contain  only  eight  bars  in  each  part. 

The  following  is  the  air,  as  it  stands  in  Apollo's  Banquet. 
Very  slowly  and  plaintively. 


—    —  /  jt       a   -y      m 

I - .f-  -S-f-    E  ,-e 


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The  above  is  still  popular,  but  in  a  very  different  form.     Instead  of  being 
a  slow  and  plaintive  air,  it  has  been  transformed  into  a  cheerful  one. 


8  One  of  Richard  Brome's  Comedies,  printed  in  1632, 
was  entitled  The  Northern  Lasse,  but  it  does  not  contain 
any  song  that  could  have  been  sung  to  this  tune.  The 


music  to  Brome's  play  was  composed  by  Dr.  John 
Wilson,  and  three,  or  more,  of  the  songs  are  extant  in 
Gamble's  MS.,  now  in  the  possession  of  Dr.  Rimbault. 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES    II. 


561 


In  1830,  it  was  published  under  the  title  of  "  An  old  English  air,  arranged  as 
a  Rondo  by  Samuel  Wesley ; "  but  between  1669  and  1830  it  appeared  in  Pills 
to  pirge  Melancholy,  in  The  merry  Musician,  and  in  several  ballad  operas. 

It  is  printed  twice  in  The  Merry  Musician  ;  firstly  to  a  song  by  D'Urfey,  and 
secondly  to  one  from  the  ballad-opera  of  Momus  turned  Fabulist,  commencing — 
"  At  Athens  in  the  market-place, 

A  learned  sage  mounted  a  stage." 

In  the  ballad-operas  it  generally  takes  its  name  from  D'Urfey 's  song,  com- 
mencing— 

"  Great  Lord  Frog  to  Lady  Mouse,  Croalteldom  he,  croalteldom  ho  ; 
Dwelling  near  St.  James's  House,  Cocky  mi  chart  she  ; 
Bode  to  make  his  court  one  day, 
In  the  merry  month  of  May. 

When  the  sun  shone  bright  and  gay,  Twiddle  come,  tweedle  twe^ 
The  versions  in  the  ballad-operas — even  the  two  in  The  Merry  Musician — 
differ  considerably,  but  it  may  suffice  here  to  give  the  tune  as  it  is  now  known, 
and  in  the  form  in  which  it  was  published  by  Samuel  Wesley. 

^Cheerfully.  ,        ^  _  J_ 


562 


ENGLISH   SONG  AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


NEWMARKET. 

This  tune  is  contained  in  The  Dancing  Master  of  1675,  and  in  every  subsequent 
edition. 

A  tune  called  Newmarket  is  sometimes  referred  to  in  ballads,  as  "  The  Country 
Farmer,  or  The  buxom  Virgin :  to  a  new  tune  called  Neivmarket,  or  King  James* 
Jigg  "  (Rox.  ii.  77),  but  "  To  horse,  brave  boys,  to  horse  "  seems  intended,  rather 
than  this. 

In  the  Travels  of  Cosmo,  3rd  Grand  Duke  of  Tuscany,  throughout  England,  in 
1669,  he  says,  "  Newmarket  has,  in  the  present  day,  been  brought  into  repute  by 
the  King  [Charles  II] ,  who  frequents  it  on  account  of  the  horse-races ;  having 
been  before  celebrated  only  for  the  market  for  victuals,  which  was  held  there,  and 
was  a  very  abundant  one."  When  Charles  visited  Newmarket,  Tom  D'Urfey 
used  often  to  sing  to  him :  one  of  his  songs,  which  is  named  after  the  town,  and 
begins  "  The  golden  age  is  come,"  was  printed  in  one  of  D'Urfey's  collections, 
and  in  the  Pills,  as  having  been  "  sung  to  the  King  there." 

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REIGN   OP   CHARLES   II.    TO   WILLIAM   III.  563 

TOBACCO  IS  AN  INDIAN  WEED. 

"Musicke,  tobacco,  sacke,  and  sleepe, 
The  tide  of  sorrow  backward  keepe." 

Marston's  What  you  will. 

The  verse  that  has  been  written  in  the  praise  and  dispraise  of  tobacco  would,  of 
itself,  fill  a  volume ;  but,  among  the  quantity,  no  piece  has  been  more  enduringly 
popular  than  the  song  of  Tobacco  is  an  Indian  weed.  It  has  undergone  a  variety 
of  changes  (deteriorating  rather  than  improving  it),  and  through  these  it  may 
be  traced,  from  the  reign  of  James  I.,  down  to  the  present  day. 

The  earliest  copy  I  have  seen  is  in  a  manuscript  volume  of  poetry  transcribed 
during  James's  reign,  and  which  was  most  kindly  lent  to  me  by  Mr.  Payne 
Collier.  It  there  bears  the  initials  of  G[eorge]  W[ither],  now  better  known  by 
his  celebrated  song  of —  "  Shall  I,  wasting  in  despair, 

Die  because  a  woman's  fair  ?" 

than  by  any  other  of  his  numerous  productions.  Wither  is  a  very  likely  person 
to  have  written  such  a  song.  A  courtier  poet  would  not  have  sung  the  praises  of 
smoking — so  obnoxious  to  the  King  as  to  induce  him  to  write  a  Counterblaste  to 
Tobacco — but  Wither  despised  the  servility  which  might  have  tended  to  his 
advancement  at  court.  "  He  could  not  refrain ,"  says  Wood,  "  from  shewing 
himself  a  Presbyterian  satirist."  It  was  the  publication  of  his  Abuses  stript  and 
whipt  which  caused  his  committal  to  the  Marshalsea  prison. 

The  following  is  Wither' s  song : — 

"  Why  should  we  so  much  despise  Of  worldly  stuff — 'tis  gone  with  a  puff; 

So  good  and  wholesome  an  exercise  Thus  think,  and  drink  tobacco. 

As,  early  and  late,  to  meditate  ?  And  when  the  pipe  is  fonl  within> 

Thus  think,  and  drink  tobacco.  Think  how  the  fl0ul,B  defird  with  sin__ 

The  earthen  pipe,  so  lily  white,  To  purge  with  fire  it  doth  require  : 

Shews  that  thou  art  a  mortal  wight ;  Thus  think,  and  drink  tobacco. 

Even  such-and  gone  with  a  small  touch:  Lagt]y>  the  aghes  left  behind 

Thus  think,  and  drink  tobacco.  May  daily  gheWj  to  moye  the  mindj 

And  when  the  smoke  ascends  on  high,        That  to  ashes  and  dust  return  we  must : 
Think  on  the  worldly  vanity  Thus  think,  and  drink  tobacco." 

In  the  times  of  Elizabeth  and  James  L,  it  was  customary  in  England  to  inhale 
and  swallow  the  smoke,  as  Spaniards  and  Russians  do  at  the  present  time, — 
hence  the  expression,  "  to  drink  tobacco."  It  was  afterwards  puffed  out  "  through 
the  nostrils,  like  funnels."  Ben  Jonson  describes  a  young  gallant  endeavouring 
to  acquire  this  accomplishment,  as  "  sitting  in  a  chair,  holding  up  his  snout  like 
a  sow  under  an  apple-tree,  while  th'other  open'd  his  nostrils  with  a  poking-stick, 
to  give  the  smoke  a  more  free  delivery." 

About  1670,  we  find  several  copies  of  Wither's  song,  but  the  first  stanza 
changed  in  all,  besides  other  minor  variations.  In  Merry  Drollery  Complete,  1670, 
it  commences,  u  Tobacco,  that  is  withered  quite."  On  broadsides,  bearing  date 
the  same  year,  and  having  the  tune  at  the  top,  the  first  line  is,  "  The  Indian 
weed  withered  quite."  The  last  agrees,  so  far,  with  a  copy  .quoted  by  Mr. 
Bertrand  Payne,  from  Two  Broadsides  against  Tobacco,  1672. 

2  0 


564 


ENGLISH   SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


One  stanza  of  these  intermediate  versions  will  suffice,51 — 

"  The  Indian  weed,  withered  quite,  Shews  thy  decay — all  flesh  is  hay  : 

Green  at  morn,  cut  down  at  night,  Thus  think,  then  drink  tobacco." 

In  1699  it  appeared  in  its  present  form,  in  the  first  volume  of  Pills  to  purge 
Melancholy,  and  so  remained  until  1719,  when  D'Urfey  became  editor  of  that 
collection,  and  transferred  it,  with  others,  to  the  third. 

After  the  Pitts,  it  was  printed  with  alterations,  .and  the  addition  of  a  very 
inferior  second  part,  by  the  Rev.  Ralph  Erskine,  a  minister  of  the  Scotch 
Church,  in  his  Gospel  Sonnets.  This  is  the  "  Smoking  Spiritualized,"  which  is 
still  in  print  among  the  ballad-vendors  of  Seven  Dials,  and  a  copy  of  which  is 
contained  in  Songs  and  Ballads  of  the  Peasantry  of  England,  by  J.  H.  Dixon, 
or  the  new  edition  by  Robert  Bell. 

In  the  Rev.  James  Plumptre's  Collection  of  Songs  (8vo.,  1805),  Tobacco  is  an 
Indian  weed  was  adapted  to  a  more  modern  tune  by  Dr.  Hague ;  and  about  1830, 
the  late  Samuel  Wesley  again  re-set  the  words,  to  music  of  his  own  composition. 

The  following  is  the  tune  printed  on  the  broadsides,  and  in  the  Pills : — 

Smoothly- 


To- bac-co'sbut  an      In-dian  weed,  Grows  green  at  morn,  cut   down  at  eve,  It 


shews  our  de  -  cay,   we     are   but  clay  :  Think  of    this  when  you  smoke  to  -  bac-co. 


The  pipe,  that  is  so  lily  white, 
Wherein  so  many  take  delight, 
Is  broke  with  a  touch — man's  life  is  such  : 
Think  of  this  when  you  smoke  tobacco. 

The  pipe,  that  is  so  foul  within, 

Shews  how  man's  soul  is  stain 'd  with  sin, 

And  then  the  fire  it  doth  require  : 

Think  of  this  when  you  smoke  tobacco. 


The  ashes  that  are  left  behind 
Do  serve  to  put  us  all  in  mind 
That  unto  dust  return  we  must  : 

Think  of  this  when  you  smoke  tobacco. 

The  smoke,  that  does  so  high  ascend, 
Shews  us  man's  life  must  have  an  end, 
The  vapour's  gone — man's  life  is  done  : 
Think  of  this  when  you  smoke  tobacco. 


POPULAR  ROUNDS  AND  CATCHES. 

Some  account  of  the  public  meetings  of  music-clubs  in  the  reign  of  Charles  the 
Second  has  already  been  given,  but  there  were  also  private  meetings  for  the 
practice  of  part  music,  both  vocal  and  instrumental,  which  "  were  extremely 
fashionable  with  people  of  opulence."  Hence,  in  The  Citizen  turned  Gentleman, 


»  The  curious  will  find  more  on  this  subject  in  the 
articles  of  Dr.  Rimbault,  Mr.  Husk,  Mr.  Payne,  and 
others,  in  Notes  and  Queries,  2nd  series,  March  1st  to 


May  10th,  1856.     Also  in  Dr.  Rirabault's  Little  Book  of 
Songs  and  Ballads,  Svo.,  1851. 


REIGN  OF   CHARLES   II.    TO   WILLIAM   III.  565 

a  comedy  by  Edward  Ravenscroft,  published  in  1672,  the  citizen  is  told  that,  in 
order  to  appear  like  a  person  of  consequence,  it  is  necessary  for  him  "  to  have 
a  music-club  once  a  week  at  his  house."  Glees,  Rounds,  and  Catches  were  the 
favorite  vocal  music,  but  the  words  of  some  of  the  Catches  were  more  fitted  for  the 
tavern  than  for  good  society.  The  readers  of  Macaulay's  History  will  recollect 
the  passage  in  which  he  speaks  of  Judge  Jeffreys  singing  Catches  in  his  nightly 
revels  with  his  boon  companions ;  and  it  can  scarcely  be  considered  a  digression 
that  one  specimen  should  be  offered,  as  Rounds  and  Catches  certainly  come  under 
the  definition  of  Popular  Music  of  the  olden  time. 

Among  those  most  in  favour  in  the  reign  of  Charles  II.  (as  well  as  long  after) , 
wero  Dr.  Aldrich's  Hark!  the  bonny  Ohristclmrch  Bells,  and  Mr.  Fishburn's 
Fie.  nay,  prithee,  John* 

Dr.  Aldrich's  was  composed  in  the  quiet  retirement  of  Oxford,  about  sixteen 
years  before  he  became  Dean  of  Christchurch,  and  was  first  printed  in  Playford's 
Musical  Companion,  1673. 

Although  particularly  unsuitable  for  a  ballad  tune,  from  its  requiring  a  voice 
of  great  compass,  and  from  its  length,  it  even  became  popular  in  that  form. 
There  is  scarcely  one  of  the  great  collections  which  does  not  contain  one  or  more 
ballads  to  be  sung  to  it.  Of  these  I  will  cite  but  two :  the  first,  a  paean  of  triumph 
on  the  execution  of  Lord  William  Russell,  which,  though  in  the  vilest  taste,  may 
be  thought  to  possess  historical  interest ;  and  the  second,  on  the  cries  of  London 
about  the  commencement  of  the  last  century,  which  may  deserve  the  notice  of  the 
local  historian. 

The  first  is  "  Russell's  Farewell,"  and  commences — 
"  Oh  !  the  mighty  innocence 
Of  Russell,  Bedford's  son." 

It  H  printed  in  the  120  Loyal  Sungs,  by  N.  T[hompson],  \684,  and  again  in  the 
enlarged  edition  of  1686.  It  was  even  retained  in  the  edition  of  1694,  five  years 
after  the  attainder  had  been  reversed.1* 

Copies  of  the  second  ballad  are  contained  in  the  Roxburghe  (iii.  466)  and 
Douce  (p.  7)  Collections.  They  commence — 

"  Hark  !  how  the  cries  in  every  street 
Make  lanes  and  alleys  ring." 

The  music  of  Dean  Aldrich's  "Catch"  is  still  in  print,  and  therefore  the 
republication  becomes  unnecessary.  It  is  also  contained  in  The  Dancing  Master, 
and  many  ballad-operas. 

Mr.  Fishburn's  "  Fie,  nay,  prithee,  John,"  is  to  depict  two  persons  quarrelling 
in  a  tavern,  at  the  top  of  their  voices,  and  a  third  endeavouring  to  soothe  them, 
each  voice  taking  the  three  parts  alternately,  as  in  all  Catches.  It  is  found  in 
Th>>'  Delightful  Companion  for  the  Recorder,  1686  ;  in  Apollo's  Banquet,  1690  and 
16!  >3;  and  in  The  Dancing  Master.  I  have  not  seen  any  printed  ballads  to  be 
sung  to  it,  but  it  was  frequently  introduced  in  the  ballad  operas,  with  other  words. 
Tho  author  seems  to  have  been  a  student  of  the  Middle  Temple. 

•  Although  these  were  commonly  termed  "  Catches,"  triumphant,  has  been  reprinted  by  Evans,  iii.,  203,  1810. 

they  are,  strictly  speaking,  Rounds,  as  there  is  no  catch  It  is  entitled  "  Lord  Russell's  Farewell,"  £-c.  to  the  tune 

in  tie  words  of  either.  The  latter,  however,  requires  to  of  Tender  hearts  of  London  city.  This  is  more  like  the 

be  a  ;ted,  like  a  true  Catch.  genuine  production  of  the  ballad-monger. 

b   \nother  of  similar  character,  but  not  so  offensively 


566 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


The  following  is  printed  in  score,  in  compliance  with  modern  custom,  but  surely 
the  old  plan  of  placing  the  whole  in  consecutive  order,  as  it  is  to  be  sung,  is  to 
be  preferred.  The  musician  has  the  advantage  of  seeing  the  harmonies  by  the 
score,  but  here  the  eye  of  the  singer  must  wander  over  two  or  three  lines  back- 
wards or  forwards,  at  every  two  bars,  to  find  the  place. 

Catches  should  be  learnt  by  memory,  and  half  acted  when  they  are  sung.  The 
manner  of  singing  them  has  been  explained  at  p.  482,  but  the  second  singer 
commences  here  after  the  fourth  bar,  and  the  third  singer  after  the  eighth. 


z&-4)  1  — 

|S  -^*i 

/I  fr  i*  —  J  — 

Z3  f  ^ 

~~d  —  1  

J  —  J^ 

L 

•             J                       1        m 

Ir 

*                       \       9 

Fie! 

A    U 

nay     prithee,  John,          Do 

•    m 
not  quar-rel,  man, 

F      f 

r              _ 

R            9 

xT   ' 

(^[)    —  *-^  —  *  

-1  1  p  F- 

1  1  F-     9 

—  F  —  p  — 

F— 

You're  a  rogue,  you've  cheated    me    I'll  prove 

be-fore  this  com-j 

a  -  ny  ;    I 

X  h    />  — 

-i  F 

—  0  F  — 

F 

• 

F      m 

• 

-J  

H             P—     -       - 

±  —  F 

|V                                        .            . 

Sir,  the  charge  is      quite  ab-surd,  And  here  I'll  make  you  eat  your  word,  Or 


—  I  

:^—  iT?*5= 

—  1  1  -^— 

Let's 

-J-J-     »         -^- 

be      mer-ry,     and             drink         a          bout. 

i 

• 

• 

J            A 

\            m                          -  - 

_ 

ig,-S 

p 

are           so         stout. 

«             . 

caren't  a 

far-thii 

ir,    for      all      you 

r       r  •  F  c^     i 

F  

• 

_4  L*T   ^       

T  —  r~ 

• 

^^  —  i  —  i  — 

-N    1"    ' 

r 

!       f      \ 

you    shall     an  -  swer  with  your  sword,  For 

who      cares  for  you  ? 

THE  MAN  OF  KENT. 

In  "  The  Essex  Champion;  or,  The  famous  History  of  Sir  Billy  of  Billericay 

and  his  squire  Ricardo,"  1690,  the  following  songs  are  mentioned:  "Three 

merry  wives  of  Green-Goose  Fair,"  "  Tom  a  Lincoln,"  and  "  The  Man  of  Kent." 

The  song  of  The  Man  of  Kent  is  by  D'Urfey,  and  the  tune  by  Leveridge, 

composer  of  The  Roast  Beef  of  Old  England,  Black  erf  d  Susan,  &c. 

D'Urfey  wrote  a  second  song  to  the  same  air  for  his  play  of  Masaniello,  and 
Leveridge,  who  was  a  base  singer,  sang  it  on  the  stage. 

The  latter  is  in  praise  of  fishing,  commencing,  "  Of  all  the  world's  enjoy- 
ments," and  has  the  following  burden  : — 

"  Then  who  a  jolly  fisherman,  a  fisherman  will  be, 
His  throat  must  wet,  just  like  his  net, 
To  keep  out  cold  at  sea." 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES   II.   TO  WILLIAM   III. 


567 


The  tune  is  in  The  Quakers,  and  other  ballad  operas ;  also  in  Pitts  to  purge 
Melancholy,  2.  5.  1719,  with  the  words.  It  is  there  entitled,  "  A  new  song, 
inscribed  to  the  brave  Men  of  Kent,  made  in  honour  of  the  nobility  and  gentry 
of  that  renowned  and  ancient  county." 

Some  of  the  stanzas  are  still  sung  at  social  public  meetings  in  the  county  of 
Kent,  and  others  have  been  added  from  time  to  time. 


\-}  —  ,  — 

\  —  —  h 

-i  1  n  1 

3y-{>  g  -?—  -j  —  i  —  j^tr 

-i  r  J"-  j  —  : 

•  —  4~ 

d  rH  

'  J  r  1     i    L 

S  —  5    f 

-—3—^  r\\  ,  

When  Ha-rold  was  in  -  vad 
And  Nor-man  William  wad 

,        1 

_  m  _4_l_g_fe  0__5_t_^_T_iU__j_1 

-ed,       And     fall-ing,  lost  his  crown,         .  wVi'l 
-  ed  Through  gore  to   pull  him  down  :  .  •  '  " 

'  \  •  u         m                 \ 

f                      ,       U 

1           *l  1        i 

JJ3ZE33ZJ                 J                           i 

r    •      2a      t 

; 

.11 

p>    I  i            m      *              4 

1       r     ~              T 

• 

2     •      '11 

7                         "                    J 

I 

2        in     ^ 

-v                                                                        • 

I-'            1       »_ 

1        '       1 
1 

_  ...  ,             N                     • 

—  j  1  J    .    J  J  1  P  —  B» 

I  r    *  fe-S     P     bfl 

-i          F- 

0  P  1  r      it    tSZ2 

_j  j  e  «  —  j  —  p    .  *m 

—  r~u  —  ^  l>  —  F  —  n  — 

H8  —  ^-L- 

h>V^*  ^ 

i  .-3-  <=!                  •/  r    y  i    * 

counties  round,  With  fear  profound,  To  mend  their  sad  con  - 

di-tion, 

^ 

And  lands  to  save,  Bas 

m     m  _         m  •   m 

I    .    i 

£  *    r     •    f      r  i 

--*  f  P  — 

P—  f2- 

str        —  i  —  ^H 

^—m  !  (  m  

j  ^—j  —  .  .  — 

1 

F       r     •      ^ 

J  P^t~  —  h~ 

5  JJ  

j  H  

J           J        •     ••!*< 

'      *      J     1    m       J 

!         • 

L      P     jni     •     4        "       -       $ 

i      •      •     1    •       •! 

j 

!         d           1 

homage    gave,   Bold  Kent  made    no         sub  -  mis-si  on. 

f-  f  f  •             i 

J-       J-        •        ^       V 
Then   sing      in    praise  of  the 

—  t—  ^J  r~~  *H  —  -, 

»  i  —  i~r  —  i  1" 

—  J  1  r- 

_  C-U-^—f 
|EE  frp  —  | 

4  j  g  

_  .  m  L 

~~i  —  ~^  —  ^  — 

r  P  - 

^=p=44 

Me  n     of    Kent,        So       loy  -  al,   brave,    and     free  ; 

Of 

,.  r  r     £~ 

Bri-tons'  race,     If 

1  1  :1S-  - 

—m  J  j  J  j-  f— 

-n  j— 

"^4 

-)   J   J  .  ^ 

"  _L                  c/ 

=*=P 

r^^ 

one         sur  -  pass,            A       Man         of              Kent         is   .  . 

he. 

1  H  — 

__*  1  f  ^=I_^! 

*         r 
1  — 

^ 

-~4—  r—  H  

The  hardy  stout  freeholders, 
That  knew  the  tyrant  near, 

In  girdles,  and  on  shoulders, 
A  grove  of  oaks  did  bear  : 


Whom  when  he  saw  in  battle  draw, 
And  thought  how  he  might  need  'em  ; 

He  turn'd  his  arms,  allow 'd  their  terms, 
Complete  with  noble  freedom. 


568 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


And  when  by  barons  wrangling, 

Hot  faction  did  increase, 
And  vile  intestine  jangling 

Had  banished  England's  peace, 
The  men  of  Kent  to  battle  went, 

They  fear'd  no  wild  confusion  ; 
But  joined  with  York,  soon  did  the  work, 

And  made  a  blest  conclusion. 

At  hunting,  or  the  race  too, 

They  sprightly  vigour  shew ; 
And  at  a  female  chase  too, 

None  like  a  Kentish  beau  ; 
All  blest  with  health  ;  and  as  for  wealth, 

By  fortune's  kind  embraces, 
A  yeoman  gray  shall  oft  outweigh 

A  knight  in  other  places. 


The  generous,  brave,  and  hearty, 

All  o'er  the  shire  we  find ; 
And  for  the  low-church  party, 

They're  of  the  brightest  kind  : 
For  king  and  laws,  they  prop  the  cause, 

Which  high  church  has  confounded ; 
They  love  with  height  the  moderate  right, 

But  hate  the  crop-ear'd  roundhead. 

The  promised  land  of  blessing, 

For  our  forefathers  meant, 
Is  now  in  right  possessing — 

For  Canaan  sure  was  Kent : 
The  dome  at  Knole,  by  fame  enroll  'd, 

The  church  at  Canterbury, 
The  hops,  the  beer,  the  cherries  here, 

May  fill  a  famous  story. 


LILLIBURLERO. 

"  The  following  rhymes,"  says  Dr.  Percy,  "  slight  and  insignificant  as  they 
may  now  seem,  had  once  a  more  powerful  effect  than  either  the  Philippics  of 
Demosthenes  or  Cicero ;  and  contributed  not  a  little  towards  the  great  revolution 
in  1688.  Let  us  hear  a  contemporary  writer :  " 

"  A  foolish  ballad  was  made  at  that  time,  treating  the  Papists,  and  chiefly  the  Irish, 
in  a  very  ridiculous  manner,  which  had  a  burden,  said  to  be  Irish  words,  '  Lero,  lero, 
lilliburlero,'  that  made  an  impression  on  the  [King's]  army,  that  cannot  he  imagined 
by  those  that  saw  it  not.  The  whole  army,  and  at  last  the  people,  both  in  city  and 
country,  were  singing  it  perpetually.  And,  perhaps,  never  had  so  slight  a  thing  so 
great  an  effect." — Burnefs  History  of  his  own  Times. 

"  It  was  written,  or  at  least  re-published,  on  the  Earl  of  Tyrconnel's  going  a 
second  time  to  Ireland,  in  1688.  . .  .  Lilliburlero  and  Bullen-a-lah  are  said  to  have 
been  the  words  of  distinction  used  among  the  Irish  Papists  in  their  massacre  of 
Protestants,  in  1641." 

In  "  A  True  Relation  of  the  several  Facts  and  Circumstances  of  the  intended 
Riot  and  Tumult  on  Queen  Elizabeth's  Birth-day"  (3rd  edit.,  1712 a),  the  author- 
ship of  the  words  is  ascribed  to  Lord  Wharton — who  is  said  to  have  penned  it  in 
revenge  for  James  II.  having  given  the  appointment  of  Lord  Deputy  of  Ire- 
land to  Tyrconnel.  "A  late  Viceroy  [of  Ireland],  who  has  so  often  boasted 
himself  upon  his  talent  for  mischief,  invention,  lying,  and  for  making  a  certain 
Lilliburlero  song ;  with  which,  if  you  will  believe  himself,  he  sung  a  deluded  prince 
out  of  three  kingdoms." 

Mr.  Markland,  in  a  note  to  Boswell's  Life  of  Johnson,  says  that,  "  according 
to  Lord  Dartmouth,  there  was  a  particular  expression  in  it,  which  the  King 
remembered  he  had  made  use  of  to  the  Earl  of  Dorset,  from  whence  it  was  con- 


»  Queen  Elizabeth's  Birthday  was  then  kept  as  an  Anti- 
Jacobite  Festival.  A  ballad  for  those  occasions  will  be 
found  in  the  Roxburghe  Coll.,  iii.  557,  dated,  in  manu- 
script, 1711.  It  is  entitled,  "Queen  Elizabeth's  Day; 
or,  The  Downfall  of  the  Devil,  the  Pope,  and  the  Pre- 
tender. To  the  tune  of  Bonny  Dundee:'"  commencing, — 

"  Let's  sing  to  the  memory  of  glorious  Queen  Bess, 
Who  long  did  the  hearts  of  her  subjects  possess, 


And  whose  mighty  actions  did  to  us  secure 
Those  many  great  blessings  that  now  do  endure : 
For  she  then  did  lay  that  solid  foundation 
On  which  our  religion  is  fix'd,  in  this  nation ; 
For  Popery  was  put  into  utter  disgrace, 
And  Protestantism  set  up  in  its  place." 

Five  stanzas  of  eight  lines.     It  is  also  printed  in  A  Pill 

to  purge  State  Melancholy,  1716. 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES   II.    TO   WILLIAM   III. 


569 


eluded  that  he  was  the  author."  I  think  there  are  very  sufficient  reasons  for 
doubting  this  conclusion.  In  the  first  place,  the  Earl  of  Dorset  laid  no  claim  to 
it,  a  ad  it  is  scarcely  to  be  believed  that  the  author  of  To  all  you  ladies  now  at  land 
could  have  penned  such  thorough  doggrel.  Although  poetry  was  not  required  for 
the  purpose,  he  would  certainly  have  paid  more  attention  to  rhythm  than  is  there 
exhibited.  Secondly,  the  ballad  contains  no  expression  that  the  King  would  have 
used,  which  might  not  equally  have  been  employed  by  any  other  person.  And 
thirdly,  Lord  Wharton  being  alive  when  the  attacks  in  The  True  Relation  and 
other  pamphlets  were  made  upon  him,  we  may  infer  that  his  opponents,  who 
freely  charge  him  with  lying,  would  not  have  omitted  the  falsehood  of  this  claim, 
if  there  had  been  any  ground  for  disputing  it. 

"  In  The  Examiner,  and  in  several  pamphlets  of  1712,"  says  Lord  Macaulay, 
"  Wharton  is  mentioned  as  the  author."  a 

The  tune  of  Lilliburlero  was  printed  before  the  time  at  which  the  words  are 
supposed  to  have  been  written.  "  In  February,  1687,  Tyrconnel  began  to  rule 
his  native  country  with  the  powers  and  appointments  of  Lord  Lieutenant,  but 
with  the  humbler  title  of  Lord  Deputy."  It  was  against  such  appointment  that 
the  ballad  was  levelled.  The  tune  will  be  found  in  the  second  edition  of  The 
Delightful  Companion,  or  Choice  new  Lessons  for  the  Recorder  or  Flute  (by  Robert 
Carr),  1686,  and  in  all  probability  in  the  first  edition  of  the  same  book.b  It 


a  The  writing  of  lampoons  was  a  favorite  amusement 
during  the  reigns  of  the  Stuarts,  when  every  courtier  was 
expec  ted  to  handle  a  pen  in  rhyme.  Passing  by  minor 
personages,  how  many  there  are  still  extant  which  were 
writti'ii  by  the  Earl  of  Rochester  and  others  upon 
Charles  II. !  I  quote  a  few  odd  stanzas,  principally  from 
memory: — 

"  I  am  a  senseless  thing,  with  a  hey, 
Men  call  me  a  king,  with  a  ho, 

FOJ  my  luxury  and  ease  they  brought  me  o'er  the  seas, 
With  a  hey,  tronney,  nonney,  nonney  no"  .  .  . 
"Chaste,  pious,  prudent  Charles  the  Second, 

The  miracle  of  thy  restoration 
May  like  to  that  of  quails  be  reckon'd, 

Rain'd  on  the  Israelitish  nation  : 
The  wish'd-for  blessing,  from  heaven  sent, 
Became  their  curse  and  punishment."  .  .  . 
"  Rowley  too  late  will  understand 

What  now  he  shuns  to  find, 
That  nothing's  quiet  in  this  land, 
Except  his  careless  mind."  .  .  . 
"  Beyond  sea  he  began,  where  such  riot  he  ran, 

That  ev'ry  one  there  did  leave  him, 
AnI  now  he's  come  o'er,  ten  times  worse  than  before, 
When  none  but  we  fools  would  receive  him."  .  . . 
"His  dogs  would  sit  at  council  board, 

Like  judges  in  their  furs  ; 
We  question  much  which  has  more  sense, 

The  master  or  the  curs."  .  .  . 
"  His  father's  foes  he  doth  reward, 

Preserving  those  that  cut  off's  head  ; 
Old  Cavaliers,  the  Crown's  best  guard, 

He  lets  them  starve  for  want  of  bread  : 
Never  was  any  king  endow'd 
With  so  much  grace  and  gratitude."  .  .  . 
"  New  upstarts,  bastards,  pimps,  &c., 
That,  locust-like,  devour  the  land, 


By  shutting  up  the  Exchequer  doors, 

Whither  our  money  is  trepan  n'd, 
Have  render'd  Charles's  restoration 
But  a  small  blessing  to  the  nation."  .  .  . 
"  Then,  Charles,  beware  thy  brother  York, 

Who  to  thy  government  gives  law ; 
If  once  you  fall  to  the  old  sport, 

Both  must  away  again  to  Bifid  a,— 
When,  'spite  of  all  that  would  restore  you, 
Grown  wise  by  wrongs,  we  shall  abhor  you." 

Even  to  Charles's  face,  things  of  this  kind  were  occa- 
sionally said,  with  a  good  motive,  but  such  as  the  sterner 
nature  of  his  brother  would  not  have  suffered  to  be  uttered 
with  impunity.  Pepys  records  Tom  Killegrew's  having 
told  Charles,  in  the  presence  of  Cowley  the  poet,  that 
matters  were  in  a  very  ill  state,  but  yet  there  was  one  way 
to  help  all.  "There  is,"  said  he,  "a  good,  honest,  able 
man,  that  I  could  name,  that  if  your  Majesty  would  em- 
ploy, and  command  to  see  things  well  executed,  all  things 
would  soon  be  mended :  and  this  is  one  Charles  Stuart,  who 
now  spends  his  time  employing  his  lips  about  the  court,  and 
hath  no  other  employment :  he  were  the  fittest  man  in  the 
world  to  perform  it."  To  this  Pepys  adds:  "This  is  most 
true,  but  the  King  do  not  profit  by  any  of  this,  but  Jays 
all  aside,  and  remembers  nothing,  but  to  his  pleasures 
again ;  which  is  a  sorrowful  consideration." — Diary, 
Dec.  8,  1666. 

b  I  have  never  seen  the  first  edition  of  The  Delightful 
Companion,  neither  can  I  trace  any  other  copy  of  the 
second  than  the  one  in  my  own  possession,  which  came 
from  Gostling's,  library.  The  second  edition  is  professedly 
"corrected,"  but  not  "enlarged;"  and,  as  the  work  is 
engraved  on  plates  (not  set  up  in  type,  like  The  Dancing 
Master),  the  contents  of  the  two  editions  are  probably  the 
same.  Lilliburlero  is  found  about  the  middle  of  the  book, 
Sig.  F. 


570  ENGLISH   SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 

appears  without  any  name,  and  merely  as  a  lesson.  There  are  "  theatre  tunes," 
song  tunes,  airs,  catches,  and  other  compositions,  in  the  collection,  but  no  air  that 
I  can  trace  to  have  been  used  for  ballads  except  this.  It  is  the  only  copy  I  have 
met  with  that  was  printed  before  the  revolution. 

In  1689,  Lilliburlero  was  included  in  the  second  part  of  Music's  Handmaid,  as 
"  A  new  Irish  Tune,"  by  "  Mr.  Purcell ; "  in  1690,  in  The  Dancing  Master  and 
Apollo's  Banquet ;  in  1691,  Purcell  used  it  as  a  ground  to  the  fifth  air  'in  his 
opera,  The  Grordian  Knot  unttfd  ;  and  afterwards  it  appeared  in  Pills  to  purge 
Melancholy,  and  in  many  ballad- operas,  &c. 

James  II.  fled  from  England  on  the  23rd  of  December,  1688,  and  the  ballad 
printers  took  immediate  advantage  of  the  change  of  affairs.  A  copy  of  Lillibur- 
lero, published  in  that  very  month,  is  extant  in  Wood's  Collection  of  Broadsides. 
The  printer  professes  to  give  the  "  excellent  new  tune ;"  but,  instead  of  it,  used 
a  block,  or  type,  with  the  air  of  Stingo,  or  Oil  of  Barley.  Nor  is  this  a  solitary 
instance ;  for  u  The  Irish  Lasses  Letter  ;  or,  Her  earnest  Request  to  Teague,  her 
dear  Joy,"  which  was  also  to  be  sung  to  the  excellent  new  tune,  and  was  printed 
in  the  same  month,  has  the  same  music.  Sufficient  time  had  not  elapsed  to  pre- 
pare the  type,  or  to  cut  a  new  wood-block  with  the  proper  air. 

In  Nicholson  and  Burn's  Westmoreland  and  Cumberland  (4 to.,  1777,  i.  550), 
Henry  "VVharton  (brother  of  the  reputed  author)  is  said  to  have  "  assumed  the 
habit  of  a  player,  and  sung  before  the  King  [James  II.],  in  the  playhouse,  the 
famous  party  song  of  Lilliburlero"  This  is  quoted,  from  Nicholson  and  Burn,  by 
Banks  in  his  Extinct  Baronage,  and  from  Banks,  in  Ellis's  Dover  Correspondence. 
It  is  a  story  that  should  be  received  with  caution ;  for  it  may  be  asked,  what  would 
have  become  of  the  players  who  permitted,  of  the  musicians  who  played,  and  of 
Henry  Wharton,  who  sang  such  a  song  in  the  presence  of  so  unforgiving  a 
monarch  as  James  ? 

As  to  the  authorship  of  the  tune,  it  is  distinctly  ascribed  to  Henry  Purcell  in 
Music's  Handmaid.  The  only  question  is  whether  he  took  the  first  four  bars  from 
a  Somersetshire  song,  "  In  Taunton  Dean  che  were  bore  and  bred,"  the  words  of 
which  are  evidently  as  old  as  the  civil  wars,  because,  among  the  sights  of  London, 
one  is  St.  Paul's  Cathedral  turned  into  a  stable.  On  the  other  hand,  tfiat  air 
may  not  be  as  old  as  Lilliburlero,  for  I  know  of  no  copy  earlier  than  1729,  and 
there  is  another  under  the  same  name  (but  said  to  be  "a  new  tune"),  printed 
with  the  words  of  In  Taunton  Dean  in  The  Merry  Musician,  i.  305,  1716. 
Again,  although  There  was  an  old  fellow  at  Waltham  Cross  was  sung  to  the  tune 
of  In  Taunton  Dean  (the  one  that  resembles  Lilliburlero)  in  the  ballad-operas  of 
Flora,  and  The  Jovial  Crew,  there  is  no  proof  that  the  same  music  was  sung  in 
Brome's  original  play.  On  the  contrary,  there  is  other  music  to  "  There  was  an 
old  fellow,"  in  Hilton's  Catch  that  catch  can,  and  Playford's  Musical  Companion. 

The  first  collection  in  which  the  words  of  Lilliburlero  appeared  was  The  Muses' 
Farewell  to  Popery  and  Slavery,  1689.  It  was  afterwards  published  in  Poems  on 
Affairs  of  State,  and  some  others.  Percy  prints  but  the  first  part. 

Shadwell  seems  to  refer  to  the  copy  of  the  tune  in  Music's  Handmaid  (where 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES   II.   TO   WILLIAM   III.  571 

it  is  arranged  for  the  virginals  or  harpsichord) ,  when,  in  his  play  of  The  Scowerers 
(1391a),  Eugenia  says :  "  And  another  music  master  from  the  next  town,  to  teach 
one  to  twinkle  out  Lilliburlero  upon  an  old  pair  of  virginals,  that  sound  worse  than 
a  tinker's  kettle,  that  he  cries  his  work  upon."  It  is  also  alluded  to  by  Vanbrugh, 
in  his  comedy  of  JEsop,  and  by  Sterne,  in  Tristram  Shandy,  where  Uncle  Toby 
is  said  to  be  constantly  whistling  it. 

The  ballads  that  were  sung  to  the  tune  are  so  numerous,  that  space  will  only 
permit  the  mention  of  a  very  small  proportion. 

"Dublin's  Deliverance;  or,  The  Surrender  of  Drogheda:"  commencing, 
"  Protestant  Boys,  good  tidings  I  bring."  This,  singularly  enough,  is  omitted  in 
Mr.  Crofton  Croker's  Historical  Songs  of  Ireland.  A  copy  is  in  the  Pepys 
Collection,  ii.  303. 

"  Undaunted  London-derry ;  or,  The  Victorious  Protestants'  constant  success 
against  the  proud  French  and  Irish  forces:"  commencing,  "  Protestant  Boys, 
both  valiant  and  stout."  Bagford  Collection,  643,  m.,  10,  p.  116  ;  and  in  the 
same  volume,  "  The  Courageous  Soldiers  of  the  West,"  and  "  The  Reading 
Skirmish." 

The  Roxburghe  Collection  contains  "  The  Protestant  Courage,"  "  Courageous 
Betty  of  Chick  Lane,"  &c.,  &c. 

In  the  later  editions  of  The'Grarland  of  Goodwill,  is  "  Teague  and  Sawney; 
or,  The  unfortunate  success  of  dear  Joy's  devotion."  It  is  about  a  windmill, 
which  Sawney  mistakes  for  St.  Andrew's  Cross,  and  Teague  for  St.  Patrick's. 
The  latter  kneels  before  it,  and  is  caught  up  by  the  wind  setting  the  mill  in  motion. 
The  following  are  still  commonly  sung  to  the  air  : — "  The  Sussex  Whistling 
Song:"  beginning,  "  There  was  an  old  farmer  in  Sussex  did  dwell."  To  this 
the  company  whistle  in  chorus,  wherever  the  words  Lilliburlero  and  Bullen  a  lah 
would  occur.  It  is  printed  in  Dixon's  Songs  of  the  Peasantry  of  England,  p.  210. 
A  second  is — 

"  A  very  good  song,  and  very  well  sung, 

Jolly  companions  every  one." 

This  is  a  common  chorus  after  any  song  that  has  been  approved  by  the  hearers. 
Lastly,  the  well-known  nursery  rhyme  : — 

"  There  was  an  old  woman  went  up  in  a  basket, 

Seventeen  times  as  high  as  the  moon. 
And  where  she  was  going  I  conld  not  but  ask  it, 

Because  in  her  hand  she  carried  a  broom, — 
'  Old  woman,  old  woman,  old  woman,'  said  I, 
'  Where  are  you  going  ?  whither  so  high  ?' 
'  To  sweep  the  cobwebs  off  the  sky, 
And  I  shall  be  back  again  bye-and-bye.' " 

The  tune  was,  and  still  is,  so  popular,  that  two  versions  are  submitted  to  the 
reader, — the  old  way  and  the  present.  The  following  is  the  old  way,  with  the  first 
part  of  the  words  of  Lilliburlero.  The  second  part  of  the  words  was  added  after 
the  landing  of  King  William. 

Mr.  Dauney  misdates  this  play  "about  1670  :"  thereby  eighteen  years  before  the  revolution.— Ancient  Melodies 
making  the  song  of  Lilliburlero  to  have  been  written  of,  Scotland,  p.  19,  4to  ,  1838. 


572  ENGLISH   SONG  AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 

"A  NEW  IRISH  SONG  OF  LIL-LI  BUR  LERO,  TO  AN  EXCELLENT  NEW  TUNE." 


:£ 


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i- 


-5-  -m-  -S- 

Ho!  bro-ther  Teague,  dost  hear  de  de-cree?      Lil-li  bur-le- ro,     bullen   a  la, 
Dat    we  shall  have     a        new  de-pu-tie,          Lil-li  bur-le- ro,     bullen    a  la, 


fe^ 


Le-ro,     le  -  ro,        lil-li  bur-le-  ro,      LiWi  bur-le    -    ro,     bul-len     a       la,  .    . 

_i I 


9 

Le  -  ro,     le  -    ro,       lil-li  bur-le   -  ro,       lil-li  bur-le  -  ro,     bul-len 


la. 


Ho  !  by  my  shoul  it  is  de  Talbot, 
And  he  will  cut  all  de  English  throat ; 
Tho',  by  my  shoul,  de  English  do  praat, 
De  law's  on  dare  side,  andCreish  knows  what. 
But,  if  dispence  do  come  from  de  Pope,  [rope. 
We'll  hang  Magna  Charta  and  demselves  in  a 
And  de  good  Talbot  is  made  a  lord, 
And  he  with  brave  lads  is  coming  aboard, 
Who  all  in  France  have  taiiken  a  sware, 


Dat  dey  will  have  no  Protestant  heir. 

O,  but  why  does  he  stay  behind  ? 

Ho  !  by  my  shoul,  'tis  a  Protestant  wind. 

Now  Tyrconnel  is  come  ashore, 

And  we  shall  have  commissions  gillore  ; 

And  he  dat  will  not  go  to  mass 

Shall  turn  out,  and  look  like  an  ass. 

Now,  now  de  hereticks  all  go  down,    [own. 

By]Creish  and  St.  Patrick,  de  nation's  our 

The  following  four  lines  are  added  to  the  song  in  The  Muses'  Farewell  to 
Popery  and  Slavery,  but  are  printed  separately  in  State  Poems,  and  entitled  "  An 
Irish  Prophecy: " — 

"  There  was  an  old  prophecy  found  in  a  bog, 
That  Ireland  should  be  rul'd  by  an  ass  and  a  dog. 
The  prophecy's  true,  and  now  come  to  pass, 
For  Talbot's  a  dog,  and  Tyrconnel's  an  ass." 

In  some  later  copies,  the  credit  of  being  the  ass  is  transferred  to  King  James. 
The  following  version  of  the  tune  is  more  generally  adopted  in  the  present  day. 
Three  stanzas  of  a  song  in  praise  of  the  ale  of  Nottingham,  or  Newcastle  (for  it 
is  printed  both  ways),  are  adapted  to  it.  A  copy  in  praise  of  Newcastle  ale  is  in 
the  Roxburghe  Collection,  iii.  421  ;  and  one  giving  the  credit  to  Nottingham  is 
on  a  broadside  with  music,  now  before  me.  The  tune  is  copied  from  the  latter. 


KEIGN   OF   CHAKLES   II.   TO   WILLIAM   III. 


573 


Gaily. 


2 


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Us 


^—  =f=r=F: 

When     Ve-nus,  the   goddess  of     beau-ty  and  love,     A  -  rose  from  the  froth  that 


•1. 


r        ~^    :    r    "T     ~r 

^wamon  the  sea,    Mi -nerva  sprang  out  of  the  cranium  of  Jove,  A  coy  sullen  dame   as  most 


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But      Bacchus,  they  te 

p  p  p  ;  

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:i 


-take  quite  the  mat- ter,  He   sprang  from    a     bar  -  rel     of       Not-ting-ham  ale. 


CHORUS. 


f  1^1  i^     I 

Nottingham  ale,  boys,  Nottingham  ale,  No       li-quor    on  earth  is     like  Nottingham  ale. 


-c — 


574 


ENGLISH   SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


Ye  Bishops  and  Curates,  Priests,  Deacons,  and 

Vicars,  [true, 

When  once  you  have  tasted,  you'll  own  it  is 

That  Nottingham  ale  is  the  best  of  all  liquors, 

And  none  understand  what  is  good  like  to 

you.  [paper, 

It  dispels  ev'ry  vapour,  saves  pen,  ink,  and 

For,  when  you've  a  mind  in  the  pulpit  to 

rail,  [without  notes, 

'Twill   open  your  throats,   you  may  preach 

When  inspir'd  with  a  bumper  of  Nottingham 

Chorus.  Nottingham  ale,  boys,  &c.     [ale. 


Ye  Doctors,  who  more  execution  have  done, 

With  powder  and  potion,  and  bolus  and  pill, 

Than  hangman  with  halter,  or  soldier  with  gun, 

Or  miser  with  famine,  or  lawyer  with  quill ; 

To  despatch  us  the  quicker,  you  forbid  us  malt 

liquor, 
Till  our  bodies  consume,  and  our  faces  grow 

pale  ; 
Let  him  mind  you  who  pleases — what  cures  all 

disease  is 

A  comforting  glass  of  good  Nottingham  ale. 
Chorus.  Nottingham  ale,  boys,  &c. 


JAMES  THE  SECOND'S  MARCH. 


This  march  is  contained  in  The  Dancing  Master  of  1690,  and  in  every  sub- 
sequent edition.  In  the  earlier  of  the  above-named  it  is  entitled  The  Garter, 
and  in  the  later,  King  James's  March,  or  The  Grarter. 


Boldly. 


Mi 


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•— 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES   II.    TO   WILLIAM   III.  575 

IN  JANUARY  LAST. 

This  is  a  song  in  D'Urfey's  play,  The  Fond  Husband,  or  The  Plotting  Sisters, 
wliich  was  acted  in  1676. 

The  words  and  music  are  to  be  found  in  Playford's  Choice  Ayres,  ii.  46,  1679, 
and  in  vol.  i.  of  all  editions  of  Pills  to  purge  Melancholy.  The  tune  is  in  Apollo ]s 
Banquet,  1690,  and  probably  in  some  of  the  earlier  editions  which  I  have 
not  seen. 

The  words  are  in  the  Roxburghe  Collection,  ii.  414,  entitled  "  The  Scotch 
Wedding,  or  A  short  and  pretty  way  of  wooing :  To  a  new  Northern  tune,  much 
ufc'd  at  the  theatres."  Printed  for  P.  Brooksby.  In  the  same  Collection, 
iii.  116,  is  "The  new-married  Scotch  Couple,  or  The  Second  Part  of  the  Scotch 
Wedding,"  &c.,  "To  a  new  Northern  tune,  or  In  January  last"  Printed  by 
Thackeray,  Passinger,  and  Whitwood. 

Many  other  ballads  were  sung  to  it,  of  which  one  or  two  have  already 
been  quoted.  I  will  only  add  to  the  list,  "  Northern  Nanny,  or  The  Loving 
Lasses  Lamentation,"  &c.,  a  copy  of  which  is  in  the  Douce  Collection  (164). 
It  commences — 

"  On  Easter  Monday  last,  I  heard  a  pensive  maiden  mourn, 

When  lads  and  lasses  play,  Tears  trickling  down  amain ; 

As  o'er  the  green  I  past  'Alas!'  quoth  she,  'why  was  I  born 

Near  noon-time  of  the  day,  To  live  in  mickle  pain  ? '  " 

This  identifies  In  January  last  as  one  of  the  tunes  called  Northern  Nanny. 

Allan  Ramsay  included  "In  January  last"  in  vol.  ii.  of  The  Tea-Table  Mis- 
cellany, as  "  a  song  to  be  sung  to  its  own  tune."  He  altered  some  of  the  lines, 
and  improved  the  spelling  of  the  Anglo- Scottish  words,  but  made  no  addition.* 
Ramsay's  version  was  followed  by  Thomson,  in  his  Orpheus  Caledonius  (ii.  42, 
1733),  but  he  changed  the  name  to  The  glancing  of  her  Apron  ;  taking  that  title 
from  the  seventh  line  of  the  song.  In  one  of  the  Leyden  MSS.  (about  1700), 
the  tune  bears  the  name  of  The  bonny  brow  from  the  eighth  line  of  the  same. 

Both  the  words  and  music  became  extremely  popular  in  Scotland.  Even  so 
late  as  1797,  they  were  reprinted  in  Johnson's  Scot's  Musical  Museum  ;  but  on 
that  occasion  Burns  "  brushed  up  the  three  first  stanzas  of  Ramsay's  version, 
and  omitted  the  remainder  for  an  obvious  reason." 

The  increasing  refinement  of  manners  was  causing  a  gradual  change  in  the  style 
of  popular  poetry,  and  the  rejection  of  many  of  the  older  pieces,  so  that  when,  in 
1815,  Mr.  Alexander  Campbell  was  on  a  tour  on  the  borders  of  Scotland  for  the 
purpose  of  collecting  Scotch  airs,  he  received  a  traditional  version  of  the  air  from 
Mr.  Thomas  Pringle,  with  a  verse  of  other  words,  which  Mr.  Pringle  had  heard 
his  mother  sing  to  it.  This  was  the  first  stanza  of  the  now-celebrated  song  of 
Jock  0'  Hazledean,  which  Sir  Walter  Scott  so  admirably  completed.  It  was  first 
printed  in  Albyn's  Anthology  (vol.  i.,  1816,  fol.),  with  the  air  arranged  by 
Campbell.  Campbell  mistook  it  for  an  old  Border  melody. 

*  Mr.  Stenhouse  says  that  Allan  Ramsay  reprinted  it  as  "  an  old  song  with  additions;"  vhich  is  a  mistake. 


576 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


The  following  is  the  old  tune,  with  the  first  stanza  of  the  old  words  : — 

Gracefully. 


I       a  -   long 


the     fields     did     pass    To      view  the  win-ter's  corn ; 


IE 


S¥rmeF£:¥fg 


leak-  ed     me  .  .    be  -  hind, 

-a-        -^  tH 


And    I  saw     come     o'er   the   knough, 


Yan 


I  1  1    , 

1  \-  —  1— 

H~t^  ^5- 

^  —  \-=p 

~^  *  • 

glent  -  ing        in         an 

»  p  Si  

>      -Jr 
a     -     pron,  With 

bon  -  ny        brent 

i  1  1  \  —  i 

brow. 

—  •  L— 

-S  m  p— 

=»— 

,r                               rJ 

Cs 

1                      •               0               t* 

I                       1 

\                                     \ 

H          U       L 

• 

K  ''               i 

r     r 

r 

-&-    ' 

DULCE  DOMUM. 

"  The  tradition  connected  with  this  song  is,  that  a  Wykehamist,  being  for 
some  misdemeanor  confined  to  his  rooms  at  Winchester,  during  a  vacation,  and 
thus  disappointed  in  his  expectation  of  returning  home,  he  composed  and  set  this 
song  to  music,  while  languishing  for  domestic  endearments,  and  that  incessantly 
playing  it  to  relieve  his  heart-ache,  he  pined  away  and  died." 
"  And  see  in  durance  the  fast-fading  boy, 

Midst  Wykeham's  walls  his  dulcet  sorrows  heave ; 
Fled  are  his  fairy  dreams  of  homely  joy. 

Ah  !  frowns  too  chilling,  that  his  soul  bereave 
Of  all  that  frolic  fancy  long'd  to  weave 
In  his  paternal  woods  !     His  hands  he  wrings 

In  anguish  !     Yet  some  balm  his  sorrows  leave 
To  soothe  his  fainting  spirits,  as  he  sings, 
And  suits  to  every  sigh  the  sweetly- warbling  strings. 
O  he  had  notch'd,  unweeting  of  distress, 

The  hours  of  school- boy  toil !     Nor  irksome  flew 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES   II.    TO  WILLIAM   III.  577 

The  moments  ;  for,  each  morn,  his  score  was  less ! — 
Visions  of  vacant  home  yet  brighter  grew; 
When  lo  !  stern  fate  obscnr'd  the  blissful  view : 
Droops  his  sick  heart.     And  "  Ah,  dear  fields,  (he  cries) 

"  Ye  bloom  no  more  !  dear  native  fields,  adieu  1" 
"  Home,  charming  home  !"  still  plaintive  Echo  sighs, 
And  to  his  parting  breath  the  dulcet  murmur  dies. 

PolwheeTs  Influence  of  Local  Attachment,  p.  57. 

Dr.  Milner,  in  his  History  of  Winchester.,  says,  "  We  shall  now  conclude  this 
account  of  the  college,  with  inserting  the  famous  song  of  Duke  Domum,  which 
is  publicly  sung  by  the  scholars  and  choristers,  aided  by  a  band  of  music,  pre- 
viously to  the  summer  vacation.  The  existence  of  this  song  can  only  be  traced 
up  the  distance  of  about  a  century  [from  the  time  at  which  he  wrote],  yet  the 
real  author  of  it,  and  the  occasion  of  its  composition,  are  already  clouded  with 
fables." 

It  has  been  justly  remarked  by  J.  P.  Malcolm,  in  the  Gentleman's  Magazine  for 
1796,  that  the  sentiments  of  the  words  are  rather  those  of  a  scholar  looking 
forward  with  an  early  expectation  of  enjoying  the  delights  of  the  home  joys  he 
describes,  than  of  a  boy  who  died  of  sorrow,  chained  to  a  post. 

Dr.  Hayes,  and  other  authorities,  attribute  the  composition  of  the  music  to 
John  Reading,  who  was  organist  of  Winchester  College  and  of  Winchester 
Cathedral,— of  the  College  from  1681  to  1689,a  and  probably  till  1695,  in  which 
year  he  is  said  to  have  died.  Reading  composed  the  music  to  the  three  Latin 
Graces,  which  are  sung  at  the  annual  college  elections, — the  Ante  cibum,  Post 
cibum,  and  the  Oratio,  "  Agimus  tibi  gratias,  omnipotens  Deus,  pro  fundatore 
no.stro,  Gulielmo  de  Wykeham,"  &c. 

The  printed  copies  of  Duke  Domum  also  ascribe  the  music  to  "  Johannes 
Reading,"  and  "  the  poetry  "  to  "  Turner."  b  Such  of  these  as  I  have  seen  are 
of  comparatively  late  date — perhaps  no  one  older  than  the  latter  part  of  the  last 
century — but  they  were  most  probably  reprints  from  earlier  editions. 

Duke  Domum  is  still  sung  at  Winchester  on  the  eve  of  the  break-up-day. 
The  collegians  sing  it  first  in  the  school-room,  and  have  a  band  to  play  it. 
Afterwards  they  repeat  it  at  intervals  throughout  the  evening,  before  the 
assembled  visitors,  in  the  College  mead  or  play-ground;  and  continue  to  sing 

'The  rolls   of  Winchester  College  give  the  date  of  first  time  at  the  Portuguese  Ambassador's  chapel,  in  South 

Rej  ding's  appointment.     These  rolls  are  lists  of  the  offi-  Street,  Park  Lane,  and  he,  supposing  it  to  he  peculiar  to 

cers,  prepared  yearly.    Those  between  1689  and  1G97  are  the  service  in  Portugal,   introduced  it  at  the  Ancient 

mi?  sing,  but  in  the  latter  year  Bishop  was  organist.  This  Concerts,  giving  it  that  title. 

Joli  n  Reading  has   sometimes  been  confounded  with  a  b  No  scholar  of  the  name  of  Turner  is  to  be  found  on 

later  writer  of  the  same  name,   who  was  organist  of  the  Registers  of  the  College  in  Reading's  time,  and  but 

St.  John's,  Hackney.     Both  composed  anthems,  but  the  one  who  had  been  a  scholar  was  his  cotemporary.    This 

Bh graphical  Dictionary  of  Musicians  is  incorrect,  as  to  was  Francis  Turner,  admitted  in  1650,  superannuated  in 

dat;,  when  it  states  that  the  latter  "  published  a  collection  1655;   who  then  proceeded  to  St.  John's  College,  Cam- 

of  .Anthems  of  his  own  composition  towards  the  end  of  bridge,  became  Prebendary  of  St.  Paul's  and  Bishop  of 

the  seventeenth  century."    The  second  John  Reading's  Ely, — one  of  the  seven  bishops  who  were  brought  to  trial 

"first  essays"  were  A  Book  of  New  Songs,  which  must  before  the  Court  of   King's  Bench   by  James  II.    The 

ha\e  been  printed  after  1708,  because  he  describes  him-  Registers  contain  the  names  of  all  the  scholars  from  the 

sell ,  on  the  title  page,  as  having  been  "  educated  in  the  very  first.    Before   Francis  Turner  there  were  Edward 

Ch;  pel   Royal,    under    the    late   Dr.   John    Blow,"    and  Turner,  in  1477,  John  Turner,  in  1530,  Edward  Turner,  in 

Dr  Blow  died  in  that  year.    Reading  composed  the  well-  1551,  and  Edward  Turner,  in  1620;    also,  two  Turnars,  in 

km  wn  "Adeste,  fideles,"   commonly  called  "The  Por-  1522    and   1529.     The   remoteness   of   these   dates    (the 

tug  lese  Hymn."    The  accident  by  which  it  acquired  the  nearest  being  sixty  years  before  Reading's  appointment) 

latt  ;r  name  is  thus  related   in  Novello's  Home  Music:  leads   to  the  inference  that  Francis  Turner,   afterwards 

Tin-  Duke  of  Leeds,  who  was  a  director  of  the  Ancient  Bishop  of  Ely,  was  the  author. 
Coi  certs  about  1785,  heard  the  hymn  performed  for  the 


578 


ENGLISH   SONG  AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


even  after  darkness  has  dispersed  their  guests,  and  without  the  introduction  of 
any  other  vocal  music. 

It  was  formerly  sung  round  "  an  old  tree  that  stood  in  the  ground  recently 
used  as  a  wharf,  but  now  converted  into  a  garden."  Notes  and  Queries,  Sep.  9, 
1854. 

The  following  translation  is  by  Dr.  Charles  Wordsworth,  present  Bishop  of 
St.  Andrew's,  and  formerly  second  master  of  the  College.  The  chorus  from 
another  copy : — 

Rather  slow. 


04*             1                                                      -  — 

1 

X—  ^ 

s 

ItS 

•                P         ^ 

u- 

vT    vi     J    .    « 

m        \                   m  P  \ 

j  .  ij» 

•     ' 

Qi 

fen  "  *  '"" 

m               »       9.     f  i 

5     •     M        _ 

S       i 

'  F 

• 

1 

d 

Vs  7                   •             ^ 

F       F       F       m    !^J    1 

*         D 

C 

i 

L 

Con  -  ci  -  na  -  mus,  O         so     -    - 
Come,  com  -  panions,  join     your 

da  -  les!  E    -    ja,    quid   si    -    le    -    - 
voi  -  ces,  Hearts  with  pleasure    bound    - 

rHS-p  1  k- 

i  1  J  J  

-C  

~r  —  ' 

•  

1  

A^f     _,          J  ,. 

J               •       * 

J 

—  -  d  JJ~ 

pd—-il  —  j  J      1     J 

- 

-P^—  —  «U.k  k 

-  mus  ?       No  -  bi  -  le 
-  ing  ;       Sing    we    the 

~d  n 

can  -  ti  -  cum,     dul     -      ce 
no-ble     lay,      Sweet  song  of 

L- 

~^1  J  -j-^=^ 

me  -  los,  Do  -  mum, 
ho  -  li  -  day,  Joys  of 

rd  1  K- 

s  —  d—  -.- 

=j  J  jj  J  

H  «L-=  J  I 

CHORUS, 


do     -    mum          re    -  so     -      ne  -  mus.  Do    -    mum,      do  -  mum,   dul  -  ce 

home,     sweet      home,    re     -    sound  -  ing.      Home !      sweet  home,    with     ev'  -  ry 


^-J L-i 


H 


fe 


SOLO,  i 


do  -  mum     Dul  ce  do  -    mum       re    -    so    -    nemus,  Do     -     mum, 

plea  -  sure !  Home,       with          ev'    -    ry       bless  -  ing      crown'd :     Home,          our 


mm 


fi 


r 


i*     * 


CHORUS. 


do  -  mum,    dul    -     ce 
best       de   -  light       and 


do-mum,    Dul    -  ce        do  -  mum      re  -  so  -  nemus. 
trea-sure  !  Home,  the     wel  -   come   song,    re  -  sound ! 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES   II.    TO   WILLIAM    III. 


579 


See,  the  wish'd-for  day  approaches, 
Day  with  joys  attended  : 

School's  heavy  course  is  run, 

Safely  the  goal  is  won, 
Happy  goal,  where  toils  are  ended. 

Quit,  my  weary  muse,  your  labours, 
Quit  your  books  and  learning ; 

Banish  all  cares  away, 

Welcome  the  holiday, 
Hearts  for  home  and  freedom  yearning. 

Smiles  the  season,  smile  the  meadows, 
Let  us,  too,  be  smiling ; 

Now  the  sweet  guest  is  come, 

Philomel,  to  her  home, 
Homeward,  too,  our  steps  beguiling. 

Roger,  ho !  'tis  time  for  starting, 

Haste  with  horse  and  traces ; 
Seek  we  the  scene  of  bliss, 
Where  a  fond  mother's  kiss 

Longing  waits  her  boy's  embraces. 

Sing  once  more,  the  gate  surrounding, 
Loud  the  joyous  measure, 
Lo !  the  bright  morning  star, 
Slow  rising  from  afar, 
Still  retards  our  dawn  of  pleasure. 


Appropinquat,  ecce!  felix ! 
Hora  gaudiorum  : 
Post  grave  tedium, 
Advenit  omnium 
Meta  petita  laborum. 

Musa,  libros  mitte,  fessa, 
Mitte  pensa  dura : 
Mitte  negotium, 
Jam  datur  otium ; 
Me  mea  mittito  cura  ! 

Ridet  annus,  prata  rident ; 
Nosque  rideamus. 

Jam  repetit  domum, 

Daulias  advena  : 
Nosque  domum  repetamus. 

Heus  :  Rogere  !  fer  cab  all  os ; 
Eja,  nunc  eamus; 
»    Limen  amabile, 
Matris  et  oscula, 
Suaviter  et  repetamus ! 

Concinamus  ad  Penates ; 
Vox  et  audiatur  : 

Phosphore !  quid  jubar 

Segnius  emicans, 
Gaudia  nostra  moratur? 


HARVEST-HOME. 

There  are  still  many  harvest-home  and  harvest-supper  songs  extant ;  but 
formerly  the  labours  of  the  field  were  accompanied  with  song,  as  well  as  the  after 
rejoicings.  "  How  heartily,"  says  Dr.  John  Case,  "  doth  the  poorest  swain  both 
please  himself,  and  flatter  his  beast,  with  whistling  and  singings.  Alas  !  what 
pleasure  could  they  take  at  the  whip  and  plough  tail,  in  so  often  and  incessant 
labours;  such  bitter  weather-beatings ;  sometimes  benumbed  with  cold ;  otherwise 
melted  with  heat ;  unless  they  quieted,  and  even  brought  asleep  their  painfulness, 
with  this  their  homely,  yet  comfortable  and  self-pleasing  exercise  ?  .  .  .  Those 
with  a  light  heart  make  their  plough  go  lighter,  and  while  they  use  the  solace  of 
their  natural  instruments,  both  quicken  themselves  and  encourage  forward  their 
over -laboured  horse."  ("  Tfie  Praise  of  Music,  Printed  at  Oxenford  by 
Joseph  Barnes,  Printer  to  the  University,"  1586.)  Mr.  Surtees,  in  his  History 
of  Durham,  mentions  having  read  a  report  of  a  trial  "  in  which  a  Mr.  Spearman 
made  a  forcible  entry  into  a  field  of  Mrs.  Wright's  at  Birtley,  and  mowed  and 
carried  away  the  crop  whilst  his  piper  played  from  the  top  of  the  loaded  wains," 
for  the  purpose  of  making  the  men  work  the  faster,  so  as  to  get  away  before  they 
could  be  interrupted.  If  harvest  men  were  introduced  on  the  stage  in  the  early 
drama,  it  was  almost  invariably  for  the  purpose  of  making  them  sing  or  dance. 
In  Peele's  Old  Wives'  Tale,  1571,  the  harvest  men  appear  at  this  speech, — . 

2  P 


580  ENGLISH    SONG   AND    BALLAD    MUSIC. 

"  0,    these   are  the  harvest  men ;    ten  to  one  they  sing  a  song  of  mowing." 
However,  they  sing  one  of  sowing, — "  Lo,  Here  we  come  a  sowing,  a  sowing  ;" 
and,  in  another  part  of  the  play, — 
"  Lo,  here  we  come  a  reaping,  a  reaping,  And  thus  we  pass  the  year  so  long, 

To  reap  our  harvest  fruit !  And  never  be  we  mute." 

In  Nashe's  Summer's  last   Will  and  Testament  (printed  in  1600),  Harvest 
enters  "  with  a  scythe  on  his  neck,  and  all  his  reapers  with  sickles,  and  a  great 
black  bowl  with  a  posset  in  it,  borne  before  him."     They  come  in  singing,  and 
this  is  their  song  : — 
"  Merry,  merry,  merry  ;    cheary,  cheary,  Hooky >  hooky,  we  have  shorn, 

Trowl  the  black  bowl  to  me ;  [cheary ;  And  we  have  bound, 

Hey,  derry,  derry  ;   with  a  poup  and  a  And  we  have  brought  Harvest 

I'll  trowl  it  again  to  thee  :          [leary  ;  Home  to  town" 

The  editor  of  Dodsley's  Old  Plays  (ix.  41,  1825),  remarks  that  the  above  was 
probably  "  a  harvest-home  song,  usually  sung  by  reapers  in  the  country  ;"  and 
that  "  the  chorus  or  burden,  i  Hooky,  hooky,'  &c.,  is  still  heard  in  some  parts  of 
the  kingdom,  with  this  variation  : — 

'  Hooky,  hooky,  we  have  shorn,  And  we  have  brought  the  harvest  home, 

And  bound  what  we  did  reap  ;  To  make  bread  good  and  cheap.' " 

The  ceremony  of  an  English  harvest-home  is  thus  described  by  Hentzner,  who 
travelled  through  England  (as  well  as  through  Germany,  France,  and  Italy) 
towards  the  close  of  the  sixteenth  century,  and  published  his  Itmerarium'm  1598  : 
— "As  we  were  returning  to  our  inn"  (at  Windsor),  "  we  happened  to  meet  some 
country  people  celebrating  their  harvest-home :  Their  last  load  of  corn  they  crown 
with  flowers,  having  besides  an  image  richly  dressed,  by  which  they  would  perhaps 
signify  Ceres ;  this  they  keep  moving  about,  while  men  and  women,  men  and  maid 
servants,  riding  through  the  streets  in  the  cart,  shout  as  loud  as  they  can  till  they 
arrive  at  the  barn."  Dr.  Moresin,  another  foreigner,  who  published,  in  the 
reign  of  James  I.,  an  elaborate  work  on  the  "  Origin  and  Increase  of  Depravity 
in  Religion,"  relates  that  he  saw  "  in  England  the  country  people  bringing  home, 
In  a  cart  from  the  harvest  field,  a  figure  made  of  corn,  round  which  men  and 
women  were  promiscuously  singing,  preceded  by  a  piper  and  a  drum."  Some- 
times, instead  of  a  figure  made  of  corn,  a  young  girl  was  dressed  as  the  Harvest 
Queen,  being  crowned  with  flowers,  a  sheaf  of  corn  placed  under  her  arm,  and  a 
sickle  in  her  hand,  and  so  drawn  along.  Another  crown  of  flowers  was  placed 
lipon  the  head  of  the  most  expert  reaper. 

The  harvest  festivities  are  described  by  Dr.  Drake,  in  his  Shakspeare  and  his 
Times,  as  "  a  scene  not  only  remarkable  for  merriment  and  hospitality,  but  for  a 
temporary  suspension  of  all  inequality  between  master  and  man."  The  whole 
family  sat  down  at  the  same  table,  and  conversed,  danced,  and  sang  together 
during  the  entire  night,  without  difference  or  distinction  of  any  kind ;  and  in 
many  places,  indeed,  this  freedom  of  manner  subsisted  during  the  whole  period  of 
getting  in  the  harvest.  Thus  Tusser,  recommending  the  social  equality  of  the 
harvest-tide,  exclaims, — 


REIGN   OF    CHARLES   II.    TO   WILLIAM    III. 


581 


"  In  harvest  time,  harvest  folke,  servants  and  all, 
Should  make,  all  together,  good  cheer  in  the  hall, 
And  fill  out  the  black  bowl,  so  blithe  to  their  song, 
And  let  them  be  merry,  all  harvest-time  long." 

In  the  reign  of  Charles  L,  we  have  the  following  admirable  description  by 


Herrick,    of    "The    Hock-Cart, b    or 

Pickering's  edit.)  : — 

"  Come,  sons  of  summer,  by  whose  toil, 

We  are  the  lords  of  wine  and  oil, — 

By  whose  tough  labours  and  rough  hands, 

We  rip  up  first,  then  reap  our  lands. 

Crown'd  with  the  ears  of  corn,  now  come, 

And,  to  the  pipe,  sing  Harvest-home. 

Come  forth,  my  lord,  and  see  the  cart 

Brest  up  with  all  the  country  art. 

See,  here  a  Maukin,c  there  a  sheet, 

As  spotless  pure  as  it  is  sweet ; 

The  horses,  mares,  and  frisking  fillies, 

Clad  all  in  linen  white  as  lilies. 

The  harvest  swains  and  wenches  bound 

For  joy,  to  see  the  hock-cart  crown'd. 

-About  the  cart  hear  how  the  rout 

Cf  rural  younglings  raise  the  shout," 

Pressing  before,  some  coming  after, 


Harvest-Home"     (Hesperides,    i.   139> 

Ye  shall  see  first  the  large  and  chief 
Foundation  of  your  feast,  fat  beef ; 
With  upper  stories,  mutton,  veal, 
And  bacon,  which  makes  full  the  meal ; 
With  sev'ral  dishes  standing  by, 
As,  here  a  custard,  there  a  pie, 
And  here  all  tempting  frumenty. 
And  for  to  make  the  merry  cheer, 
If  smirking  wine  be  wanting  here,  [beer; 
There's  that  which  drowns  all  care,  stout 
Which  freely  drink  to  your  lord's  health, 
Then  to  the  plough,  the  commonwealth, 
Next  to  your  flails,  your  vanes,  your  vats, 
Then  to  the  maids  with  wheaten  hats ; 
To  the  rough  sickle,  and  crookt  scythe, 
Drink,  frolic,  boys,  till  all  be  blythe. 
Feed  and  grow  fat,  and  as  ye  eat, 


Those  with  a  shout,  and  these  with  laughter.  Be  mindful  that  the  lab'ring  neat, 


Some  bless  the  cart,  some  kiss  the  sheaves, 
Some  prank  them  up  with  oaken  leaves, 
Some  cross  the  fill-horse,  some  with  great 
I  Devotion  stroke  the  home -borne  wheat ; 
While  other  rustics,  less  attent 
To  prayers  than  to  merriment, 
Kun  after  with  their  breeches  rent. 
Well,  on,  brave  boys,  to  your  lord's  hearth, 


As  you,  may  have  their  full  of  meat. 
And  know,  besides — ye  must  revoke 
The  patient  ox  unto  the  yoke, 
And  all  go  back  unto  the  plough      [now. 
And  harrow,  though  they're  hang'd  up 
And  that  this  pleasure  is  like  rain, 
Not  sent  ye  for  to  drown  your  pain, 
But  for  to  make  it  spring  again." 


Glitt'ring  with  fire,  where,  for  your  mirth, 

So  Stevenson,  in  his  Twelve  Moneths,  1661,  says,  "  In  August  the  furmety  pot 
welcomes  home  the  Harvest  Cart,  and  the  garland  of  flowers  crowns  the  captain 
of  the  Reapers  :  the  battle  of  the  field  is  now  stoutly  fought.  The  pipe  and  the 
tabor  are  now  busily  set  a- work ;  and  the  lad  and  the  lass  will  have  no  lead  on 
their  heels.  0  'tis  the  merry  time  wherein  honest  neighbours  make  good  cheer, 
and  God  is  glorified  in  his  blessings  on  the  earth." 


a  Tusscr  redivivus,  p  104.  In  the  first  edition  of  Tusser, 
1  -57  (reprinted  by  Sir  Egerton  Brydges),  this  stanza  is 
a  ,  follows  : —  . 

'•  Then  welcome  thy  harvest  folke,  serveauntes  and  all; 
With  mirth  and  good  chere,  let  them  furnish  the  hall. 
The  Harvest -Lorde  nightly,  must  give  thee  a  song  : 
Fill  him  then  the  blacke  boil,  or  els  he  hath  wrong." 
b  "  Hock-cart, — By  this  word  is    meant  the  high  or 


rejoicing-cart,  and  it  was  applied  to  the  last  load  of  corn, 
as  typical  of  the  close  of  harvest.  Thus  Hock-tide  is  de- 
rived from  the  Saxon  Hoah-tid.  or  high  tide,  and  is  ex- 
pressive of  the  height  of  festivity."  (Dr.  Drake.) 
Horkey,  Hockey,  and  Hooky,  seem  all  to  be  derived  from, 
this  root. 
c  Maukin, — a  country  maid, 


582  ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 

The  original  of  the  following  harvest-song  is  to  be  found  in  the  fifth  act  of 
Dry  den's  opera  of  King  Arthur.     It  there  forms  part  of  the  incantations  of 
Merlin,  and  is  sung  by  Comus  and  three  peasants  to  Arthur  and  Emmeline. 
Comus.     "  Your  hay  it  is  mow'd,  and  your  corn  is  reap'd ; 

Your  barns  will  be  full,  and  your  hovels  heap'd : 
Come,  boys,  come ;  come,  boys,  come ; 
And  merrily  roar  out  Harvest  Home. 
Chorus.     Come,  boys,  come :  come,  boys,  come ; 

And  merrily  roar  out  Harvest  Home. 

1st  Man.     We've  cheated  the  parson,  we'll  cheat  him  again, 
For  why  should  a  blockhead  have  one  in  ten  ? 

One  in  ten,  one  in  ten, 

For  why  should  a  blockhead  have  one  in  ten  ? 
CJwrus.     One  in  ten,  one  in  ten, 

For  why  should  a  blockhead  have  one  in  ten  ? 
2nd  Man.     For  prating  so  long  like  a  book-learn'd  sot, 

'Till  pudding  and  dumpling  do  burn  to  th'  pot  ? 

Burn  to  pot ;  burn  to  pot ; 
'Till  pudding  and  dumpling  burn  to  pot  ? 
Chorus.     Burn  to  pot ;  burn  to  pot ; 

'Till  pudding  and  dumpling  burn  to  pot. 
3rd  Man.    We'll  toss  off  our  ale  till  we  cannot  stand, 
And  hoigh  for  the  honour  of  Old  England, 

Old  England,  Old  England, 
And  hoigh  for  the  honour  of  Old  England. 
CJwrus.     Old  England,  Old  England, 

And  hoigh  for  the  honour  of  Old  England." 

It  appears  that  the  actors  were  to  dance  and  sing  at  the  same  time,  for  at  the 
end  is  a  stage  direction  :  "  The  dance  varied  into  a  round  country  dance." 

Dryden  tells  us,  in  his  dedication  of  King  Arthur,  that  the  writing  of  the 
"  poem "  was  "  the  last  piece  of  service  he  had  the  honour  to  do  for  King 
Charles  II,"  who  died  before  its  performance  on  the  stage.  The  music  was  com- 
posed by  Purcell,  but  this  song  is  not  included  in  any  extant  manuscript,  even  in 
those  which  contain  the  other  music  of  the  incantation  scene.  The  Hon.  Roger 
North  tells  us  that  Purcell's  score  was  "  unhappily  lost "  within  a  few  years  after 
the  opera  was  produced,  and  all  the  manuscripts  now  remaining  are  more  or  less 
imperfect.  However,  the  tune  and  words  are  found  in  Pills  to  purge  Melancholy, 
and  the  former  in  at  least  a  dozen  ballad-operas,  under  the  name  of  Wive 
cheated  the  Parson.  Purcell,  no  doubt,  composed  a  part-song,  and  this  was 
probably  extracted  from  it. 

When  transformed  into  a  ballad,  the  words  underwent  some  modification,  and 
a  second  part  was  added  as  an  antidote  to  the  first.  Dryden's  introduction  of 
Comus  to  sing  with  three  peasants  about  cheating  the  parson  of  his  tithes,  among 
the  incantations  of  Merlin,  is  rather  anomalous. 

The  ballad-printers  entitled  it  "  The  Country  Farmer's  Vain-Glory,  in  a  new 


RETQN    OP   CHARLES    II.    TO   WILLIAM   III. 


583 


song  of  Harvest  Home ;  sung  to  a  new  tune  much  in  request :  "  and  the  second 
part,  "  An  Answer  to  Harvest  Home :  a  true  character  of  such  countrymen  who 
glory  in  cheating  the  vicar,  and  prefer  bag-pudding  and  dumpling  before  religion 
and  learning." 

"  Tell  them  of  going  to  Church  to  pray, 

They'd  rather  hear  Robin  the  Piper  play  :  .  .  . 

Their  hungry  appetite  to  suffice, 

Bag-pudding  and  dumpling  they  idolize.  .  .  . 

Likewise,  by  the  laws  of  this  potent  land, 

They  in  the  pillory  ought  to  stand." 

These  were  issued  by  printers  who  were  contemporaries  of  Dryden  and  Purcell, 
for  we  find  copies  in  the  Roxburghe  and  other  collections,  printed  by  Brooksby, 
Deacon,  Blare,  and  Back.  (Rox.  ii.  82,  Halliwell  No.  54,  &c.) 

The  first  part  has  been  reprinted  in  Festive  Songs,  by  W.  Sandys,  F.S.A.,  and 
in  both  editions  of  Ballads  and  Songs  of  the  Peasantry  of  England. 
Cheerfully. 


Our    oats  they  are  hoed,  and  our      har-ley's  reap'd,  Our  hay  it   is  mow'd,  and  our 


m 


Repeat  in  Chorus. 


ho  -  vels  heap'd.        Come,boys,come,Come,boys,come,  And  merrily  roar  out  Harvest  Home! 
Harvest  Home !  Harvest  Home !  We'll  merrily  roar  out  Harvest  Home ! 


ESnrlEilf  ;  H  p-p-ll-l-fea 


"  We've  cheated  the  parson,  we'll  cheat  him  again ; 
For  why  should  the  Vicar  have  one  in  ten  ? 

One  in  ten  ;  one  in  ten  ;  &c. 
For  staying  while  dinner  is  cold  and  hot, 
And  pudding  and  dumpling  are  burnt  to  th'  pot  ? 

Burnt  to  pot ;  burnt  to  pot ;  &c. 
We'll  drink  off  our  liquor  while  we  can  stand, 
And  hey  for  the  honour  of  Old  England ! 

Old  England ;  Old  England ;  "  &c. 

After  a  time,  the  first  part  of  the  above  tune  was  discarded,  and  the  second 
joined  on  to  the  nursery  tune  of  Boys  and  Grirls,  come  out  to  play.  It  is  found  in 
r,hat  form  in  the  ballad-opera  of  Polly,  1729,  under  the  name  of  We've  cheated 
the  Parson,  and  in  the  third  volume  of  The  Dancing  Master,  under  that  of  "  Girls 
and  Boys,  come  out  to  play :  the  new  way."  The  "  old  way"  was  to  repeat  the 
first  strain  with  a  little  variation,  or  to  take  it  a  fifth  higher. 


-x     Gracefully.                            , 

"A  fi  •    -f-J  —  1s—  H-  -J3—  1  —  f«-  -1- 

—  ^-J5>^—  J  f*-H  1 

(qra  C  —  *—  3—  J  —  3  —  *—  J  —  E  -^  —  •—  *-*-*  —  ^  —  *-J-H 
3 

Girls     and  boys,  come  out      to  play,  The  moon  doth    shine  as   bright    as  day  : 

.      .           J    ^^2    .      . 

7__  _  m  .  .    ,  —  ^  pje  .  —  K  —  ,  —  ^  

•B:,  fi   p  —  T—  «f  —  j  — 

—  <S  

-k-ft-l  — 

H-- 

Leave  your  supper,  and  leave  your  sleep,  And  come  to  your  play -fel-lows  down   the  street. 


Come  with  a  whoop,  come  with  a   call,          Come  with  good  will,      or     not     at   all. 


Up   the  ladder  and  down  the  wall,      A     half-  pen-ny      roll    will  serve     us    all. 

=J= i=^— Tf— === 


AYE,  MARRY,  AND  THANK  YE  TOO. 

This  is  the  burden  of  the  ballad,  "  I  live  in  the  town  of  Lynn,"  a  continuation 
of  which  (with  a  somewhat  similar  tune)  will  be  found  in  Pills  to  purge  Melan- 
choly, iii.  131,  1707,  commencing: 

"  I  am  the  young  lass  of  Lynn, 
Who  often  said,  '  Thank  you  too.'  " 

This  air  is  found  under  the  title  of  I  marry,  and  thank  ye  too,  in  Youth's  Delight 
on  the  Flagelet,  1697 ;  oil  live  in  the  town  of  Lynn,  in  Silvia,  or  The  Country  Burial, 
1831;  and  of  The  Bark  in  Tempest  tost,  in  Robin  Hood,  1730.  The  last  name  is 
from  the  song  adapted  to  it  in  Silvia. 

There  is  a  variety  of  ballads  extant  that  were  sung  to  the  tune ;  for  instance, 
in  the  second  volume  of  the  Roxburghe  Collection  there  are  three,  printed  by 
Brooksby,  Deacon,  Blare,  and  Back. 

A  few  stanzas  of  one  of  these,  "  The  London  Lass's  Lamentation  :  or  Her  fear 
she  should  never  be  married/'  are  here  printed  with  the  music. 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES   II.    TO   WILLIAM    III. 
-x      With  mock  pathos. 


A    -    las !  I     am    in       a 


rage,         And     bitterly  weep  and     cry, 


£=t 


£ 


585 


Be  - 


Hf^-^ 


cause    I'm     nine -teen  years  of   age,          Yet      cannot  be      mar-ried,  not     I. 

^-± 


$ 


--? 


* 


Mine  eyes  do  like  fountains  flow, 

As  I  on  my  pillow  lie, 
There's  none  know  what  I  undergo, 

Yet  cannot  be  married,  not  I. 
My  father  is  grey  and  old, 

And,  surely,  ere  long  will  die, 
And  though  he'll  leave  me  all  his  gold, 

Yet  cannot  be  married,  not  I. 


In  silks  I  am  still  array 'd, 

And  ev'ry  new  fashion  buy, 
Because  I'm  so  loth  to  die  an  old  maid, 

Yet  cannot  be  married,  not  I. 
The  gold  which  I  have  in  store, 

I  value  no  more  than  clay, 
I'd  give  it  all,  and  ten  times  more, 

So  1  might  be  married  to-day. 


BARTHOLOMEW  FAIR. 

"  The  Countryman's  Ramble  through  Bartholomew  Fair "  is  contained  in 
Vol.  I.  of  Pills  to  purge  Melancholy,  1699  to  1714,  and  in  Vol.  III.  of  the  1719 
edition.  The  tune  in  The  Dancing  Master  of  1695,  and  in  subsequent  editions, 
also  in  The  Quaker's  Opera,  and  other  ballad-operas.  In  The  Dancing  Master 
it  is  entitled,  The  Whim,  or  Bartholomew  Fair. 

It  will  be  observed  that  the  rhythm  is  somewhat  peculiar,  each  phrase  consist- 
ing of  three  bars.  This  is  one  of  the  forms  common  to  English  jigs  and  hornpipes. 
Many  examples  of  similar  metre  might  be  adduced,  but  it  may  be  sufficient  to 
cite  "  A  Northern  Jigg,"  on  the  first  page  of  Apollo's  Banquet,  1690  or  1693. 

The  termination  of  each  phrase  with  the  same  note  three  times,  has  been  con- 
sidered as  a  characteristic  of  Irish  music,  but  there  are  many  old  English  tunes 
^hich  share  this  peculiarity.8-  I  imagine  it  to  have  arisen,  in  both  countries,  from 
the  music  keeping  time  with  the  steps  of  the  dance, — 

"  Why  should  or  you  or  we  so  much  forget 
The  season  in  ourselves,  as  not  to  make 
Use  of  our  youth  and  spirits,  to  awake 
The  nimble  hornpipe,  and  the  tambourine, 
And  mix  our  songs  and  dances  in  the  wood." 

Ben  Jon  son's  Sad  Shepherd. 


*  I  might  quote  some  of  the  earliest  copies  of  John, 
c  ime  kiss  me  now,  of  lam  the  Duke  of  Norfolk,  and  others. 
The  copy  of  John,  come  kiss  me  now  that  I  have  chosen, 


is  a  violin  version,  and  the  second  note  of  the  three  is 
there  taken,  usually,  the  octave  lower. 


586 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


The  hornpipe  concludes  with  three  beats  of  the  feet,  and  I  am  informed  by  those 
who  have  seen  dancing  among  the  factory  people  in  Lancashire,  that  in  their  dances 
they  tap  the  heels  together  three  times,  so  as  to  make  them  ring,  at  each  close. 
In  Ireland,  according  to  Dr.  Petrie,  "  in  general  the  floor  is  struck,  or  rather, 
tipped  lightly,  three  times  during  every  bar  of  the  tune"  of  the  "  hop-jig." 
Merrily. 


3: 


Ad  -  zooks !  che's    went  the       o    -  ther    day      to       Lon  -  don  town,  In 


J^-^hH 


ffiFft- 


Smithfield  such    gaeing,  such     thrust -ing  and  squeezing,    was          ne     -     ver  known. 


zit     -     ty  of    wood!    some     volks      do     call      it      Bar -tle-dom  Fair,      But 


che's 


nought  hut      kings     and         queens    live  there. 


In  gold  and  zilver,  zilk  and  velvet,  each  was  drest, 

A  Lord  in  bis  zattin,  was  husy  a  prating  among  the  rest, 

But  one  in  blue  jacket  did  come,  whome  some  do  Andrew  call, 

Adsheart,  talk'd  woundy  wittily  to  them  all. 

At  last,  cutzooks,  he  made  such  sport,  I  laugh 'd  aloud, 

The  rogue  heing  fluster'd,  he  flung  me  a  custard,  amidst  the  croud. 

The  volk  veil  a  laughing  at  me ;  and  then  the  vezen  said, 

"  Be  zure,  Ralph,  give  it  to  Doll,  the  dairy  maid." 

I  z  wallow 'd  the  affront,  but  I  would  stay  no  longer  there, 
I  thrust  and  I  scrambled,  till  further  I  rambled  into  the  Fair, 
Where  trumpets  and  bagpipes,  kettledrums,  fiddlers,  were  all  at  work, 
And  the  cooks  sung,  "  Here's  your  delicate  pig  and  pork." 


REIGN  OF   CHARLES   II.    TO   WILLIAM   III. 


587 


lie  then  went  to  see  the  tumbling  and  the  dancing,  and  ends  thus : — 

I  thrust  and  shov'd  along  as  well  as  ever  I  could, 
At  last  I  did  grovel  into  a  dark  hovel  where  drink  was  sold, 
They  brought  it  in  cans  which  cost  a  penny  a-piece,  adsheart ! 
I  'm  zure  twelve  ne'er  could  vill  a  country  quart. 

Che  went  to  draw  her  purse,  to  pay  for  their  beer, 

'  But  never  a  penny  was  left  of  my  money,  che'll  vow  and  zwear, 

They  took  my  hat  for  a  groat,  and  turn'd  me  out  o'  th'  door, 
Adswounds,  Ralph,  I  never  will  go  with  such  rogues  any  more. 

MAY  FAIR. 

This  is  sometimes  entitled  May  Fair,  and  sometimes,  0  Jenny,  Jenny,  where 
hast  thou  been  f  The  latter  is  from  a  song  by  D'Urfey,  entitled,  The  Willoughby 
Whim. 

It  is  contained  in  Pills  to  purge  Melancholy  (i.  169,  1719) ;  in  The  Beggars' 
Opera,  1728;  The  G-rub  Street  Opera,  1731;  The  Fashionable  Lady,  or  Harlequin's 
Opera,  1730  ;  and  in  some  editions  of  The  Dancing  Master. 

May  Fair  was  established  as  a  Fair,  "  in  the  fields  behind  Piccadilly,"  in  the 
time  of  Charles  II.  About  the  commencement  of  the  last  century,  the  ground 
was  partially  built  over,  and  among  other  erections  was  a  chapel,  that  became 
as  celebrated  for  clandestine  marriages  as  the  precincts  of  the  Fleet.  The 
registers  of  those  marriages  are  now  in  the  parish  church  of  St.  George, 
Hanover  Square. 

This  tune  was  probably  a  favorite  at  the  fairs.  The  words  that  were  written 
to  it  for  ballad-operas  possess  but  little  interest  apart  from  the  dramas.  I  have 
therefore  adapted  an  old  lullaby. 


S\  b  '  **                  i 

azucza         j 

I 

\(v\       '1      J  —  •"- 

_!        Jin         i       n     • 



$22     a    f      "J      J 

g        j     i  '  ^        j       g 

• 

J           _f_ 

d           *       *      T 

Gol     -      den 

slum    -    bers      kiss  '   your     eyes, 

9 
^ 

>miles         a    - 

»     -  —  •            ^~ 

*   ^                           o              f            ^ 

c 

^  "^  —             •                       "^ 

\              m        !     ^                                 i 

t  /  •[    I/    9  S               1 

r                             sazzs 

r>     '1      CH 

CS                   Ulo                    M                       1 

17-4.     g 

i         r      •    n         r 

-v            r>:          5? 

1         !            1         T 

>^                                ^ 

1         1         i 

J'^  1        1 

,        j       j 

!        ii        •  '    i*     r    (•    i 

«       J 

q    2  M    j- 

:  ;-J  :  H-e-H^-C—  I-N 

5— 

-  1  33  I 

-v/ake      you     when        you      rise, 


a  —  P 

i  E 

B—  J  E 

.   d                j—      J- 

e|  v  e 

i  »  

_J  ^  B_ 

•  

i           I 

I          , 

i 

1 

i 

i                                   | 

. 

J        J 

A       i 

0 

^-3 

«        J 

• 

/-d                                        c 

• 

•       i 

^                            * 

^^-J- 
cry,           And 

I        will 

S          ^5 

sing           a          lul    -    1; 

cs        • 
i       -       by. 

^  -m  ' 

__J  1:  

1  

^  T— 

-^      A 

sq  :  ^d  : 

Care  you  know  not,  therefore  sleep, 
While  I  o'er  you  watch  do  keep ; 


Sleep,  pretty  darlings,  do  not  cry, 
And  I  will  sing  a  lullaby. 


588 


ENGLISH    SONG    AND    BALLAD    MUSIC. 


THREE  MERRY   MEN   OF  KENT. 

In  the  ballad-opera  of  The  Jovial  Crew,  the  old  name  of  this  air  is  given  as 
Three  merry  men  of  Kent. 

In  Folly  in  print,  or  a  Book  of  Rymes,  1667,  is  a  song  entitled  "  Three  merry 
loys  of  Kent,"  to  the  tune  of  I  rode  from  England  into  France  ;  but  I  have  not 
found  "  Three  merry  men  of  Kent." 

The  words  sung  to  the  tune  in  The  Jovial  Crew,  form  the  fourth  stanza  of  a 
song  commencing,  "  He  that  will  not  merry  be." 

It  was  printed  on  broadsides,  and  in  several  of  the  collections  of  old  songs 
which  were  published  in  the  early  part  of  the  last  century.  The  three  first 
stanzas  are  here  copied  from  A  complete  Collection  of  old  and  new  English  and 
Scotch  Songs,  with  their  respective  tunes  prefixed,  Svo.,  1735,  i.  137  : — 


Ob                      t        i 

i  —  1  —  j  —  i 

—  —  ,  —  ^  —  p!      n_, 

>K  |J*  /  i  — 

~l  *  J  § 

- 

—  f 

—  J   J  J 

— 

i     J   J   H   J     ~  a~1 

J                m      j. 

4 

J     •        Z       *  fid 

v^ly                      1 

W 

lit 

•Tv^         ^^        | 

^j                 •        ^_      m         9       ~"m         m           m         •"*       m          _j_                   m 

He  that    will     not      merry,  merry  be,  With  a    ge  -  nerous    bowl     and 
May    he     in    Bride  -well        be        shut  up,  And      fast  bound       to          a 

r^-r-  ,  .  n  1—  .-»                                  —  1  1  

^T^T*  —  P~~ 

—  i  —  r  —  sf  —  j— 

-r 

l 

—  i 

i 

— 

-£  B  C  5  

5    E 

—  i  —  i  1  —  — 

- 

FTP       r 

=1  —  =  —  iH— 

""i    "•  p  r     r  j  " 

^-«-P—  -^~ 

-|r-     .             Li  *  <*~     p 

toast,                 ,          Let         him         be     mer   -  ry, 
post.     . 

H* 

mer  -  ry,  mer  -ry  there,    And 

-m                   —  p  r 

—  m  jT~T  ^1~P  

—  P  —  p  —  P  —  =  — 

~T  

P  1*  r  

L          1              L          1 

L 

L 

P                        P 

_  P 

P 

kj-  ^r-                   ,             ,               , 

r 

j     x_a_ji 

"Pfl 

J                       i 

P       m       J       P 

Mil 

i  • 

P 

M 

"IL.J                                   2 

J          JftJ 

* 

1      ! 

3                       1 

T»         •                   9 

•       P       fla          ! 

*               '          '     |       :g: 
we  will  be  merry,  merry    here  ; 

-1  -..    —  m    -  ,--..!  ...^ 

For  who  can  know  where  we  may     go    To  be 

i  P  r-HP  =  •  1—  «  1  1  • 

—    —  i5  ?  — 

_  

Z±Z±3 

~~i  —  — 
1 

1  p  p0  1  

_p  H  J  

l 

• 

III 

1                 *              * 

mer  -  ry  an  -  o  -  ther     year,   Brave       boys,  To  be     mer  -  ry  an  -  o  -  ther     year. 


T*3 


He  that  will  not  merry,  merry  be, 
And  take  his  glass  in  course, 

May  he  be  obliged  to  drink  small  beer, 
Ne'er  a  penny  in  his  purse. 

Let  him  be  merry,  merry  there, 


He  that  will  not  merry,  merry  be, 
With  a  company  of  jolly  boys, 

May  he  be  plagued  with  a  scolding  wife, 
To  confound  him  with  her  noise. 
Let,  him  be  merry,  fyc. 


REIGN    OF   CHARLES    II.    TO    WILLIAM    III.  589 

ROUND  AND  ROUND,  THE  MILL  GOES  ROUND. 

In  the  second  part  of  The  Dancing  Master,  1696  and  1698,  this  tune  is 
entitled,  The  happy  Miller.  It  is  printed  three  or  four  times  over  in  Pills  to 
purye  Melancholy,  under  different  names,  and  is  contained  in  several  of  the  ballad- 
operas. 

One  of  the  songs  in  the  Pills  is — 

'•  How  happy's  the  mortal  that  lives  by  his  mill, 
That  depends  on  his  own,  not  on  Fortune's  wheel ; 
By  the  sleight  of  his  hand,  and  the  strength  of  his  back, 
How  merrily  his  mill  goes,  clack,  clack,  clack. 

How  merrily,  &c. 

If  his  wife  proves  a  scold,  as  too  often  'tis  seen, 
For  she  may  be  a  scold,  sing  God  bless  the  Queen ; 
With  his  hand  to  the  mill,  and  his  shoulder  to  the  sack, 
He  drowns  all  discord  with  the  merry  clack,  clack,  clack. 
He  drowns  all  discord,"  &c. 

There  must  be  another  Miller's  Song,  which  I  have  not  found,  as  the  words, 
"  Bound  and  round,  the  mill  goes  round,"  do  not  occur  in  the  above. 

Another  of  the  songs  is  "  The  Jovial  Cobbler  of  Saint  Helen's.  Tune  of  Mill 
gots  clack."  (Pills,  iii.  151,  1707.) 

"  I  am  a  jovial  cobbler,  bold  and  brave, 
And,  as  for  employment,  enough  I  have 
For  to  keep  jogging  my  hammer  and  my  awl, 
Whilst  I  sit  singing  and  whistling  in  my  stall. 

But  there's  Dick  the  carman,  and  Hodge,  who  drives  the  dray 

For  sixteen  or  eighteen  pence  a  day, 

They  slave  in  the  dirt,  whilst  I,  with  my  awl, 

Do  get  more  money  sitting,  singing,  whistling  in  my  stall. 

And  there's  Tom  the  porter,  companion  of  the  pot, 
Who  stands  in  the  street,  with  his  rope  and  knot, 
Waiting  in  a  corner  to  hear  who  will  him  call, 
Whilst  I  am  getting  money,  money,  money  in  my  stall. 

And  there's  the  jolly  broom-man,  his  bread  for  to  get, 
Cries  "  Brooms  "  up  and  down  in  the  open  street, 
And  one  cries  "  Broken  glasses,  though  never  so  small," 
Whilst  I  am  getting  money,  money,  money  in  my  stall. 

And  there  is  a  gang  of  poor  smutty  souls, 
WTio  trudge  up  and  down,  to  cry  "  Small  coals," 
With  a  sack  on  their  back,  at  the  door  stand  and  call, 
Whilst  I  am  getting  money,  money,  money  in  my  stall. 

And  others  there  are  with  another  note, 
Who  cry  up  and  down  "  An  old  suit  or  coat," 
And  perhaps,  on  some  days,  they  get  nothing  at  all, 
WThilst  I  sit  singing,  getting  money,  money  in  my  stall. 


590  ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD    MUSIC. 

And  there's  the  jolly  cooper,  with  hoops  at  his  back, 

Who  trudgeth  up  and  down  to  see  who  lack 

Their  casks  to  be  made  tight,  with  hoops  great  and  small, 

Whilst  I  sit  singing,  getting  money,  &c. 
And  there's  a  jolly  tinker,  who  loves  a  bonny  lass, 
Who  trudges  up  and  down  to  mend  old  brass, 
With  his  long  smutty  pouch,  to  force  holes  withal, 

Whilst  I  sit,  &c. 

And  there  is  another,  call'd  old  Tommy  Terrah, 
Who,  up  and  down  the  city,  does  drive  with  a  barrow, 
To  try  to  sell  his  fruit  to  great  and  to  small, 

Whilst  I  sit,  &c. 

And  there  are  the  blind,  and  the  lame  with  wooden  leg, 
Who,  up  and  down  the  city,  are  forc'd  to  beg : 
They  get  crumbs  of  comfort,  the  which  are  but  small, 

Whilst  I  sit,  &c. 

And  there's  a  gang  of  wenches,  who  oysters  do  sell, 
And  then  Powder  Moll,  with  her  scent-sweet  smell : 
She  trudges  up  and  down  with  powder  and  with  ball, 

Whilst  I  sit,  &c. 

And  there  are  jovial  girls  with  their  milking  pails, 
Who  trudge  up  and  down,  with  their  draggle-tails 
Flip-flapping  at  their  heels;  for  customers  they  call, 

Whilst  I  sit,  &c. 

These  are  the  gang  who  do  take  great  pain, 
And  it  is  these  who  me  maintain, 
But  when  it  blows  and  rains,  I  do  pity  them  all, 
To  see  them  trudge  about,  while  I  am  in  my  stall. 

And  there  are  many  more  who  slave  and  toil, 
Their  living  to  get,  but  it's  not  worth  while 
To  mention  tliem  all ;  so  I'll  sing  in  my  stall, 
I  am  the  happiest  mortal,  mortal  of  them  all." 

The  third,  in  the  Pills,  is  "  The  jolly  Sailor's  Resolution."  (vi.  41.)     It  is  a 
long  ballad  of  fourteen  stanzas,  relating  how  the  sailor  had  been  well  received  by 
his  hostess,  at  Limehouse,  when  he  had  "  abundance  of  gold,"  and  was  to  have 
married  her  daughter ;    and  how  the  daughter  was  coy,  and  the  mother  handed 
him  over  to  a  press-gang,  as  soon  as  it  was  exhausted.     Now,  having  replenished 
his  store,  his  resolution  is  to  forsake  the  "  canting  crew,"  who  were  again  begin- 
ning to  flatter  him,  and  to  marry  another.     He  begins  thus : — 
"  That  I  am  a  sailor,  'tis  very  well  known, 
And  never,  as  yet,  had  a  wife  of  my  own  ; 
But  now  I'm  resolv'd  to  marry  if  I  can, 
To  show  myself  a  jolly,  jolly,  brisk  young  man." 

There  are  several  copies  of  the  above,  and  it  has  been  reprinted  in  Halli  well's 
Early  Naval  Ballads  of  England. 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES   II.   TO  WILLIAM   III. 


591 


The  following  is  from  the  ballad-opera  of  The  Jovial  Crew : — 

Jovially. 


We'll  gladden  our  hearts  with  the  best  of  our  cheer,  Our   spi-rits  we'll  raise  with  his 


^ 

i  ,     d     1—  I 

||     i    j    J    J      J      1 

L     ^      •      ^-T 

hor( 

1 

^Hh^ 

nir's  strong  beer  ;  Re 

k^-J  H  r 

gard  -  less   of  cares  that  the 

4d  —  P  —  ^"^ 

mor-row  may  rear,     We'll 

i 

ss  

9  

^  1 

1  

,  —  P  — 

-^       1  1 

1  1 

" 

•  —  1  4t«  

CHORUS. 


make  this  the  merriest  night  of  the  year,  We'll  make  this  the   merriest  night  of  the  year. 

0- 


Nor  sorrow,  nor  pain,  amongst  us  shall  be  found, 
To  our  master's  good  health  shall  the  cup  be  crown'd  : 
That  long  he  may  live,  and  in  bliss  may  abound, 
Shall  be  ev'ry  man's  wish,  while  the  bowl  goes  round. 
Chorus.    Shall  be  ev'ry  man's  wish,  &c. 

I  OFTEN  FOR  MY  JENNY  STROVE. 

This  is  contained  in  book  iii.  of  The  Banquet  of  Music,  consisting  of  "  songs 
sung  at  the  Court  and  theatres,"  1689 ;  in  Apollo's  Banquet,  1690 ;  in  The 
Dancing  Master,  from  1695  ;  in  all  editions  of  Pills  to  purge  Melancholy;  and  in 
The  Jovial  Crew,  and  other  ballad-operas. 

One  of  the  ballads  sung  to  the  air,  entitled  Cupid's  Revenge,  is  almost  a  para- 
phrase of  King  Cophetua  and  The  Beggar  Maid, — alluded  to  by  Shakespeare, 
and  reprinted  by  Percy  in  the  Reliques.  "  Cupid's  Revenge "  is  contained  in 
Old  Ballads,  i.  138,  8vo.,  1723,  and  in  Evans'  Old  Ballads,  ii.  361, 1810.  Evans, 
as  usual,  omits  the  name  of  the  tune.  It  commences  thus  : — 
"  A  king  once  reign'd  beyond  the  seas, 

As  we  in  ancient  stories  find, 
Whom  no  fair  face  could  ever  please  : 

He  cared  not  for  womankind. 
He  despis'd  the  sweetest  beauty, 
And  the  greatest  fortune  too  ; 
At  length  he  married  to  a  beggar  ; 
See  what  Cupid's  dart  can  do,"  &c. 


592 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD  MUSIC. 


There  are  several  black-letter  ballads  to  the  tune  in  the  Roxburghe  and  Douce 
Collections,  such  as  "  The  love-sick  Serving  Man ;  showing  how  he  was  wounded 
with  the  charms  of  a  young  lady,  and  did  not  dare  to  reveal  his  mind"  (Rox.,  ii. 
299)  ;  "  The  old  Miser  slighted"  (Rox.,  ii.  387)  ;  &c. 

The  original  words,  which  are  in  The  Banquet  of  Music,  and  in  the  Pills,  are 
here  reprinted  with  the  music. 
Gracefully. 


-frb-f-f 

—  s~ 

.^1 

1         ,       s  J     I 

yM  ^ 

i 

of     -      ten    for      my 

-•=~        -^-  . 

Jen  -  ny  strove, 

T^"TH 

Ey'd  her,    tried  her, 

'  }*    h     P 

s  —  I  — 

—  1  J  —  ;  —  - 

.    \\  k-Q  —  IS 

—  1                                  * 

EiEEEE: 

-M  :  P  ,  

j,        Ize  have  n( 


yet  ca'nt  prove  So  lucky  to  find   her       pi    -  ty  move 


no   re-ward  for  love. 

J- 


If    thou  wouldstbut       think   on   me,    And     now    for  -  sake  thy      cru  -   el  -  ty, 


I     for  ev-er  could     be,    should  be,   would     be      Join'd   to  none ,  but      on  -  ly  thee. 

-I 


im 


••*=*=£= 


r  '  'j-  - 


When  first  I  saw  thy  lovely  charms, 
I  kiss'd  thee,  wish'd  thee  in  my  arms  ; 
I  often  vow'd  and  still  protest 
'Tis  Joan  alone  that  I  love  best. 


I  have  gotten  twenty  pounds, 
My  father's  house,  and  all  his  grounds, 
And  for  ever  would  be,  should  be,  could  be 
Join'd  with  none,  but  only  thee. 


LADIES  OF  LONDON,  BOTH  WEALTHY  AND  FAIR. 

The  tune  is  in  The  Dancing  Master  of  1690,  and  in  subsequent  editions ;  in 
Apollo's  Banquet,  1690;  in  all  editions  of  Pills  to  purge  Melancholy ;  and  in  many 
ballad-operas.  It  is  sometimes  entitled  London  Ladies,  instead  of  Ladies  of 
London. 

A  black-letter  copy  of  the  ballad  is  in  the  Roxburghe  Collection,  ii.  5,  printed 


REIGN    OF   CHARLES    II.    TO    WILLIAM    III. 


593 


for  J .  Back,  on  London  Bridge,  and  entitled  "  Advice  to  the  Ladies  of  London 
in  the  choice  of  their  husbands :  to  an  excellent  new  Court  tune." 
The  following  were  also  sung  to  it: — 

"  Advice  to  the  Ladies  of  London  to  forsake  their  fantastical  top-knots,  since  they 
are  become  so  common  with  Billingsgate  women,  and  the  wenches  that  cry  kitchen 
stuff,"  &c.     To  the  tune  of  Ye  Ladies  of  London:"  beginning— 
"  Now  you  young  females  that  follow  the  mode." 
"  The  Country  Maiden's  Lamentation :  "  beginning — 

"  There  came  up  a  lass  from  a  country  town, 

Intending  to  live  in  the  city, 
In  steeple-crown  hat,  and  a  paragon  gown, 

Who  thought  herself  wondrous  pretty. 
Her  petticoat  serge ;  her  stockings  were  green,"  &c. 

The  two  last  are  in  the  Douce  Collection.     In  the  Roxburghe,  ii.  101,  is — 
"  A  country  gentleman  came  up  to  town, 

To  taste  the  delights  of  the  city, 
Who  had  to  his  servant  a  jocular  clown, 

Accounted  to  be  very  witty,"  &c. 
There  are  several  more  in  the  same  volume.     See  pages  97,  444,  519,  and  530. 

Gracefully.  ^^^ 

_X_u. ^      »»^ , fc*. 1 „ — i^Q- 


-H- 


i 


Ladies  of  London,  both  wealthy  and  fair,  Whom  ev'rytown  fop  is  pur-su-  ing, 


Pniy  of  yourselves  and  your    purses  take  care,  The  greatest  deceit  lies  in      woo  -  ing. 


From  the  first  rank  of  the  beaux  esprits,  Their       vices    I    here  will  dis  -  cov    -     er, 


fc 


to  the  bas-est  me  -  chanic     de-gree,  That  so  you  may  choose  out  a     lov  -  er. 


«       *        i m     _m     n ^ 


594 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


THERE  WAS  AN  OLD  WOMAN  LIV'D  UNDER  A  HILL. 

This  is  contained  in  all  the  editions  of  Pills  to  purge  Melancholy,  and  the 
tune  introduced  in  The  Jovial  Grew,  and  other  ballad-operas. 
The  following  words  are  from  The  Jovial  Crew  : — 


There  was     a      maid  went  to    the  mill,  Sing  trol  -  ly,  lol  -  ly,    lol-  ly,  lol-ly  lo,  The 


^np"77T^p=ifr^ 


CHORUS. 


mill  tura'd  round,  but  the  maid  stood  still,      Oh,  Oh,  ho !     Oh,  Oh,  ho !  Oh,  Oh,  ho !  did  she  so  ? 

cres /I 


Fpf  if  f  pjtmm 


3=S 


The  miller  he  kiss'd  her ;  away  she  went, 

Sing  trolly,  lolly,  lolly,  lolly  lo ; 
The  maid  was  well  pleas'd,  and  the  miller  content, 

Oh  ho !  Oh  ho !   Oh  ho !  was  it  so  ? 

He  danc'd  and  he  sung,  while  the  mill  went  clack ; 

Sing  trolly,  lolly,  lolly,  lolly  lo ; 
And  he  cherish'd  his  heart  with  a  cup  of  old  sack, 

Oh  ho!  Oh  ho!  Oh  ho!  did  he  so  ? 

THE  COBBLERS'  HORNPIPE. 

From  The  Dancing  Master  of  1701,  and  contained  in  subsequent  editions ; 
in  vol.  i.  of  Walsh's  Oompleat  Country  Dancing  Master. 


also 


gta-Trrrpa  •!  i  •;  j  i 

V  V     •?          J:     _i    J:          •*•   -il-     -*-         -*-    -f     -i- 


aU  mu  IH    i    ij  M 

•N-^  -^    -*-    ^3    J      *   *     ^      ^   ^    * 


REIGN   OF  CHARLES   II.    TO  WILLIAM   III. 


595 


NOBE'S  MAGGOT  [WHIM  OR  FANCY]. 

In  The  Dancing  Master  of  1703,  this  is  entitled  Nobe's  Maggot.  In  The  Devil 
to  Pay  another  version  is  named  There  was  a  maid  in  the  West. 

There  are  many  tunes  of  this  class,  closely  resembling  each  other  in  character, 
and  sometimes  in  actual  notes.  I  think  them  all  to  be  hornpipes  or  jigs. 

Not  having  found  the  words  of  "  There  was  a  maid  in  the  "West,"  I  have 
adapted  a  song  in  Round  about  our  Coal-fire,  or  Christmas  Entertainments, 
4th  edit.,  1734. 

Gaily. 


1^^^-^ 

O      you  mer  -  ry  souls,  Christ-mas  is      a    coming,  We  shall  have  flow-ing  bowls, 


II 


Dancing,  pip- ing,  drumming, 


/a-pon  and    goose,  likewise     Brawn  and  a  dish     of     stur  -    geon. 


1 

*   . 

.     f  .. 

• 

Then,  for  your  Christmas-box, 

Sweet  plum-cakes,  and  money, 
Delicate  Holland  smocks, 

Kisses  sweet  as  honey. 
Hey  for  the  Christmas  ball, 

Where  we  shall  be  jolly, 
Coupling  short  and  tall, 

Kate,  Dick,  Ralph,  and  Molly. 


Then  to  the  hop  we'll  go, 

Where  we'll  jig,  and  caper 
Cuckolds  all  a  row  ; 

Will  shall  pay  the  scraper  : 
Hodge  shall  dance  with  Prue, 

Keeping  time  with  kisses  ; 
We'll  have  a  jovial  crew 

Of  sweet  and  smiling  misses. 


THERE  WAS  A  PRETTY  LASS,  AND  A  TENANT  OF  MY  OWN. 
This  ballad  is  printed  on  broadsides  with  music,  under  the  title  of  The  con- 
descending Lass.  The  air  was  extremely  popular,  and  introduced  into  the 
following  ballad  operas  :  The  Beggars'1  Wedding  ;  The  Jovial  Crew  ;  The  G-enerous 
Freemason ;  Robin  Hood ;  The  Livery  Hake  ;  The  Lover  his  own  Rival ;  The 
Court  Legacy ;  and  The  Grub  Street  Opera. 

It  is  sometimes  entitled,  A  Tenant  of  my  mvn  ;  and  sometimes,  1  had  a  pretty 
girl  and  a  tenant,  &c. 

2  Q 


596 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


Among  the  songs  which  were  written  to  it,  and  attained  popularity,  are,  "  Sure 
marriage  is  a  fine  thing,"  from  The  Beggars'  Wedding  (reprinted  in  vol.  v.  of 
Watts's  Musical  Miscellany,  1731),  and — 

"  I'm  a  bold  recruiting  sargeant, 

From  London  I  am  come." 

The  following  song  on  the  Italian  Opera  is  from  The  Livery  Ralce,  1733.  It 
shews  that  the  exclusive  patronage  of  foreign  singers  by  the  English  aristocracy 
is  by  no  means  a  new  national  peculiarity.  The  fashion  has  become  so  old  that 
we  may  almost  hope  for  a  change. 

Lightly,  and  in  moderate  time. 


The  I  -  ta-lian  nymphs  and  swains  That  a-  dorn  the    op  -  era  stage,  With  their 
How  we   die   up   -  on  their  strains,  They  so    sweet -ly     do     en  -  gage,  With  their 


fal      lal      la,      Fa  la     la  la  la  la    la.         n»    •      *       *       ••       •,        * 
fal      lal       la,      Fa  la     la  la  la  la    la..-'  Their    ha    ha    ha    ha    ha' 


With    - 


4=t- 

—j  ;  J5- 

P—  1  1  
1—  J 

•    J         J      J        1- 

-thH-i 


-out  a  grain  of  sense,    Has      mol -li-fiedourbrains,Andwe'refobb'doutofourpenceBytheir 


•     *     • 


fal     lal     la,    Fa  la     la  la   la  la    la,  By  their  fal    lal     la,       la     la  la  la    la  la 


But  I  hope  the  time  will  come,  when  their  favourers  will  find, 
With  their  fal,  lal,  la;  fa,  la  la,  la  la,  la, 

They  have  paid  too  great  a  sum  to  Italian  pipes  for  wind, 
With  their  fal,  lal,  la ;  fa,  la  la,  la  la,  la. 

When  English  wit  again,  and  merit  too  shall  thrive, 

And  men  of  fortune  to  support  that  wit  and  merit  strive, 
Without  ha,  ha,  ha,  &c. 


REIGN  OF   CHARLES  II.    TO  WILLIAM   III. 


597 


COME,  AND  LISTEN  TO  MY  DITTY. 

The  old  sea  song,  Come,  and  listen  to  my  ditty,  or  The  Sailor's  Com- 
plaint, is  to  be  found  in  The  Universal  Musician,  and  in  vol.  iv.  of  The  British 
Musical  Miscellany,  published  by  Walsh.  The  air  is  now  commonly  known  as 
"  Cease,  rude  Boreas,"  from  a  song  which,  according  to  Ritson  and  others,  was 
written  by  George  Alexander  Stevens.  It  is  an  amplification  of  a  "  Marine 
Modley"  in  Stevens's  Songs,  Comic  and  Satyrical,  Oxford,  1772. 

En  the  ballad-opera  of  Silvia,  or  the  Country  Burial,  printed  in  1731,  the  song, 
"  On  some  rock,  by  seas  surrounded,"  is  adapted  to  the  tune,  and  the  old  name 
is  there  given  as  How  happy  are  young  lovers  ;  so,  also,  in  Rolin  Hood,  1730. 

The  title,  How  happy  are  young  lovers,  is  derived  from  the  ballad  of  The 
Distracted  Sailor ;  a  copy  of  which  is  in  the  Douce  Collection,  and  a  second  in 
that  of  Mr.  J.  M.  Gutch.  In  the  latter  copy  it  is  said  to  be  to  the  tune  of  What 
is  cfreater  joy  or  pleasure,  which  carries  the  air  a  stage  further  back. 

The  Distracted  Sailor  is  a  long  ballad  of  ten  stanzas.  The  following  are  the 
fir.st  two : — 


"  0  how  happy  are  young  lovers, 

When  they  courtship  first  begin ; 
How  their  faces  do  discover 

The  great  pleasure  they  are  in  ! 
When  one  seems  to  like  the  other, 

Hand  in  hand  these  lovers  move, 
And  with  kisses  they  do  smother, 

While  they  prattle  tales  of  love. 


Just  so  Billy,  the  sailor,  courted 
Molly,  and  she  was  mostly  kind  ; 

For  they  oft  had  kiss'd  and  sported, 
Each  persuaded  was  in  mind. 

She  consented  for  to  have  him, 
He  made  vows  to  her  again  ; 

He  would  wed,  if  she'd  not  leave  him, 


When  he  did  return  from  Spain,"  <fcc. 

Many  other  sea-songs  were  sung  to  this  air.  Among  them,  Glover's  ballad  of 
Hosier's  Crhost  (commencing,  "As  near  Portobello  lying"),  and  Admiral 
Vtrnon's  Answer  to  Admiral  Hosier's  G-host, — "  Hosier !  with  indignant  sorrow." 
These  are  reprinted  in  HalliwelPs  Early  Naval  Ballads  of  England. 

The  following  is  The  Sailor's  Complaint : — 


"  Oome,  and  listen  to  my  ditty, 

All  ye  jolly  hearts  of  gold ; 
Lend  a  brother  Tar  your  pity, 

Who  was  once  so  stout  and  bold. 
But  the  arrows  of  Cupid, 

Alas  !  have  made  me  rue  ; 
Sure,  true  love  was  ne'er  so  treated, 

As  am  I  by  scornful  Sue. 

When  I  landed  first  at  Dover, 

She  appear'd  a  goddess  bright ; 
From  foreign  parts  I  was  just  come  over, 

And  was  struck  with  so  fair  a  sight. 
On  shore  pretty  Sukey  walked, 

Near  to  where  our  frigate  lay, 
And  altho'  so  near  the  landing, 

I,  alas  I  was  cast  away. 


When  first  I  hail'd  my  pretty  creature, 

The  delight  of  land  and  sea, 
No  man  ever  saw  a  sweeter, 

I'd  have  kept  her  company  ; 
I'd  have  fain  made  her  my  true  love, 

For  better,  or  for  worse ; 
But  alas  !  I  cou'd  not  compass  her, 

For  to  steer  the  marriage  course. 

Once,  no  greater  joy  and  pleasure 

Could  have  come  into  my  mind, 
Than  to  see  the  bold  Defiance 

Sailing  right  before  the  wind, 
O'er  the  white  waves  as  she  danced, 

And  her  colours  gaily  flew : 
But  that  was  not  half  so  charming 

As  the  trim  of  lovely  Sue. 


598 


ENGLISH   SONG  AND  BALLAD   MUSIC. 


On  a  rocky  coast  I've  driven, 

Where  the  stormy  winds  do  rise, 
Where  the  rolling  mountain  billows 

Lift  a  vessel  to  the  skies  : 
But  from  land,  or  from  the  ocean, 

Little  dread  I  ever  knew, 
When  compared  to  the  dangers 

In  the  frowns  of  scornful  Sue- 


Long  I  wonder'd  why  my  jewel 

Had  the  heart  to  use  me  so, 
Till  I  found,  by  often  sounding, 

She'd  another  love  in  tow : 
So  farewell,  hard-hearted  Sukey, 

I'll  my  fortune  seek  at  sea, 
And  try  in  a  more  friendly  latitude, 

Since  in  yours  I  cannot  be." 


The  descriptive  song  of  "  The  Storm,"  or  "  Cease,  rude  Boreas,"  is  printed  in 
so  many  collections  (in  Ritson's  English  Songs,  in  the  Rev.  James  Plumtre's 
Collection,  in  The  Universal  Songster,  &c.)  that  it  may  suffice  here  to  republish 
the  first  stanza  with  the  tune. 

Rather  slowly  and  with  expression. 


i 


W   4    «-» 


Efe 


Cease,  rude  Bo   -   reas,  blust'ring  rai-ler !  List,  ye  landsmen,  all  to   me  I 
Messmates,  hear       a     brother    sai-lor   Sing  the   dan-gers  of  the 

J1      J 


sea  : 


i 


i 


ps 


rr  h    (\r*m^$ 


From  bounding    bil  -    lows,  first    in          mo  -  tion     When  the     dis    -    tant  whirlwinds 


rise,  To  the  tern  -  pest  -  troubled       o-cean,  Where  the    seas      con-tend  with  skies 


^ 


CHESHIRE  ROUNDS. 

This  -is  contained  in  the  eleventh  and  subsequent  editions  of  The  Dancing 
Master,  in  the  first  volume  of  Walsh's  Compleat  Country  Dancing  Master,  in 
Polly,  and  other  ballad  operas. 

Mr.  George  Daniel,  in  his  Merry  England,  remarks  that  the  only  known  por- 
trait of  Dogget,  the  actor  (of  coat  and  badge  notoriety),  is  a  small  engraving 
representing  him  dancing  the  Cheshire  Round.  Mr.  Daniel  prints  one  of  Dogget' s 
play-bills,  issued  in  1691,  and  the  following,  from  other  bills  of  the  time  of 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES   II.    TO   WILLIAM   III. 


599 


William  III.,  shewing  how  popular  the  dance  then  was: — "  In  Bartholomew  Fair, 
at  the  Coach-house  on  the  pav'd  stones  at  Hosier-Lane  end,  you  will  see  a  Black 
that  dances  the  Cheshire  Rounds  to  the  admiration  of  all  spectators.9' — "  John 
Sleepe  now  keeps  the  Whelp  and  Bacon  in  Smithfield  Rounds,  where  are  to  be 
seen,  a  young  lad  that  dances  a  Cheshire  Round  to  the  admiration  of  all  people." 
A  third  and  similar  advertisement  was  issued  by  Michael  Root. 

Cheshire  Rounds  is  one  of  the  tunes  called  for  by  "  the  hobnailed  fellows"  in 
"  A  Second  Tale  of  a  Tub,"  8vo.,  1715. 

^Ti-, 


SHROPSHIKE  BOUNDS. 


From  the  second  volume  of  The  Dancing  Master,  and  the  second  volume  of 
Walsh's  Compleat  Country  Dancing  Master f 

.     Very  quick.  OH       _ 


^ 

/k  fr 

p  —  m  j—                     '  *  •  *  0  *  j     j   i  —  rag 

• 

^B—  • 

4H  P  —  f  E3  —  *-±-%  LJJ  l-i-J  —  J  j  j  ; 

J 

fy  f~    "f"     P  ,-m-    m      m      ^  f            m             »            ,  —  1  1  j  „— 

^~%" 

R--fc  —  t  —  T~T  —  F  '  F  r  •  —  •  —  J  —  H^~ 

4_|!     b  —  -        L      L     L  —    »          L  L  —  ^  —  =3  —  fl  —  S  —  :lt 

^ 

H== 

^r-Trrr1!    rr     -J-J-* 

=n  rf  h  n  i  «   1  *-^~  1  i  »  >,        j 

I^JJJIJJ      *f\       0           'I^-V-^H: 

33  1  i  1-  J  H  ,  1  ^~j    J    ^-fHi- 

IP 

n  'i  i  3  'J^=J==M  ;j;j* 

600 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


GREENWICH  PARK;  OR,  COME,  SWEET  LASS. 

The  tune  of  Greenwich  Park  is  contained  in  Part  II.  of  The  Dancing  Master 
of  1698,  and  in  all  subsequent  editions. 

In.  the  first  edition  of  The  Beggars'  Opera  the  air  is  named  u  Come,  sweet 
Lass,"  from  the  first  line  of  a  song  which,  when  printed  in  ballad  form,  is  some- 
times entitled  "  Slighted  Jockey  :  or  Coy  Moggy's  unspeakable  Cruelty."  The 
words  of  that  song  are  contained  in  The  Compkat  Academy  of  Complements,  1685, 
and  in  several  other  collections.  The  first  two  stanzas  are  printed  with  the  air  in 
all  the  editions  of  Pitts  to  purge  Melancholy.  It  is  here  presented  entire. 


Lightly  and  cheerfully. 


Come,  sweet     lass !    This     bon-  ny   wea-ther   Let's  to  -  ge-ther ;  Come,    sweet 


*)= 


lass !     Let's   trip    it      on   the      grass :      Ev'    -    ry  -  where        Poor  Jock-ey  seeks  his 


^=F^tf 


f^=Ffr 


«=±=J 


P  —  -•  m— 

~~^~\ 

1  —  1        1        !        -|~1 

r  —  i  —  i 

=r=* 

dear,      And 

P      •      • 

S--pZ£_ 

L^-^ 

you    ap-pea 

r,  He 

sees   no   beau  -  ty 

here. 

un     -      less 

p 

r      ~.    r 

r          * 

•                           m 

1 

^          I 

L 

r  - 

c 

1               J 

P       , 

1            L 

L 

• 

r 

On  our  green 
The  loons  are  sporting, 
Piping,  courting, 

On  our  green 

The  blithest  lads  are  seen  ; 
There,  all  day, 
Our  lasses  dance  and  play, 
And  every  one  is  gay, 
But  I,  when  you're  away. 

How  can  I 
Have  any  pleasure 
While  my  treasure 

Is  not  by  ? 

The  rural  harmony 


I'll  not  mind, 

But,  captive  like,  confin'd, 
I  lie  in  shades  behind, 
'Cause  Moggy  proves  unkind. 

There  is  none 
That  can  delight  me, 
If  you  slight  me  ; 

All  alone, 

I  ever  make  my  moan. 
Life's  a  pain 

Since  by  your  coy  disdain, 
Like  an  unhappy  swain, 
I  sigh  and  weep  in  vain. 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES   II.    TO   WILLIAM   III.  601 

I  could  be  Jemmy  can, 

Right  blythe  and  jolly  ;  With  pretty  Nancy 

Melancholy  Please  his  fancy  ; 
Ne'er  should  be  Jemmy  can, 

My  fatal  destiny,  Tho'  not  so  blythe  a  man, 

If  I  might  Have  his  will, 

But  have  my  love  in  sight,  Kiss  and  delight  her  still, 

Whose  angel-beauty  bright  While  I  on  each  green  hill, 

Was  ever  my  delight.  Weep  and  lament  my  fill. 

Have  I  not,  **                                  I'll  not  wear 

In  Moggy's  dances  The  wreath  of  willow ; 

Seen  those  glances,  Floramella, 

Which  have  shot,  Charming  fair, 

And,  like  a  fowler,  caught  Shall  ease  me  of  my  care  : 

My  poor  heart  ?  Who  can  tell, 

Yes,  and  I  feel  the  smart  But  she  may  please  as  well  1 

Of  Cupid's  fatal  dart,  No  longer  will  I  dwell 

Since  we  have  been  apart.  In  love's  tormenting  cell. 

HOBBY-HORSE   DANCE. 
"  For,  O,  for,  O,  the  hobby-horse  is  forgot." — Hamlet,  act  Hi.,  sc.  2. 

"At  Abbot's,  or  now  Paget's,  Bromley,"  says  Dr.  Plott,  "  they  had,  within 
memory,  a  sort  of  sport,  which  they  celebrated  at  Christmas  (on  New- Year  and 
Twelfth  Day),  called  The  Holly-Horse  Dance,  from  a  person  that  carried  the 
image  of  a  horse  between  his  legs,  made  of  thin  boards,  and  in  his  hand  a  bow 
and  arrow,  which,  passing  through  a  hole  in  the  bow,  and  stopping  upon  a  shoulder 
it  had  in  it,  he  made  a  snapping  noise  as  he  drew  it  to  and  fro,  keeping  time  with 
tho  musick.  With  this  man  danced  six  others.  .  .  .  They  danced  the  Hays,a  and 
other  country  dances.  To  this  Hobby-Horse  Dance  there  also  belonged  a  pot, 
which  was  kept  by  turns  by  four  or  five  of  the  chief  of  the  town,  whom  they 
called  Reeves,  who  pounded  cakes  and  ale  to  put  in  this  pot ;  all  people  who  had 
any  kindness  for  the  good  intent  of  the  institution  of  the  sport,  giving  pence 
a-jiece  for  themselves  and  families,  and  so  foreigners  too  that  came  to  see  it; 
with  which  money  (the  charge  of  the  cakes  and  ale  being  defrayed)  they  not 
only  repaired  their  church,  but  kept  their  poor  too  ;  which  charges  are  not  now 
perhaps  so  cheerfully  borne." — Natural  History  of  Staffordshire,  fol.,  1686,  p.  434, 

There  are  several  hobby-horse  dances  extant :  one  in  Musictfs  Delight  on  the 
Cithren,  1666,  in  Apollo's  Banquet,  1669  to  1693,  and  in  some  later  collections  ; 
a  second  in  Pills  to  purge  Melancholy,  i.  19,  1719 ;  a  third  in  the  Antidote  to 
Melancholy,  1719. 

In  the  Bagford  Collection,  there  is  a  ballad  to  the  first,  entitled  "  A  new  ballad 
of  a  famous  German  Prince  [Rupert]  and  a  renowned  English  Duke  [of  Albe- 
marle],  who,  on  St.  James's  Day,  1666,  fought  with  a  beast  with  seven  heads 
called  Provinces,  not  by  land,  but  by  water.  Not  to  be  said,  but  sung."  It 
begins  : —  "  There  happened  of  late  a  terrible  fray, 

Begun  upon  our  St.  James's  Day." 

•  The  Hay  is  described  by  Strutt  as  a  rustic  dance,  where  they  lay  hold  of  hands,  and  dance  round  in  a  ring. 


602 


ENGLISH   SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


To  the  second,  D'Urfey  wrote  the  song  commencing  "  Jolly  Roger  Twangdillo, 
of  Plowden  Hall ;"  and  to  the  third,  "  The  Yeoman  of  Kent,"  commencing — 
"  In  Kent,  I  hear,  there  lately  did  dwell 

Long  George,  a  yeoman  by  trade." 

The  last  (slightly  altered,  and  with  the  addition  of  tol  de  rol  at  the  end)  is 
the  tune  of  the  satirical  ballad  of  "  The  Vicar  and  Moses,"  beginning — 
"  At  the  sign  of  the  Horse,  old  Spintext,  of  course, 

At  night  took  his  pipe  and  his  pot ; " 

and,  before  that,  seems  to  have  served  for  a  siniflar  attack  upon  the  Reliques  ex- 
hibited by  the  Jesuits  at  the  Savoy  Chapel  in  the  Strand,  entitled  "  Religious 
Reliques  ;  or,  The  Sale  at  the  Savoy,  upon  the  Jesuits  breaking  up  their  School 
and  Chapel"  (1689).  The  following  is  the  first  stanza  : — 


"     juignuy  ana  ^neerjuiiy. 

j)  n      is    ;=q       is     |           |s—  \  —  r^ 

?—  y-  —  —  -    K.' 

—  1      |      1  —  |i|, 

—  m  —  d  —  J  J  — 

€j>-H-J— 

«—  3      *=*- 

=i= 

-*      J       ^    1 

H*—  *—  ^  •  *— 

f         ttri  

Last  Sunday,  by  clianee,  I  en  -  counter' 

V 

d  with  Prance,  That  man  of  upright  con-ver  - 

TJHr-isj  — 

~L.  ^  i  *(  

_u  

51*       • 

-f  =|  1  5j— 

A      I 

P          1 

r 

r 

w         \    J           3 

Who          told  me  such  news    That 


laugh  at  his  sad  De-cla   -     ration.    [Tol  de      rol,    de  rol,  tol  de  rol 


OF  ALL  THE  SIMPLE  THINGS  WE  DO. 

The  words  of  this  are  by  D'Urfey,  and  "  made  to  a  comical  tune  in  The 
Country  Wake"  The  play  of  The  Country  Wake  was  written  by  Dogget,  the 
actor,  who  bequeathed  the  annual  coat  and  badge  to  the  Thames  watermen.  It 
was  printed  in  1696. 

The  tune  is  in  the  second  volume  of  The  Dancing  Master,  and  was  introduced 
into  Ttie  Beggars'  Opera,  The  Generous  Freemason,  The  Patron,  and  An  Old  Man 
taught  Wisdom* 

D'Urfey's  song  is  printed  in  Pills,  i.  250,  1719;  and  in  Watts's  Musical 
Miscellany,  v.  108,  1731.  In  the  latter,  entitled  "Marriage;"  in  the  former, 
'<  The  Mouse-trap."  In  The  Dancing  Master,  "  Old  Hob,  or  The  Mouse-trap." 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES   II.    TO   WILLIAM   III. 


603 


Of        all      the  sim  -  pie      things    we    do,  To  rub      o  -  ver     a    whim-si  -  cal 


-* — - 


wm 


i 


5 


• 


life,       There's  no  one  fol-ly        is      so  true  As  that  ve-ry  bad  bargain,  a         wife. 


We're  just  like  a  mouse  in  a         trap,    .     .     Or      rat  that  is  caught  in   a        gin  ;       We 


^rr  ^j  iiJ  =p£ 


^S 


start     and  fret,  and     try     toes  -  cape,  And  rue  the  sad  hour  we  came  in. 


I  gam'd  and  drank,  and  play'd  the  fool, 

And  a  thousand  mad  frolicks  more  ; 
I  rov'd  and  rang'd,  despis'd  all  rule, 

But  I  never  was  married  before. 
Tlds  was  the  worst  plague  could  ensue, 

I'm  mew'd  in  a  smoky  house  ; 
I  used  to  tope  a  bottle  or  two, 

But  now  'tis  small  beer  with  my  spouse  ! 


My  darling  freedom  crown'd  my  joys, 

And  I  never  was  vex'd  in  my  way  ; 
If  now  I  cross  her  will,  her  voice 

Makes  my  lodging  too  hot  for  my  stay. 
Like  a  Fox  that  is  hamper'd,  in  vain 

I  fret  out  my  heart  and  soul, 
Walk  to  and  fro  the  length  of  my  chain, 

Then  am  forc'd  to  creep  into  my  hole. 


MAD  MOLL. 

There  are  two  versions  of  this  tune  in  The  Dancing  Master.  The  first  appeared, 
under  the  name  of  Mad  Moll,  in  Part  II.  of  the  edition  of  1698  ;  the  second, 
under  that  of  The  Virgin  Queen,  in  the  edition  of  1703.  Both  were  retained  in 
all  editions  issued  after  these  dates. 

Doan  Swift's  song,  "  Oh  !  my  Kitten,  my  Kitten ! "  was  written  to  the  second 
version,  which  Allan  Ramsay  (in  printing  the  song  in  the  fourth  volume  of  the 
Tea  Table  Miscellany,  1740),  calls  Yellow  Stockings. 


604 


ENGLISH   SONG  AND   BALLAD  MUSIC. 


"  Oh !  my  Kitten  ! "    was  also  printed  in  The  Trader's  Garland,  with    an 
"  Answer  from  the  Bishop  to  the  Dean,"  beginning— 
"  O  my  sweet  Jonathan,  Jonathan, 

O  my  sweet  Jonathan  Swifty  ;" 
and  "  The  Dean's  Answer  to  the  Bishop,"  to  the  same  tune. 

Mad  Moll  was  introduced  into  Gay's  ballad-opera  of  Polly,  and  is  mentioned 
in  the  popular  ballad  of  "Arthur  o'Bradley's  Wedding,"  written  by  a  Mr.  Taylor, 
early  in  the  present  century.  In  Momus  turned  Falulist,  1729,  instead  of  Mad 
Moll,  the  old  name  is  given  as  "  Shall  I  be  sick  for  love  ?  " 

Having  printed  The  Virgin  Queen,  or  Yellow  Stockings,  in  my  first  collection, 
the  earlier  version  is  now,  for  variety,  subjoined. 

Jigs  and  bagpipe  hornpipes  of  this  class  became  so  much  alike  towards  the  end 
of  the  seventeenth  and  early  part  of  the  eighteenth  centuries,  that  it  is  un- 
necessary to  multiply  specimens. 

The  first  stanza  of  "  Arthur  o'Bradley's  Wedding  "  is  printed  to  the  tune. 
It  will  be  found  entire  in  Songs  and  Ballads  of  the  Peasantry  of  England,  by 
J.  H.  Dixon. 


m^ 


Come,  neighbours,  and  lis-  ten    a  -while,  If        ev  -  er  you    wish     to  smile,   Or 
Of  a     lad       whose  fame  did  re-sound  Thro'    ev  -e-ry    village  and  town,  For 


i 


"'  p"*jj  —  1            — 

rn  —  i 

—  r*^J  j  J  J  r-H  K  — 

~^^  '  *  J  J 

hear   a  true  sto-  ry      of 
fun      or     fro  -  lie      or 

•  J  J 

old,  At  - 
whim,  None 

p  :  

^      '    J      *              '      J  '^-^- 

tend   to  what  I    now  un  -  fold       ,   •   And  his 
ev  -  er  was     e  -  qual   to    him,  • 

1  P  =  F  :||    i 

J—  1  



H=  —  F  r  —  ^IM— 

name  it  was    Ar  -  thur     of        Brad  -  ley,          O       rare    Ar  -  thur     of     Brad  -  ley ! 


Won-der-ful    Ar  -  thur      of    Brad  -  ley,  Sweet     Ar-thur  of       Brad  -ley,    O. 

J       . 


=£ 


REIGN   OF   CHARLES   II.    TO   WILLIAM   III. 


605 


PORTSMOUTH. 

This  tune  is  contained  in  the  eleventh  and  subsequent  editions  of  The  Dancing 
Master. 

I  have  not  succeeded  in  finding  the  words,  although  there  appears  but  little 
doubi;  of  its  having  been  a  ballad- tune, — perhaps  to  some  sailor's  parting  with 
his  love  at  Portsmouth. 

The  following  words  were  written  to  the  air  by  Mr.  John  Oxenford : — 

Moderate  time,  and  with  expression. 


The     dread  -  ed  hour,  my    dear      Love,  Comes   to        us     at       last,      Yet 


=3= 


I,       by      ling'  -  ring      here,       love,       Hold      the         mo     -     merits         fast. 


1 

In      spite     of    all     I'll    cher  -  ish  A       fix'd      and       last-  ing      joy, 


—^ 

—  rT>v-- 

I  i  1 

1  

1  

-£- 

dreai 

n  too    bright    to 

EF=|^ 

per      -    ish, 

1  i  

Th 

ne  w 

i  

11        not 

...    |.     , 

- 

troy. 

—  <d— 

:  ^1  

^=3—  i 

I  —  • 

' 

L    .   J_ 

—  J  

:     |        —  H 

Vain  thought !  the  moments  fly,  love,- 

All  are  nearly  gone  ; 
Alas  !  too  soon  shall  I,  love, 

Find  myself  alone. 
But  still  my  eyes  to  seek  thee 

Will  wildly  gaze  around  : 
Hard  heart,  will  nothing  break  thee  ? 

Art  with  iron  bound  ? 


Nay,  do  not  bid  me  hope,  love, — 

Hope  I  cannot  bear ; 
Nay,  rather  let  me  cope,  love, 

Boldly  with  despair. 
Should  thoughts  that  may  deceive  me 

Within  my  heart  be  nurs'd  ? 
No, — leave  me,  dearest — leave  me, 

Now  I  know  the  worst. 


606 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND    BALLAD   MUSIC. 


COURTIERS,  COURTIERS,  THINK  NOT  IN  SCORN. 

This  song  is  found  in  broadsides,  with  music,  about  the  date  of  1695.  The 
first  stanza  only  of  the  words  is  printed  in  the  New  Academy  of  Complements, 
1694  and  1713. 

Gracefully. 


3Mf^ 


Courtiers,  Courtiers,  think  not  in  scorn    If     poor  sil-ly  swains  in  love  should  be, 

.Ui £_, 


^Efi 


9 - 


Love  lies  hid       in 


rags 


all  torn,     As      well     as    in  silks  and     bra   -  ve  -  ry, 


P^-j 

•- 

__p_ 

•—  f  —  jj*—  —  f  — 

•  kTl 

F=f^      3E    ^=1 

^ 

And  the 

| 

be 





1    T  J  ' 

la 

r  j^  j  ^ 

ss  as  dear  As 

•  :  p  p  — 

J  .  ^  ^  —  3  —  i- 

he  that  hath   thou  -  sands 

—  {  5,  ?  •  1 

;ggar  doth     love        his 

.  •  — 

—  3  

— 

3E 

i  1  —  E 

E  ^^  M 

thou  -  sands,  thou  -   sands,    iTe  that  hath  thou  -  sands  pounds      a   year 


^ 


Content's  the  thing  that  mortals  doth  bless, 
And  better  far  than  a  golden  mine  ; 

In  Mary  I  the  world  possess, 
And  at  no  other's  lot  repine. 

Sweet  Mary  to  me  in  careless  hair 

Has  treasures  far  more  taking,  taking, 

Than  they  that  tow'rs  and  di'monds  wear. 


State  and  pomp  no  happiness  brings, 

A  lower  place  more  joys  doth  prove  ; 
For  Lords  and  Ladies,  Princes  and  Kings, 

With  all  on  a  level  are  in  love. 
And  pretty  brown  Mary,  making  hay, 

Hath  charms  as  killing,  killing,  killing, 
Always  as  killing  charms  as  they. 

NEW  WELLS. 

This  tune  is  contained  in  Walsh's  New  Country  Dancing  Master.  It  seems  to 
have  been  made  out  of  Come,  sweet  Lass,  ante  p.  600. 

There  were  formerly  several  places  of  public  amusement  called  New  Wells  in 
the  vicinity  of  London  :  New  Wells  at  Richmond,  1698  to  1760  ;  New  Wells  at 
Islington,  1712  to  1740  ;  New  Wells  "  near  the  London  Spaw,"  Clerkenwell, 
1739-40  ;  and  New  Wells  at  the  bottom  of  Leman  Street,  Goodman's  Fields. 


KEIGN   OF   CHARLES   II.    TO  WILLIAM   III. 


607 


Of  these  the  Wells  at  Islington  (sometimes  called  the  New  Tunbridge  Wells) 
seem  to  have  attained  the  highest  repute. 

"  In  1733,"  says  Mr.  George  Daniel,  "  their  Royal  Highnesses  the  Princesses 
Amelia  and  Caroline  frequented  them  in  the  summer  time,  for  the  pleasure  of 
drinking  the  waters.  They  have  furnished  a  subject  for  pamphlets,  plays,  songs, 
and  medical  treatises,  by  N.  Ward,  George  Colman  the  elder,  Bickham,  Dr.  Hugh 
Smith,  &c.  Nothing  now  remains  of  them  but  the  original  chalybeate  spring, 
which  is  still  preserved  in  an  obscure  nook."  (Merrie  England,  ii.  31.) 

Although  the  neighbourhood  is  now  "poverty-stricken  and  squalid,"  even 
within  the  memory  of  Mr.  Daniel  "beautiful  tea-gardens"  encompassed  the  site. 

The  tune  of  New  Wells  is  essentially  vocal,  and  is  probably  that  of  some 
favorite  song  which  was  sung  at  the  gardens.  The  name,  however,  gives  no  clue 
to  the  words,  and  I  have  not  met  with  it  under  any  other. 

The  following  lines  were  written  to  the  air  by  the  late  George  Macfarren : — 


Gracefully  and  smoothly. 


See     the     love-ly  rose,    Nature's  own     e    -    lect    -      ed,         Queen       of 


each  par-terre  Smiling  sweet  and      fair.       See     the      love-ly  rose,    cull'd  to     be    neg  - 


-     lect    -    ed,     Such       is      beau- ty— scarcely   worth          our 


care. 


Hark  !  yon  joyous  bird,  morning's  light  awakes  him  ; 

Warbling,  free  and  pure,  up  he  mounts  secure  r 
Hark  !  yon  joyous  bird — lo  !  a  shot  o'ertakes  him — 

Such  is  life — be  ours  more  calm  and  sure. 

Taste  this  crystal  stream,  oft  by  pilgrims  chosen, 
Born  of  summer  show'rs,  kiss'd  by  sweetest  flow'rs  : 

Taste  this  crystal  stream,  purer  still  when  frozen — 
Such  is  truth,  my  fair,  and  such  be  ours. 


608 


ENGLISH   SONG  AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


THE  DUSTY  MILLER. 

This  is  contained  in  the  first  volume  of  Walsh's  Compleat  Country  Dancing 
Master  and  in  The  Lady's  Banquet,  published  by  Walsh  ;  also  in  a  manuscript 
which  was  recently  in  the  possession  of  the  late  Andrew  Blaikie,  of  Paisley,  and 
there  entitled  Binntfs  Jigg. 

It  has  been  said  that  the  tune  of  The  Dusty  Miller  is  contained  in  Queen 
Elizabeth's  Virginal  Book,  but  I  believe  it  to  be  only  one  of  the  many  random 
assertions  that  have  been  made  about  the  contents  of  that  manuscript.  The 
Virginal  Book  contains  tunes  that  have  similar  accent  (such  as  The  Carman's 
Whistle),  but  after  turning  over  every  page,  I  found  no  Dusty  Miller. 

Cheerfully. 


f  f  i] 


ANGLO-SCOTTISH   SONGS.  609 


ANGLO-SCOTTISH    SONGS. 


BUFORE  closing  this  division  of  the  book,  it  may  be  desirable  to  devote  a  short 
space  to  the  subject  of  the  English  and  Anglo- Scottish  songs  and  tunes  which  are 
incorporated  in  collections  of  Scottish  music.  They  who  have  not  enquired  into 
the  subject  may  not  be  aware  that  many  of  the  songs  of  Allan  Ramsay,  Burns, 
and  other  Scotch  poets,  were  written  to  English  tunes,  and  that  those  tunes,  being 
now  known  by  the  names  of  their  songs,  pass  with  the  world  for  Scotch. 

Ritson  tells  us,  in  his  Historical  Essay  on  Scotch  Song,  that  "  the  vulgar 
language  of  the  lowland  Scots  was  always  called  English  by  their  own  writers 
till  a  late  period,"  and  that  "the  vulgar  toung  in  Scottis"  meant  Gaelic  or 
Erse.  The  quotations  he  adduces  carry  the  proof  down  to  the  first  half  of  the 
sixteenth  century;  but,  in  the  early  part  of  the  eighteenth,  this  use  of  the 
word  "  English  "  was  altogether  dropped,  and  "  Scots  Sangs  "  included  not  only 
songs  written  by  Scotchmen,  whether  in  the  lowland  dialect  or  in  English,  but 
also  the  meaning  was  extended  to  any  purely  English  songs  that  were  popular 
in  Scotland.  As  the  works  of  Scotch  poets  are  now  sometimes  included  under 
the  1  ead  of  English  literature,  where  the  preponderance  is  English,  so  Allan 
Ramsay  entitled  his  Tea  Table  Miscellany  "  a  collection  of  Scots  Sangs,"  the 
preponderance  in  the  two  first  volumes  (of  which  the  work  originally  consisted) 
being  Scotch.  Although  it  was  soon  extended  to  three  volumes,  and  the  third 
was  entirely  English,  still  the  exclusive  title  of  "  Scots  Sangs "  was  retained. 
In  1740  a  fourth  was  added,  partly  consisting  of  Scotch  and  partly  of 
English.  In  this  are  twenty- one  songs  by  Gay,  from  The  Beggars'  Opera,  ranged 
consecutively. 

It  would  have  been  a  great  assistance  to  after-enquiry  if  Ramsay  had  confined 
his  selection  to  songs  by  Scotch  authors,  instead  of  thus  mixing  up  those  of  the 
two  countries ;  and  it  would  have  been  more  easy  to  separate  the  respective  tunes 
if  he  had  in  all  cases  given  the  names  by  which  they  were  previously  known. 
How  far  this  was  required  to  divide  the  English  from  the  Scotch  will  be  best 
exemplified  by  supplying  the  names  of  the  tunes  to  half  a  dozen  of  Ramsay's 
own  tongs. 

"  My  mither's  ay  glowran  o'er  me,"  to  the  country  dance  of  A  Health  to 
Betty;  "  The  maltman  comes  on  Monday,"  to  the  tune  of  Roger  de  Coverley ; 
"  Pe^;gy,  I  must  love  thee,"  to  the  tune  of  The  Deel  assist  the  plotting  Whigs  f 

a  "T  ie  Deel  assist  the  plotting  Whigs  "  is  the  first  line  and  the  music  alone  in  Mustek's  Handmaid,  Part  II.,  1689, 

of  "Th  ^  Whigs'  lamentable  condition  ;  or,  The  Royalists'  as  "a  Scotch  tune,"  composed  by  Purcell.    In  Pills  to 

resolution:    To  a  pleasant  new  tune."    The  words  and  purge  Melancholy,  Vol.  I.,  1699  to  1714,  the  song  of  "Tom 

music  are  contained  in  180  Loyal  Songs,  1685  and  1694,  and  Will  were  Shepherd  Swains"  is  adapted  to  the  air. 


610  ANGLO-SCOTTISH   SONGS. 

composed  by  Purcell ;  "  The  bonny  grey-ey'd  morn  begins  to  peep,"  to  the  tune 
of  "an  excellent  new  Play-house  song,  call'd  The  bonny  grey  etfd  morn,  or  Jockey 
roused  with  love"  composed  by  Jeremiah  Clark ;  "  Corn  riggs  are  bonny,"  to  the 
tune  of  Sawney  was  tall  and  of  noble  race,  a  song  in  D'Urfey's  play,  The  Virtuous 
Wife;  * Nanny  0,"  to  the  tune  of  the  English  ballad  of  Nanny  0.* 

If  this  kind  of  scrutiny  were  carried  through  the  songs  in  the  Tea  Table 
Miscellany,  in  Thomson's  Orpheus  Oaledonius,  or  any  other  collection,  the  bulk  of 
Scottish  music  would  be  sensibly  diminished ;  but,  on  the  whole,  it  would  gain  in 
symmetry.  Many  good  and  popular  tunes  would  be  given  up,  but  a  mass  of  in- 
different would  be  rejected  at  the  same  time. 

The  mixture  of  English  and  Anglo-Scottish  with  the  genuine  Scottish  music 
has  been  gradually  increasing  since  Thomson's  time.  Successive  collectors  have 
added  songs  that  were  popular  in  their  day,  without  care  as  to  the  source  whence 
they  were  derived;  each  seeking  only  to  render  his  own  publication  more 
attractive  than  those  of  his  predecessors.  The  songs  of  English  musicians — 
often  of  living  authors — have  been  thus  included,  and  their  names  systematically 
suppressed.  Although  the  authorship  of  these  songs  may  have  been  known  to 
many  at  the  time  of  publication,  it  soon  passed  out  of  memory,  and  the  Scotch 
have  themselves  been  deceived  into  a  belief  in  their  genuineness.  Thus  Burns, 
writing  to  Mr.  Candlish,  in  June,  1787,  about  Johnson's  Scots  Musical  Museum, 
says,  "  I  am  engaged  in  assisting  an  honest  Scotch  enthusiast,  a  friend  of  mine, 
who  is  an  engraver,  and  has  taken  it  into  his  head  to  publish  a  collection  of  all 
our  songs  set  to  music,  of  which  the  words  and  music  are  done  by  Scotsmen." 
And  again,  in  October,  to  another  correspondent, — "An  engraver,  James 
Johnson,  in  Edinburgh,  has,  not  from  mercenary  views,  but  from  an  honest 
Scotch  enthusiasm,  set  about  collecting  all  our  native  songs"  &c.  And  yet, 
within  the  first  twenty-four  songs  of  the  only  volume  then  published,  are  com- 
positions by  Purcell,  Michael  Arne,  Hook,  Berg,  and  Battishill. 

Thomson's  Orpheus  Oaledonius  was  printed  in  London ;  but  the  Scots  Musical 
Museum  was  published  in  Edinburgh. 

Although  the  popularity  of  Scottish  music  in  England  cannot  be  dated  further 
back  than  the  reign  of  Charles  II.  ,b  it  may  be  proved,  from  various  sources,  that 
English  music  was  in  favour  in  Scotland  from  the  fifteenth  century,  and  that 
many  English  airs  became  so  popular  as  at  length  to  be  thoroughly  domiciled 

•  This  ballad  and  the  answer  toit  are  in  the  Roxburghe  *  It  is  difficult  to  account  wholly  for  this,  but  it  may  be 

Collection.    The  first  (ii.  415)  is  "  The  Scotch  wooing  of  attributed  partially  to  the  prejudice  against  the  Scotch,  who 

Willy  and  Nanny:  To  a  pleasant  new  tune,  or  Nanny,  O."  were  long  viewed  as  interlopers,  and  somewhat  to  their 

Printed  by  P.  Brooksby.    Although  entitled  "The  Scotch  broad  dialect ;  for,  although  they  would  naturally  sing 

wooing,"  it  relates  to  the  most  southern  part  of  North-  the  airs  of  their  country,  I  cannot  find  that  any  attained 

umberland.    It  commences,  "As  I  went  forth  one  morn-  popularity  in  England  before  the  Restoration,  either  by 

ing  fair,"  and  has  for  burden—  notices  of  dramatists  and  other  writers,  by  being  used  as 

"  It  is  Nanny,  Nanny,  Nanny  O.  ballad  tunes,  or  by  being  found  in  print  or  manuscript. 

The  love  I  bear  to  Nanny  O,  I  should  say  that  one  or  two  airs  are  the  most  that  could 

All  the  world  shall  never  know  be  adduced.    The  upper  classes  of  both  countries  seem 

The  love  I  bear  to  Nanny  O."  to  have  sung  only  scholastic  music,  and  the  lower  order  of 

Tynemouth  Castle  is  spelled  "Tinmouth"  in  the  ballad,  English  had  abundant  ballad  tunes  of  their  own,  and  were 

just  as  it  is  now  pronounced  in  the  North  of  England ;  it  apparently  loth  to  change  them. 

is,  therefore,  probably,  of  Northumbrian  origin.      The 

answer  is  in  Rox.  ii.  17;  also  printed  by  Brooksby. 


ANGLO-SCOTTISH   SONGS.  611 

there.  The  "Extracts  from  the  accounts  of  the  Lords  High  Treasurers  of 
Scotland,"  from  the  year  1474  to  1642,  printed  by  Mr.  Dauney,  shew  that  there 
were  English  harpers,  lutenists,  pipers,  and  pipers  with  the  drone,  or  bagpipers, 
among  the  musicians  at  the  Scottish  Court,  besides  others  under  the  general 
name  of  English  minstrels.  Among  the  sweet  songs  said  to  be  sung  by  the 
shepherds  in  Wedderburn's  Gomplainte  of  Scotlande,  1549,  are  several  English  still 
extant  (one  composed  by  Henry  VIII.  taking  precedence  on  the  list)  ;  and  the 
religious  parodies,  such  as  in  Ane  Compendious  Booke  of  Godly  and  Spirituall 
Songs,  are  commonly  upon  English  songs  and  ballads.  English  tunes  have  hitherto 
bee  a  found  in  every  Scottish  manuscript  that  contains  any  Scotch  airs,  if  written 
before  1730.  There  is,  I  believe,  no  exception  to  this  rule,— at  least  I  may  cite 
all  those  I  have  seen,  and  the  well-authenticated  transcripts  of  others.  They 
include  Wood's  manuscripts  ;  the  Straloch,  the  Rowallan,  and  the  Skene  MSS. ; 
Dr.  Leyden's  Lyra- viol  Book  ;  the  MSS.  that  were  in  the  possession  of  the  late 
Andrew  Blaikie;  Mrs.  Agnes  Hume's  book,  and  others  in  the  Advocates' 
Library;  those  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  David  Laing,  and  many  of  minor  note. 
Some  of  the  Scotch  manuscripts  contain  English  music  exclusively.  I  have 
recently  analyzed  the  contents  of  Hogg's  Jacobite  Relics  of  Scotland,  and  find 
half  the  songs  in  the  first  volume  to  have  been  derived  from  English  printed 
collections,  but  if  the  modern  were  taken  away  and  only  the  old  suffered  to 
remain,  the  proportion  would  be  much  larger.  As  Hogg  took  these  songs  from 
Scotch  manuscripts,  his  book  shews  the  extent  to  which  the  words  of  old  English 
son^s  are  still  stored  in  Scotland.  The  appendix  of  Jacobite  songs,  and  those 
of  che  Whigs  at  the  end  of  the  volume,  are  almost  exclusively  from  these 
collections. 

Before  the  publication  of  Ramsay's  Tea  Talk  Miscellany,  the  "  Scotch  tunes" 
thai;  were  popular  in  England  were  mostly  spurious,  and  the  words  adapted  to 
them  seem  to  have  been  invariably  so.  Of  this  I  could  give  many  instances,  but 
it  may  suffice  to  quote  one  from  A  second  Tale  of  a  Tub,  which  being  printed  in 
1715,  is  within  nine  years  of  Ramsay's  publication.  "Each  party  call  for 
particular  tunes  .  .  ,  the  blue  bonnets"  (i.e.,  the  Scotch)  "had  very  good  voices, 
but  being  at  the  furthest  end  of  the  room,  were  not  distinctly  heard.  Yet  they 
split:  their  throats  in  hollowing  out  Bonny  Dundee,  Valiant  Jockey,  Sawney  was  a 
dandy  lad,  [bonny  lad?]  and  'Twas  within  a  furlong  of  Edinborough  toion" 

Bonnie  Dundee  commences  thus : — 

"  Where  gott'st  thou  the  haver-meal  bannock  ?  [oatmeal  cake] 

Blind  booby,  canst  thou  not  see  ? 
Ise  got  it  out  of  the  Scotchman's  wallet,"  &c. 

The  subject  of  the  ballad  is  "Jockey's  Escape  from  Dundee,"  and  it  ends,  "Adieu 
to  bonny  Dundee,"  from  which  the  tune  takes  the  title  of  Adew  Dundie  in  the 
Skene  manuscript,  and  of  Bonny  Dundee  in  The  Dancing  Master,  It  first 
appeared  in  the  latter  publication  in  a  second  appendix  to  the  edition  of  1686, 
printed  in  1688.  "Valiant  Jockey's  march'd  away,"  and  " 'Twas  within  a 

2  R 


612  ANGLO-SCOTTISH   SONGS. 

furlong  of  Edinborough  town,"  are  by  D'Urfey;  and  "  Sawney  was  a  bonny  lad  "a 
by  P.  A.  Motteux,  the  tune  by  Purcell. 

Songs  in  imitation  of  the  Scottish  dialect  seem  to  have  been  confined  to  the 
stage  till  about  the  years  1679  and  1680,b  when  the  Duke  of  York,  afterwards 
James  II.,  was  sent  to  govern  Scotland,  pending  the  discussion  on  the  Exclusion 
Bill  in  the  Houses  of  Parliament.  The  Whigs  were  endeavouring  to  debar  him 
from  succession  to  the  throne,  as  being  a  Roman  Catholic,  while  the  most  influential 
Scotch  and  the  English  loyalists,  then  newly  named  Tories,  were  as  warmly 
espousing  his  cause. 

Among  the  ballad- writers,  the  royalists  greatly  preponderated,  and  the  Scotch 
were  in  especial  favour  with  them.  Mat.  Taubman,  the  city  of  London  pageant- 
writer,  was  one  of  these  loyal  poets.  He  published  many  songs  in  the  Duke's 
favour,  which  he  afterwards  collected  into  a  volume,  with  "  An  Heroic  Poem,"  on 
his  return  from  Scotland.  Nat.  Thompson,  the  printer,  collected  and  published 
120  Loyal  Songs,  which  he  subsequently  enlarged  to  180.  Besides  these,  there 
are  songs  extant  on  broadsides,  with  music,  which  are  not  included  in  any  collec- 
tion. Occasional  attempts  at  the  Scottish  dialect  are  to  be  found  in  all  these 
sources.  Purcell,  and  other  musicians  in  the  service  of  the  court,  readily  set 
such  songs  to  music ;  indeed,  from  the  time  of  the  Exclusion  Bill  until  he  became 
king,  James  seems  to  have  had  all  the  song-writers  in  his  favour. 

Perhaps  the  earliest  extant  specimen  of  a  ballad  printed  in  Scotland,  may  also 
be  referred  to  this  period; — I  mean  by  "ballad"  that  which  was  intended  to  be 
sung,  and  not  poetry  printed  on  broadsides,  without  the  name  of  the  tune,  even 
though  such  may  sometimes  have  been  called  "  ballets."  Of  the  latter  we  have 
specimens  by  Robert  Sempill,  or  Semple,  printed  in  Edinburgh  as  early  as  1570  ; 
but,  as  a  real  ballad,  intended  to  be  sung  about  the  country,  as  English  ballads 
were,  I  know  none  earlier  than  "  The  Banishment  of  Poverty,  by  his  R.  H.,  J.  D.  A. 
[James,  Duke  of  Albany],  to  the  tune  of  the  Last  Good  Night."  It  is  to  be 
observed  that  this  is  to  an  English  tune,  and  so  are  many  of  the  ballads  that 
were  printed  in  Scotland,  some  being  reprints  of  those  published  in  London. 
Among  others  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  David  Laing,  are  "  A  proper  new  Ballad 
intituled  The  Gallant  Grahames :  To  its  own  proper  tune,  I  will  away  and  will  not 
stay."  This  is  a  white-letter  reprint  of  "An  excellent  new  Ballad  entituled  The 
Gallant  Grahams  of  Scotland"  a  copy  of  which  is  in  the  Roxburghe  Collection, 
iii.  380,  to  the  same  tune.  "  Bothwell  Banks  is  bonny :  Or  a  Description  of  the 
new  Mylne  of  Bothwell,"  is  to  the  English  tune  of  Who  can  blame  my  woe. 
"  The  Life  and  bloody  Death  of  Mrs.  Laurie's  Dog  "  is  "  to  the  tune  The  Ladies 
Daughter"  [of  Paris  properly].  See  Evans's  Old  Ballads.  The  above  are  on 
Scottish  subjects,  but  there  are  also  reprints  of  the  Anglo- Scottish,  such  as 
"  Blythe  Jockie,  young  and  gay,"  (the  tune  of  which  is  by  Leveridge,)  and 
"Valiant  Jockey's  march' d  away,"  before  mentioned;  as  well  as  of  purely 

a  If  not  this,  it  must  be  "Jockey  was  a  dowdy  lad,"  a  b  I  do   not  include  songs  like   "Sing,  home  again, 

Scotch  song  by  D'Urfey  in  The  Campaigners.    There  is  Jockey,"  (upon  the  defeat  of  the  Scottish  army,)  or  others 

a  Sawney  in  that  song,  hut  he  is  the  favoured  lover.  The  written  against  the  Scotch,  which  may  contain  a  few 

music  was  composed  hy  Mr.  Wilkins.  words  in  imitation  of  the  dialect. 


ANGLO-SCOTTISH   SONGS.  613 

English  ballads,  like  "Room,  room  for  a  Rover;  or  An  innocent  Country  Life 
prefer' d  before  the  noisy  clamours  of  a  restless  town.     To  a  new  tune :" — 

"  Room,  room  for  a  rover, 
London  is  so  hot,"  &c. 

The  mixture  of  English  music  in  Scotch  collections  is  not  without  incon- 
venience to  the  Scots  themselves,  for  an  essayist  who  intends  to  write  about 
Scottish  music,  must  either  be  content  to  deal  in  generalities,  or  he  will  be  liable 
to  the  mistake  of  praising  English  music  where  he  intends  to  praise  Scotch. 
Dr.  Beattie,  in  one  of  his  published  letters,  says  of  the  celebrated  Mrs.  Siddons, 
"  She  loves  music,  and  is  fond  of  Scotch  tunes,  many  of  which  I  played  to  her 
on  the  violoncello.  One  of  these,  She  rose  and  let  me  in,  which  you  know  is  a 
favorite  of  mine,  made  the  tears  start  from  her  eyes,  <  Go  on,'  said  she, '  and 
you  will  soon  have  your  revenge ; '  meaning  that  I  should  draw  as  many  tears 
from  her  as  she  had  drawn  from  me  "  by  her  acting.  (Life  of  James  Beattie , 
LL.D.,  by  Sir  W.  Forbes,  ii.  139.)  Dr.  Beattie  was  evidently  not  aware,  that 
both  the  music  and  words  of  She  rose  and  let  me  in,  are  English.  Again,  in  one 
of  his  Essays, — "  I  do  not  find  that  any  foreigner  has  ever  caught  the  true  spirit 
of  Scottish  music;"  and  he  illustrates  his  remark  by  the  story  of  Geminiani's 
having  blotted  quires  of  paper  in  the  attempt  to  write  a  second  part  to  the  tune 
of  The  Broom  of  Cowdenknows.  This  air  is,  to  say  the  least,  of  very  question- 
able origin.  The  evidence  of  its  being  Scotch  rests  upon  the  English  ballad  of 
The  Broom  of  Cowdenknows,  for  in  other  ballads  to  the  same  air  it  is  not  so 
described ;  and  Burton,  in  his  Anatomy  of  Melancholy,  quotes  "  0  the  broom,  the 
bonny,  bonny  broom,"  as  a  "  country  tune."  The  frequent  misapplication  of  the 
term  "  Scotch,"  in  English  songs  and  ballads,  has  been  remarked  by  nearly  every 
writer  on  Scottish  music,  and  this  air  is  not  upon  the  incomplete  scale,  which 
is  commonly  called  Scotch.  I  am  strongly  persuaded  that  it  is  one  of  those 
ballads  which,  like  The  gallant  Grahams,  and  many  others,  became  popular  in 
Scotland  because  the  subject  was  Scotch.  The  Broom  of  Cowdenknows  is  in  the 
metre  of,  and  evidently  suggested  by,  the  older  ballad  of  New  Broom  on  Hill 
(see  p.  458).  A  copy  of  the  original  Broom  on  Hill*  may  even  yet  be  discovered, 
or  at  least  an  earlier  copy  of  the  tune,  and  thus  set  the  question  at  rest. 

It  is  not  only  by  essayists  that  mistakes  are  made,  for  even  in  historical  works 
like  "  Ancient  Scottish  Melodies  from  a  Manuscript  of  the  reign  of  James  VI., 
WJth  an  introductory  enquiry  illustrative  of  the  History  of  the  Music  of  Scotland, 
by  William  Dauney,  F.S.A.,  Scot.,"  airs  which  bear  no  kind  of  resemblance  to 
Scottish  music,  are  claimed  as  Scotch.  Mr.  Dauney  seems  to  have  been  a  firm 
believer  in  the  authenticity  of  the  collections  of  Scottish  music,  and  to  have  thought 
the  evidence  of  an  air  being  found  in  a  Scotch  manuscript  sufficient  to  prove  its 
Scottish  origin.  In  such  cases  dates  were  to  him  of  minor  importance.  Thus, 
JFranklin  is  fled  away;  When  the  King  enjoys  his  own  again;  I  pray  yon,  love, 

*  Broom  on  hill,  according  to  Laneham,  was  "ancient"  perT.  C."  T.  C.  was  perhaps  the  writer  of  that  mamt- 
in  1575.  The  three-part  song  of  Charles  the  First's  reign,  script,  or  one  of  his  intimate  friends, — otherwise  we  might 
to  which  I  have  referred  at  p.  459,  is  subscribed  "  Bassus  expect  the  full  name  instead  of  initials. 


614  ANGLO-SCOTTISH   SONGS. 

turn  to  me  ;  Macbeth;  The  Nightingale ;  TJie  Milking -pail ;  Philporter's  Lament, 
and  many  others,  are  set  down  as  airs  of  "which  Scotland  may  claim  the 
parentage."  As  to  the  Anglo-Scottish  and  English  Northern  songs,  at  the  very 
opening  of  his  book  Mr.  Dauney  claims  five  in  Pills  to  purge  Melancholy,  without 
noticing  Ritson's  counter-statement  as  to  two  (yet  appropriating  them  under  those 
names),  or  that  a  third  was  stated  to  be  a  country-dance  tune  in  the  book  he 
quotes.  This  is  indeed  driving  over  obstacles. 

The  manuscripts  from  which  the  "  Ancient  Scottish  Melodies  "  are  derived,  are 
known  as  the  Skene  Manuscripts,  from  having  been  in  the  possession  of  the 
family  of  that  name.  They  consist  of  seven  small  books  of  lute  music  of  uniform 
size,  and  are  now  bound  in  one.  Mr.  Dauney  admits  that  a  portion  of  the  airs 
are  English,  but  follows  the  Ramsay  precedent  in  the  title  of  his  book.  I  have 
recently  examined  these  manuscripts  with  some  care,a  and  am  decidedly  of  opinion, 
both  from  the  writing  and  from  the  airs  they  contain,  that  they  are  not,  and  can- 
not be,  of  the  reign  of  James  VI.  James  VI.  of  Scotland  and  I.  of  England 
died  in  1625. 

As  to  the  sixth  manuscript,  which  Mr.  Dauney  considers  to  be  "  evidently  the 
oldest  of  all,"  the  first  fourteen  airs  in  the  fifth,  and  the  whole  of  the  sixth,  are, 
in  my  opinion,  in  the  same  handwriting.  The  music  is  there  written  in  the 
lozenge-shaped  note,  which  is  nowhere  else  employed.  Among  the  airs  in  the 
fifth,  we  find  Adieu,  Dundee,  which  was  not  included  in  The  Dancing  Master 
before  the  appendix  of  1688 ;  and  Three  Sheep-skins,  an  English  country-dance 
(not  a  ballad  tune),  which  first  appeared  in  The  Dancing  Master  of  1698.  In 
the  sixth,  "  Peggy  is  over  the  sea  with  the  Soldier,"  which  derives  its  name  from 
a  common  Aldermary  churchyard  ballad,  to  which,  I  believe,  no  earlier  date  than 
1710  can  reasonably  be  assigned.  It  is  "  The  Gosport  Tragedy :  Peggy's  gone 
over  the  sea  with  the  Soldier ; "  commencing — 

"  In  Gosport  of  late  there  a  damsel  did  dwell." 

When  Mr.  Dauney  expressed  his  opinion  that  the  sixth  was  the  oldest  part,  he 
was  evidently  deceived  by  the  shape  of  the  note ;  but  as  round  notes  were  used 
in  manuscripts  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII.,  it  must  have  been  quite  a  matter  of 
fancy  whether  the  round  or  lozenge  should  be  employed  one  or  two  centuries  later. 

«  My  attention  has  recently  been  drawn  to  these  manu-  died  in  1644.    Independently  of  other  evidence,  the  large 

scripts,  which  I  had  not  seen  for  twenty  years,  from  find-  number  of  duplicates  would  shew  the  improbability  of 

ing,    in   the    course  of  my  attempts  at  chronological  the  collection  having  been  made  for  one  person.    For 

arrangement,    that    their   supposed   date  could  not  be  instance,   "Horreis  Galziard"  is  contained  in  Parts  I. 

reconciled  with  other  evidence,    I  have  hitherto  quoted  and  IU.— "  I  left  my  love  behind  me,"  in  Parts  II.  and 

the  Skene  MSS.  as  about  1630  or  1640,  and  many  of  the  III.— "My  Lady  Lauckian's  Lilt,"  "Scerdustis,"  "Scul- 

airs  they  contain  are  undoubtedly  of  that  date,— some,  lione,"  and  "  Pitt  on  your  shirt  on  Monday,"  in  Parts  III. 

like  those  of  Dowland  and  the  masque  tunes  of  James  I.,  and  V.     "  My  Lady  Rothemais  Lilt,"  in  Parts  III  and  VI. 

unquestionably  earlier,    In  Mr,  Dauney's  book,  the  airs  "  Blew  Breiks,"  in  Parts  III.  and  VII.    "  I  love  my  love 

are  not  published  in  the  order  in  whjch  they  are  found  in  for  love  again,"  in  Parts  V.  and  VI. 

the  manuscripts,  and  some  airs  (besides  duplicates)  are  This  is  not  the  only  manuscript,  English  or  Scotch,  the 

omitted.    The  printed  index  is  not  very  correct, — for  in-  age  of  which  I  now  find  reason  to  doubt.     Among  the 

stance,  "  Let  never  crueltie  dishonour  beauty"  is  not  in-  Scotch,  that  of  Mr,  Andrew  Blaikie,  said  to  bear  a  date 

eluded  in  it.    The  earliest  writing  appears  to  be  "  Lady,  of  1692,  (which  I  by  no  means  deny,  although  I  did  not 

wilt  thou  love  me?  "at  the  commencement  of  Part  II. ;  but  observe  it  in  the  book  when  lent  to  me,)  cannot  have 

all  the  remainder  of  that  part  seems  to  be  a  century  later.  been  written  before  1745.     It  contains  "God  save  the 

Pages  62  to  80  are  blank.     At  the  end  of  the  first  manu-  King,"   and  other  airs  not  to  be  reconciled  with  the 

script  are  the  words    "  Finis  quod  Skine,"   which  Mr.  usually  attributed  date. 
Dauney  considers  to  be  the  writing  of  John  Skene,  who 


ANGLO-SCOTTISH   SONGS.  615 

The  Scotch  adhered  to  old  notation  a  longer  than  the  English,  especially  in  writing 
music  on  six  lines.b 

I  leave  it  to  Scottish  antiquaries  to  determine,  whether  corroborative  evidence 
of  the  date  of  the  manuscripts  may  not  be  found  among  the  titles  of  their  own 
airs.  Mr.  Dauney  even  passed  over  Lesleys  Lilt  without  a  suspicion  that  it  de- 
rived its  name  from  the  Scotch  general  in  the  civil  wars.  A  march0  and  another 
air  were  certainly  named  after  him  before  the  Restoration. 

It  is  curious  to  mark  the  difference  between  English  and  Scotch  writers  on  the 
music  of  their  respective  countries ;  Dr.  Burney,  like  the  fashionable  English- 
man, minutely  chronicling  the  Italian  operas  of  his  day,  and  hesitating  not  to 
misquote  Hall,  Hollinshed,  and  Hentzner,  to  get  rid  of  the  trouble  of  writing 
about  the  music  of  England;  and  the  Scotch  sturdily  maintaining  the  credit  of 
Scotland — some  being  intent  rather  upon  putting  forth  fresh  claims  than  too 
nicely  scrutinizing  those  already  advanced,  if  they  tell  in  favour  of  their  country. 

It  is  time,  however,  that  we  should  have  one  collection  to  consist  exclu- 
sively of  Scottish  music.  Burns  and  George  Thomson  confess  in  their  published 
correspondence,  to  having  taken  any  Irish  airs  that  suited  them,  and  even  in 
Wood's  Songs  of  Scotland,  the  publisher's  plan  has  been  to  include  all  the  best 
and  most  popular  airs,  and  not  to  limit  the  selection  to  such  as  are  strictly  of 
Scottish  origin. 

The  separation  of  the  English  and  Irish  tunes  from  the  Scotch  in  these 
collections,  was  nominally  attempted  by  Mr.  Stenhouse  in  his  notes  upon  airs  in 
Johnson's  Scots  Musical  Museum.  I  say  "nominally,"  for  those  notes  are  like 
historical  novels, — wherever  facts  do  not  chime  in  with  the  plan  of  the  tale, 
imagination  supplies  the  deficiencies.  Mr.  Stenhouse's  plan  was  threefold, — 
firstly,  to  claim  every  good  tune  as  Scotch,  that  had  become  popular  in 
Scotland ;  secondly,  to  prove  that  every  song  of  doubtful  or  disputed  parentage 
came  to  England  from  Scotland  "at  the  union  of  the  two  crowns;"  and, 
thirdly,  to  supply  antiquity  to  such  Scotch  airs  as  required  it.  All  this  he 
accomplished  in  a  way  quite  peculiar  to  himself.  Invention  supplied  authors  and 
dates,  and  fancy  inscribed  the  tunes  in  sundry  old  manuscripts,  where  the  chances 
w<  re  greatly  against  any  one's  searching  to  find  them.  If  the  search  should  be 
made,  would  it  not  be  made  by  Scotchmen  ?  Englishmen  care  only  for  foreign 
music,  and  do  not  trouble  themselves  about  the  matter;  and  will  Scotchmen 
expose  what  has  been  done  from  such  patriotic  motives  ?  Upon  no  other  ground 
than  this  imaginary  impunity,  can  I  account  for  the  boldness  of  Mr.  Stenhouse's 
inventions. 

Unfortunately  for  his  fame,  two  of  his  own  countrymen  did  not  think  all  this 
ingenuity  necessary  .for  the  reputation  of  Scottish  music.  Mr.  David  Laing, 
therefore,  made  a  tolerably  clear  sweep  of  his  dates,  and  Mr.  George  Farquhar 

a  I  believe  it  was  the  retention  of  the  old  form  of  the  oldest  writing,  and  differing  from  any  other,  in  the  manu- 

let^  er  "  d  "  in  the  musical  notation  that  deceived  an  acute  scripts. 

Sec  tch  antiquary  and  excellent  judge  of  the  age  of  literary  b  Witness  Mrs.  Agnes  Hume's  book,  dated  1704, 

mamscripts.   In  a  portion  of  the  tablature  it  has  a  stroke  e  I  do  not  mean  the  tune  which  Oswald  prints  in  the 

through  the  top  (like  the  Anglo-Saxon  letter  which  cor-  second  volume  of  his  Caledonian  Pocket  Companion  under 

resi>onds  with  our  th),  and  this  is  also  found  in  the  title  the  name  of  Lasly's  March,   but  the  Lesleyes  March  in 

of  •«  Lady,  wilt  thou  love  me?  "  which  appears  to  be  the  Playford's  MusicVs  Recreation  on  the  Lyra  Viol,  1656, 


616  ANGLO-SCOTTISH   SONGS. 

Graham  of  his  quotations  from  old  musical  manuscripts.  The  former  supposed 
Mr.  Stenhouse  "  mistaken  " — "  deceived ; "  the  variety  of  his  accomplishments 
was  not  to  be  discovered  at  once.  The  second  occasionally  administered  rebuke 
in  more  explicit  language ;  but,  to  the  present  day,  the  depths  of  Stenhouse' s 
invention  have  not  been  half  fathomed. 

Some  of  the  effects  of  his  ingenuity  will  never  be  wholly  obviated.  One  class 
of  inventions  is  very  difficult  to  disprove,  where  he  fixes  upon  an  author  for  a 
song,  or  makes  a  tale  of  the  circumstances  under  which  it  was  written.  Such 
evidence,  as  in  the  case  of  She  rose  and  let  me  in,  will  not  always  be  at  hand  to 
refute  him  (ante  p.  509  to  511),  and  much  of  this  class  of  fiction  still  remains 
for  those  who  are  content  to  quote  from  so  imaginative  a  source. 

It  is  to  be  hoped  that  any  who  may  henceforth  quote  from  him  will  give  their 
authority,  for  he  has  sometimes  been  copied  without  acknowledgement,  and  thus 
his  fictions  have  been  endorsed  by  respectable  names.a 

It  is  a  pleasure  to  turn  from  such  an  annotator,  to  the  editor  of  Wood's  Songs 
of  Scotland,  for,  besides  exposing  a  great  number  of  Stenhouse's  misstatings,  he  has 
given  judgment  with  strict  impartiality  wherever  he  felt  called  upon  to  exercise 
it  in  cases  of  disputed  nationality.  It  is  only  to  be  regretted  that  Mr.  Graham's 
opinion  upon  the  internal  evidence  of  airs  was  not  more  frequently  expressed,  and 
that  any  portion  of  Stenhouse's  imaginative  notes  should  have  been  incorporated  in 
the  work.  Sometimes  it  is  difficult  to  distinguish  between  what  is  on  the  authority 
of  Mr.  Graham  and  what  of  Stenhouse,  without  having  a  copy  of  his  notes  by  our 
side  ;  but  all  I  have  had  occasion  to  controvert  originated  with  the  latter. 

The  following  two  specimens  of  Anglo- Scottish  songs  will  suffice  as  examples  of 
that  class  of  popular  music  of  the  olden  time. 

«  Although  Dauuey's  Ancient  Scottish  Melodies  were  of  which  I  find  any  announcement,  having  taken  place 

printed  in  1838,  and  Stenhouse's  Notes  issued  in  1839  at  Covent  Garden,  on  the  29th  Dec.,  1702.     Stenhouse, 

(after  having  been  kept  for  many  years  in  Messrs.  Black-  to  make  his  story  complete,  tells  us  that  Abell  died  "  about 

wood's  cellars),  it  is  evident  that  Dauney  had  access  to,  the  year  1702,"  although  Hawkins  (from  whom  he  was 

and  was  one  of  those  led  into  error  by  them.    As  an  in-  copying  so  mnch  of  the  story  as  suited  his  purpose)  says 

stance,  at  p.  17  he  says,  "  It  was  in  the  year  1680  when  that  "about  the  latter  end  of  Queen  Anne's  reign,  Abell 

the  Scottish  air,  Katharine  Ogie,  was  sung  by  Mr.  Abell,  was  at  Cambridge  with  his  lute." 

a  gentleman   of   the   Chapel   Royal,   at  his  concert  in  Now,  why  all  this  invention  ?    It  was  to  get  rid  of  the 
Stationers'  Hall."      The  date  of  1680   is  purely  Sten-  fact  that  the  earliest  known  copy  of  the  tune  is  in  the 
housian,  and  can  only  have  been  copied  from  the  follow-  Appendix  to  The  Dancing  Master  of  1686,  under  the  title 
ing  characteristic  specimen  of  the  Notes: — "  This  fine  old  of  "  Lady  Catherine  Ogle,  a  new  Dance."    D'Urfey  wrote 
Scottish  song,  beginning,  '  As  I  went  furth  to  view  the  the  first  song  to  it,   "  Bonny   Kathern  Loggy,"   com- 
plain,' was  introduced  and  sung  by  Mr.  John  Abell,  a  mencing,    "As    I    came    down    the    Highland    town." 
gentleman  of  the  Chapel  Royal,  at  his  concert  in  Sta-  This  is  contained  in  the  Pills  and  in  The  Merry  Musician 
tioners'    Hall,    London,    in    the  year    1680,   with   great  or  a  Cure  for  the  Spleen,  i.  224  (1716).    The  latter  publica- 
applause.    It  was  also  printed  with  the  music  and  words,  tion    includes  also,   the    "  New  song  to  the    tune    of 
by  an  engraver  of  the  name  of  Cross,  as  a  single-sheet  Katherine  Loggy,"  commencing,  "  As  I  walk'd  forth  to 
song,  in  the  course  of  that  year,  a  copy  of  which  is  now  view  the  plain"   (i.  295),  which  Ramsay,  after  making 
lying  before  me."     In  the  first  place,  Cross  did  not  en-  some  alterations,  printed  in  the  Tea  Table  Miscellany. 
grave  in    1680,    and  the    single-sheet    song,    "Bonny  The  following  is  the  first  stanza  of  what  Stenhouse  terms 
Kathern  Oggy,  as  it  was  sung  by  Mr.  Abell  at  his  con-  the  "  fine  old  Scottish  song,"  sung  by  Abell : — 
sort  in   Stationers'  Hall,"  bears  no  date.    Abell  was  a  "  As  I  went  forth  to  view  the  spring, 
gentleman  of  the  Chapel  Royal  during  the  latter  part  of  Upon  a  morning  early, 
the  reign  of  Charles  II.  and  the  whole  of  that  of  James  II,                     With  May's  sweet  scent  to  chear  my  brain, 
Having  turned   Papist  when  James  became   King,  he  When  flowers  grew  fresh  and  fairly; 
quitted   England   at    the  Revolution  of  1688,  but  was                     A  vary  pratty  maid  I  spy'd, 
permitted    to    return    by    William    III.,     towards    the                         Sha  shin'd  tho'  it  was  foggy, 
close  of  the  year  1700.     From  that  time,  being  without                     I  ask'd  her  name,  Sweet  sir,  sha  said, 
any  fixed  employment,  and  having  acquired  great  repute  My  name  is  Kathern  Oggy. 
as  a  singer,  he  occasionally  gave  public  concerts,  the  first, 


ANGLO-SCOTTISH   SONGS. 


617 


FAIREST  JENNY. 

This  is  included  in  Scotch  collections,  under  the  name  of  Fife  and  a'  the  lands 
about  it.  The  words  were  written  by  P.  A.  Motteux,  and  the  music  by  Samuel 
Akeroyd.  It  was  first  printed  in  The  Gentleman's  Journal,  of  Jan.,  1691-2, 
under  the  title  of  "  Jockey  and  Jenny,  a  Scotch  song  set  by  Mr.  Akeroyde."  In 
the  letter  which  precedes  it,  Motteux  says,  "  I  do  not  doubt  but  you  will  like  the 
tune,  and  that  is  generally  the  more  valuable  part  of  our  English  Scotch  songs,  it 
being  improper  to  expect  a  refin'd  thought  and  expression  in  a  plain  light 
humour." 

It  was  also  printed  in  The  Banquet  of  Music,  Book  6,  1692  ;  and  in  Apollo's 
Banquet,  7th  edit.,  1693  ;  in  Pills  to  purge  Melancholy,  vol.  i.  of  early  editions, 
ani  vol.  iii.  of  the  last. 

The  name  of  Fife  and  a?  the  lands  about  it,  is  taken  from  the  first  line  of  the 
second  stanza. 

Moderate  time  and  well  marked. 


Jockey. 


Jenny. 


I        I         I 


Fair- est  Jen- ny,    thou  mun  love  me.    Troth,  my  bon  -  ny        lad,     I     do. 


mm 


i 


=^f 


Jockey.  *        ' 

Gin  thou  sayst   thou        dost      ap  -  prove  me,    Dear-est  thou  mun    kiss     me      too. 


=  £ 


-  — m— ? 


9  . 


=£=£=• 


j^r     '     * 

Take      a       kiss         or     twa,      dear  Jock-ey,       But       I     dare  give     nean,  I  trow ; 

mL 


Fie,  nay,  pish,       be       not    un-luc-ky       Wed  me  first,     and       aw     will      do. 


IS- 


Jockey.  For  aw  Fife,  and  lands  about  it  Jockey.  Thou  wilt  die  if  I  forsake  thee. 

Ize  not  yield  thus  to  be  bound.  Jenny.    Better  die  than  be  undone. 

Jenny.    Nor  I  lig  by  thee  without  it  Jockey.  Gin  'tis  so,  come  on,  Ize  taak  thee, 

For  twa  hundred  thousand  pound.  Tis  too  cauld  to  lig  alone. 


618  ANGLO-SCOTTISH    SONGS. 

SAWNEY  WAS  TALL  AND  OF  NOBLE  RACE. 

This  is  one  of  Tom  D'Urfey's  songs,  in  his  comedy  of  The  Virtuous  Wife, 
4  to.,  1680.  I  have  not  seen  any  copy  bearing  the  name  of  a  composer;  but,  as 
other  music  in  this  play  (such  as  "  Let  traitors  plot  on,"  and  the  chorus,  "  Let 
Caesar  live  long")  was  composed  by  Farmer,  this  may  also  be  reasonably 
attributed  to  him. 

Playford  printed  it,  in  1681,  in  the  third  book  of  his  Choice  Ayres,  as 
"  a  Northern  song ; "  but  he  also  printed  She  rose  and  let  me  in,  in  the  fourth 
book  of  the  same  collection,  as  a  Northern  song,  although  the  music  was  un- 
doubtedly composed  by  Farmer,  and  D'Urfey  was,  as  in  this  case,  the  author  of 
the  words.  The  fact  of  their  appearing  in  that  collection  is  sufficient  to  prove 
that  they  were  compositions  of  the  time,  for  not  only  are  the  Choice  Ayres  pro- 
fessedly "  the  newest  ayres  and  songs,  sung  at  Court  and  at  the  publick  theatres, 
composed  by  several  gentlemen  of  his  Majesty's  musick,  and  others,"  but,  also, 
Playford,  in  reference  to  this  very  third  book,  expresses  great  indignation  that 
any  of  the  songs  should  be  thought  to  be  ballad-tunes.  That  they  became  so 
subsequently,  was  beyond  his  control. 

Two  of  Farmer's  airs  have  already  been  printed  in  this  volume ;  and  others 
which  became  popular  on  the  stage,  may  yet  be  traced  to  him.  Farmer  was  an 
excellent  musician  and  particularly  successful  as  a  melodist.  He  was  originally 
one  of  the  waits  of  London,  which  may  account  for  his  having  paid  more  attention 
to  rhythmical  tune  than  others  who  were  educated  in  the  Chapels  Royal, 
or  the  Cathedral  schools.  In  1684,  after  having  attained  some  repute  as  a 
composer  for  the  theatres,  he  was  admitted  to  the  degree  of  Bachelor  in  Music  at 
the  University  of  Cambridge.  He  died  at  an  early  age,  and  the  estimation  in 
which  he  was  held  by  his  contemporaries  may  be  judged  by  the  elegy  which  was 
written  upon  his  death  by  Tate,  to  which  Purcell  composed  the  music.a 

Sawney  ivas  tall  soon  became  popular  as  a  penny  ballad,  and  some  other  ballads 
and  political  squibs  were  written  to  the  tune. 

In  the  Roxburghe  Collection,  ii.  223,  is  a  sequel  to  Sawney  was  tall,  entitled 
"  Jenny's  Answer  to  Sawny,  Wherein  Love's  cruelty  is  requited;  or,  The  in- 
constant Lover  justly  despised.  Being  a  relation  how  Sawney  being  disabled  and 
turn'd  out  of  doors  by  the  Miss  of  London,  is  likewise  scorned  and  rejected  by  his 
Country  Lass,  and  forced  to  wander  where  he  may,"  &c.  "  To  the  tune  of 
Sawney  will  ne'er  le  my  love  again."  Printed  for  P.  Brooksby,  at  the  Golden 
Ball,  &c.  It  begins — 
"When  Sawney  left  me  he  had  store  of  gilt,  He's  come  for  another  sark  and  band, 

But  he  hath  spent  it  in  London  town,  And  coakses  me  for  more  of  my  coin, 

And  now  is  return'd  to  his  sun-burn'd  face,   But  Ise,  guid  faith,  shall  hold  my  hand, 
His  own  dear  joy  in  a  russet  gown :  For  Sawney  shall  never  more  be  mine." 

«  The  "  Elegy  upon  the  death  of  Mr.  Thomas  Farmer,  Whose  artful  strains  and  tuneful  lyre 

B.M.,"  is  printed  in  the  second  volume  of  the  Orpheus  Made  the  spring  bloom,  and  did  the  groves  inspire. 

Britannicus.    As  Dr.  Burney  most  strangely  omits  all  What  can  the  drooping  sons  of  art 

mention  of  Farmer,  it  is  here  subjoined  : —  From  this  sad  hour  impart 

"  Young  Thirsis'  fate,  ye  hills  and  groves,  deplore  !  To  charm  the  cares  of  life  and  ease  the  lover's  smart  ? 

Thirsis,  the  pride  of  all  the  plains,  While  thus  in  dismal  notes  we  mourn 

The  joy  of  nymphs  and  envy  of  the  swains,  The  skilful  shepherd's  urn, 

The  gentle  Thirsis  is  no  more!  To  the  glad  skies  his  harmony  he  bears, 

What  makes  the  spring  retire,  and  groves  their  songs  And  as  he  charmed  earth,  transports  the  spheres." 
Nature  for  her  lov'd  Thirsis  seems  to  pine ;       [decline  ? 


ANGLO-SCOTTISH   SONGS.  619 

In  the  same  Collection,  ii.  254,  is  another,  printed  by  Brooksby,  "  The  Poet's 
Dream,  Or  the  great  outcry  and  lamentable  complaint  of  the  land  against 
Bayliffs  and  their  Dogs :  wherein  is  expressed  their  villanous  out-rages  to  poor 
men,  with  a  true  description  of  their  knavery  and  their  debauch'd  actions,  pre- 
scribed and  presented  to  the  view  of  all  people.  To  the  tune  of  Sawney,  &c." 
The  first  line  is  "  As  I  lay  slumbering  in  a  dream." 

Among  the  political  ballads  are  (Rox.  ii.  109)  "  The  Disloyal  Favourite ;  or 
The  Unfortunate  States-man : 

Who  seeks  by  fond  desire  for  to  climb,         For  Fortune  is  as  fickle  as  the  wind 
May  chance  to  catch  a  fall  before  his  time,    To  him  that  wears  a  proud  ambitious  mind. 
Tune  of  Sawney  will  ne'er  be  my  love  again"     It  begins — 
"  Tommy  was  a  Lord  of  high  renown,          But  he,  like  an  ungrateful  wretch, 

And  he  was  rais'd  from  a  low  degree ;      Did  set  his  conscience  on  the  stretch, 
He  had  command  ore  every  town ;  And  now  is  afraid  of  Squire  Ketch, 

There  was  never  one  so  great  as  he  :  ForTommy  will  ne'er  be  belov'd  again." 

This  is  on  some  nobleman  who  was  charged  with  being  "  concerned  with  France," 
itnd  "  some  say  concern' d  in  the  plot."  Printed  for  W.  Thackeray,  T.  Passinger, 
and  W.  Whitwood. 

In  Mr.  Gutch's  collection  is  a  broadside  entitled  "  The  Loyal  Feast  designed 
to  be  kept  in  Haberdashers'  Hall  on  Friday,  21  April,  1682,  by  His  Majesty's 
most  loyal  true  blue  Protestant  subjects,  and  how  it  was  defeated.  To  the  tune 
of  Saivney  will  never  be  my  love  again"  London,  printed  for  Allan  Banks,  1682. 
This  commences — 
"  Tony  was  small  but  of  noble  race,  He  broached  his  taps,  and  it  ran  apace 

And  was  beloved  of  every  one  ;  To  make  a  solemn  treat  for  all :  " 

and  it  was  reprinted,  with  another  to  the  same  air,  in  N.  Thompson's  collection 
of  180  Loyal  Songs,  1685  and  1694. 

The  tune  is  found  in  the  Choice  Ayres  and  Loyal  Songs,  above  quoted ;  in  The 
.Dancing  Master,  from  1686  to  1725 ;  in  Apollo's  Banquet,  1690  and  1693  ;  in 
the  ballad-operas  of  Polly,  The  Village  Opera,  The  Devil  to  pay,  The  Chamber- 
naid,  &c.  The  words  are  contained  in  D'Urfey's  New  Collection  of  Songs  and 
Poems,  8vo.,  1683;  and  both  words  and  music  are  in  every  edition  of  Pillsto 
purge  Melancholy. 

In  all  the  above-named  works,  the  tune  takes  its  name  from  D'Urfey's  song, 
except  in  The  Dancing  Master,  where  it  is  named  Sawney  and  Jockey,*  but 
evidently  by  mistake.  It  is  nowhere  called  Corn  riggs  are  bonny,  until  after  the 
publication  of  Allan  Ramsay's  song,  commencing,  "  My  Patie  is  a  lover  gay,"  in 
r,he  Tea  Table  Miscellany.  Ramsay  does  not  say  that  his  song  is  "to  the  tune 
of"  Corn  riggs  are  bonny,  but  gives  that  title  to  his  song. 

Stenhouse  would  have  us  believe  that  there  was  "  a  much  older  Scottish  song  " 
of  "  Corn  riggs "  to  this  tune  than  Ramsay's,  but  the  four  lines  he  gives  are 
evidently  a  parody  of  the  four  last  of  Ramsay's  song.b  He  does  not  condescend 

»  Sawney  and  Jockey  is  another  song  of  D'Urfey's  in  his  song  to  a  new  tune."    There  are  two  songs  to  the  tune  in 

i>la.y  of  The  Royalist.    It  commences  with  the  line,  "  Twa  180  Loyal  Songs,  pages  282  and  365 ;  and  Mat.  Taubman's 

bonny  lads  were  Sawney  and  Jockey,"  and  it  was  printed  "  Jockey,  away  man  "  (printed  with  his  "Heroic  Poem") 

as  a  penny  ballad  by  Brooksby,  in  1682,  with  the  tune.  is  to  the  same. 

A  copy  is  in  the  Roxburghe  Collection,  iii.  913,    "The  b  This  is  one  of  Stenhouse's  favorite  remedies  for  defi- 

Scotch  Lasses  Constancy;  or,  Jenny's  Lamentation  for  cient  evidence  of  antiquity.    He  produces  some  "original 

•he  death  of  Jockey,  who  for  her  sake  was  unfortunately  words,"  stating  them  to  be  of  the  age  required  to  meet 

tilled  by  Sawney  in  a  duel.    Being  a  most  pleasant  new  the  necessities  of  the  cnse,  but  they  rarely  tally  with 


620 


ANGLO-  SCOTTISH   SONGS. 


to  give  any  proof  of  this  antiquity,  but  tells  us  that  "  the  tune  appears  in  Craig's 
Collection,  in  1730,"  and  that  "  Craig  was  a  very  old  man  when  he  published  his 
collection." 

Whether  Craig  was  old  or  young  I  will  not  dispute,  but  he  certainly  took  the 
titles  of  the  tunes  in  his  collection  from  the  Tea  Table  Miscellany.  Out  of  thirty- 
five  tunes  that  he  published,  twenty-nine  agree  with  the  names  in  that  work, 
and  this  is  the  total  number  that  could  agree,  for  there  are  no  songs  in  it  to 
the  remaining  six. 

Moderate  time,  and  smoothly. 


Saw  -  ney  was  tall,      and   of     no  -  ble  race,  And  lov'd    me      bet  -terthan 

£ 


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a  -  ny  yen,  But    now     he 'loves 'an    -    o  -  ther  lass,   And   Saw-ney '11  ne'er   be    my 


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love        a  -  gen.         I        gave      him  a       fine     Scotch      sark      and    band  ; 

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put    them        on          with       mine    own    hand;       I       gave      him         °" 


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-d=J  r- 

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information  derived  from  other  sources.    Francis  Semple,  of  which  Francis  Semple  is  the  supposed  author.    Again, 

of  Beltrees,  is  one  of  his  favorite  scapegoats  in  these  as  to  Logan  Water,  in  Flora,  Svo.,  1729,  it  is  named  "The 

cases.     He  gives  him  the  credit,  among  other  songs,  of  Logan  water  is  so  deep,"  which  is  not  at  all  like  the  words 

Maggie  Louder.    Now,  in  the  ballad-opera  of  The  Beggar's  Stenhouse  gives.    It  would  be  easy  to  multiply  instances 

Wedding,  2nd  edit.,  8vo.,  1729,  it  is  called  "  Moggy  Law-  of  this  kind, 
ther  on  a  day,"  which  does  not  at  all  agree  with  the  song 


REIGN   OF   QUEEN  ANNE   TO  GEORGE   II.  621 


REIGN    OF    QUEEN     ANNE    TO     GEORGE    II. 

(1702  TO  1745.) 


D'Urfey,  to  whose  songs  I  have  so  frequently  had  occasion  to  refer  in 
the  preceding  pages,  was  a  poet  and  dramatist  who  flourished  about  1675  to 
1720.  His  father  was  a  Protestant,  who  fled  from  Rochelle  before  the 
memorable  siege  in  1628,  and  settled  at  Exeter,  where,  in  1649,  Tom  was  born.a 
He  was  intended  for  the  law,  a  profession  very  uncongenial  to  his  own  taste,  and 
for  which  he  was  disqualified  by  an  impediment  in  his  speech ;  but  this  did  not 
affect  him  in  singing.  In  his  27th  year  he  produced  his  comedy,  The  Fond 
Huxband,  or  The  Plotting  Sisters*  which  "  was  honoured  with  the  presence  of 
King  Charles  H.  three  of  the  first  five  nights,"  and  had  a  long-continued  success. 
It  was  frequently  revived,  and  three  editions  were  printed  during  the  author's 
life,  viz :  in  1678, 1685,  and  1711.  Tom  tried  his  hand  at  tragedy,  but  the  bom- 
bast of  his  heroic  verse  met  with  little  encouragement.  The  success  of  The  Plot- 
ting Sisters  was  the  turning  point  of  his  fortune,  by  leading  to  his  introduction 
at  Court.  It  was  well  known  that  Charles  II.  liked  no  music  to  which  he  could 
not  beat  time ;  and,  as  the  rhythm  most  easily  marked  was  that  of  dance  and 
ballad  tunes,  D'Urfey  accommodated  his  songs  to  the  royal  taste  by  writing  them 
to  airs  of  that  class,  or  in  such  metres  as  might  enable  composers  to  adopt  a 
similar  style  of  composition.  Before  his  time,  it  had  been  a  rule  with  English 
poets,  especially  the  greater,  to  select  metres  that  should  effectually  prevent  their 
son^s  being  sung  to  ballad  tunes ;  and  for  that  reason,  those  songs  are  rarely,  if 
ever,  heard  in  the  present  day.  The  exceptions  are  almost  invariably  those  to 
which  music  has  been  composed  at  comparatively  recent  dates.  Since  D'Urfey's 
time,  English  poets  have  generally  pursued  the  old  course,  but  the  Scotch  have 
acted  otherwise.  They  sang  D'Urfey's  songs, — adopted  many  of  the  tunes, — 
their  poets  wrote  other  words  to  them,  and  continue,  to  the  present  day,  to  write 
to  airs  of  a  similar  class.  "  Roy's  Wife  of  Aldivalloch,"  "  Caller  Herrin," 
"Auld  lang  syne,"  and  numberless  others,  are  taken  from  books  of  Scottish 
dance  music,  printed  during  the  latter  half  of  the  last  century  ;  and  many  of  the 
mont  pathetic  airs  were  originally  quick  tunes  of  the  same  kind.  If  English  poets 
wish  their  songs  to  endure,  the  safest  course  will  be  to  follow  the  example  of  Tom 
D'l  Frfey,  and  of  the  Scotch.  Dibdin's  sea  songs  are  already  fading  from  memory, 
because  he  composed  music  to  them,  instead  of  writing  to  airs  which  had  stood 
the  test  of  time. 

•His  mother  was  probably  an  Englishwoman,  for  Tom  b  It  was  licensed  June  15th,  1676,  and,  according  to  the 

Brov n  addresses  D'Urfey  in  one  of  his  satires,  as  "Thou        Biographia  Dramaiica,   published  in   that  year.     After 
cur!   half  French,  half  English  breed."  D'Urfey's  death  it  was  revived  in  1726,  1732,  and  1740. 


622  ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 

D'Urfey  printed  five  collections  of  his  own  songs,  and  many  of  the  same  were 
afterwards  included  in  Pills  to  purge  Melancholy.  In  the  first  two  collections  are 
various  songs  which  were  "  sung  to  the  King  ;"  indeed,  wherever  Charles  went, 
D'Urfey  seems  to  have  been  engaged  to  entertain  him.  "  Quoth  John  to  Joan," 
or  "  I  cannot  come  every  day  to  woo ;"  "  The  Spinning  Wheel,"  ("  Upon  a  sun- 
shine summer's  day")  ;  "  Pretty  Kate  of.  Edinburgh ;"  and  "  Advice  to  the 
City,"  are  among  those  which  were  sung  to  the  King  at  Windsor.  The  last 
commences —  "  Remember,  ye  Whigs,  what  was  formerly  done, 
Remember  your  mischiefs  in  Forty  and  One  ;  " 

and  D'Urfey  tells  us,  in  the  Pitts,  that  the  King  held  one  part  of  the  paper,  and 
sang  it  with  him.  Others  were  heard  at  Newmarket,  at  Winchester,  "  at  his 
entertainment  at  my  Lord  Conway's,"  and  one  "  sung  to  the  King  and  Queen, 
upon  Sir  John  Moor's  being  chosen  Lord  Mayor." 

D'Urfey  was  one  of  those  who  wrote  panegyrics  upon  James,  when  Duke  of  York, 
and  congratulatory  verses  upon  his  return  from  Scotland.  In  the  preface  to  the 
Pills,  he  boasts  of  having  "  performed  some  of  his  own  things  before  their 
Majesties,  King  Charles  II.,  King  James,  King  William,  Queen  Mary,  Queen 
Anne,  and  Prince  George  of  Denmark ;"  and  that,  on  such  occasions,  he  never 
quitted  them  "  without  happy  and  commendable  approbation."  He  also  wrote 
a  "  Vive  le  Roy"  for  George  the  First,  and  "  A  new  song  on  his  happy  accession 
to  the  crown ;"  but  Tom  was  then  grown  old,  and  we  have  no  proof  of  his  having 
been  in  favour  with  that  Monarch.  Moreover,  the  King  could  not  have  approved, 
if  he  knew,  of  a  song  which  D'Urfey  is  said  to  have  written  upon  his  mother,  the 
Princess  Sophia,  Electress  and  Duchess  Dowager  of  Hanover.  This  was  to  please 
Queen  Anne,  by  complimenting  her  upon  her  youth  at  the  expense  of  the 
Princess,  who  was  next  heir  to  the  crown,  and  no  great  favorite  with  Queen  Anne, 
as  excluding  her  brother  from  the  succession.  The  Queen  is  said  to  have  given 
D'Urfey  fifty  guineas  for  singing  it. 

"  The  crown's  far  too  weighty  Has  grown  so  unsteady 

For  shoulders  of  eighty,  She  can't  hold  a  sceptre ; 

She  could  not  sustain  such  a  trophy,  So  Providence  kept  her 

Her  hand,  too,  already  Away, — poor  old  Dowager  Sophy." 

Hone's  Table  Book,  p.  560. 

A  very  amusing  sketch  of  the  life  of  D'Urfey  will  be  found  in  Household  Words, 
in  which  the  writer  quotes  a  note  to  The  Dunciad,  to  prove  that  Tom  was  the  last 
English  poet  who  appeared  in  the  streets  attended  by  a  page.  The  popularity 
of  his  songs  in  the  country  is  alluded  to  by  Pope,  in  a  letter  dated  April  10, 1710. 
He  says : — 

"I  have  not  quoted  one  Latin  author  since  I  came  down,  but  have  learned  without 
book  a  song  of  Mr.  Thomas  D'Urfey's,  who  is  your  only  poet  of  tolerable  reputation 
in  this  country.  He  makes  all  the  merriment  in  our  entertainments,  and,  but  for 
him,  there  would  be  so  miserable  a  dearth  of  catches,  that  I  fear  they  would  put 
either  the  parson  or  me  upon  making  some  for  'em.  Any  man,  of  any  quality,  is 
heartily  welcome  to  the  best  topeing-table  of  our  gentry,  who  can  roar  out  some 
rhapsodies  of  his  works.  .  .  .  Alas,  sir,  neither  you  with  your  Ovid,  nor  I  with  my 


REIGN   OP   QUEEN   ANNE   TO   GEORGE   II.  623 

Statins,  can  amuse  a  whole  board  of  Justices  and  extraordinary  'Squires,  or  gain  one 
hum  of  approbation,  or  laugh  of  admiration!  'These  things,'  they  would  say,  'are 
too  studious,  they  may  do  well  enough  with  such  as  love  reading,  but  give  us  your 
aiicient  poet,  Mr.  D'Urfey."  (Pope's  Literary  Correspondence,  Curll,  i.  267.) 

The  secret  of  D'Urfey's  popularity  as  a  song- writer,  lay  in  his  selection  of  the 
tunes.  He  trenched  upon  the  occupation  of  the  professed  ballad-writers,  by 
adopting  the  airs  which  had  been  their  exclusive  property,  and  by  taking  the 
subjects  of  their  ballads ;  altering  them  to  give  them  as  his  own.  If  the  reader  will 
compare  Martin  Parker's  "  Milkmaid's  Life  "  with  D'Urfey's  "  Bonny  Milkmaid  " 
(ante  pp.  295,  297),  he  will  see  how  these  transformations  were  effected;  and 
there  are  many  similar  examples  in  the  Pills. 

Perhaps  no  man  was  ever  so  general  a  favorite  with  his  contemporaries  as 
Tom  D'Urfey.  His  brother  poets  pleaded  for  him  in  his  old  age,  and,  by  their 
good  offices  and  those  of  the  actors,  he  was  rescued  from  the  effects  of  the  im- 
providence which  has  been  proverbial  with  men  of  his  class.  Steele  and  Addison 
were  his  great  friends,  and  equally  urged  his  claims  upon  the  public.  Addison, 
on  the  occasion  of  a  play  to  be  acted  for  D'Urfey's  benefit,  wrote  in  these 
words : — "  He  has  made  the  world  merry,  and  I  hope  they  will  make  him  easy 
as  long  as  he  stays  among  us.  This  I  will  take  upon  me  to  say,  they  cannot 
do  a  kindness  to  a  more  diverting  companion,  or  a  more  cheerful,  honest,  good- 
natured  man." 

The  Londoner  who  enters  St.  James's  Church  from  Jermyn  Street  will  see  a  stone 
with  this  inscription :— "  Tom  D'Urfey  :  Dyed  Feb1^  ye  26th,  1723."  The  stone 
has  been  removed  to  the  back  of  the  church,  for  within  my  recollection,  it  stood 
by  the  principal  entrance.  The  following  "  Epitaph  upon  Tom  D'Urfey"  is  from 
Miscellaneous  Poems  ly  several  hands,  i.  6.  1726  : — 

"  Here  lyes  the  Lyrick,  who,  with  tale  and  song, 
Did  life  to  three  score  years  and  ten  prolong ; 
His  tale  was  pleasant  and  his  song  was  sweet, 
His  heart  was  cheerful — but  his  thirst  was  great. 
Grieve,  Reader,  grieve,  that  he  too  soon  grew  old, — 
His  song  has  ended,  and  his  tale  is  told." 

The  only  great  use  which  had  been  made  of  old  tunes  by  the  upper  classes 
before  D'Urfey's  time  (except  for  dancing)  was  for  political  songs  or  lampoons, 
and  they  were  continuously  employed  for  those  purposes  to  the  middle  of  the  last 
cencury,  and  occasionally  at  later  dates.  Lady  Luxborough  says  in  a  letter  to 
Shtnstone,  "  It  is  the  fashion  for  every  body  to  write  a  couplet  to  the  same  tune 
(viz.,  an  old  country  dance)  upon  whatever  subject  occurs  to  them, — I  should  say 
upon  whatever  person,  with  their  names  to  it.  Lords,  gentlemen,  ladies,  flirts, 
scholars,  soldiers,  divines,  masters,  and  misses,  are  all  authors  upon  this  occasion 
and  also  the  objects  of  each  other's  satire."  (Monthly  Review,  liv.,  62.) 

la  the  petition  of  Thomas  Brown,  by  Sir  Fleetwood  Shepherd,  he  thus  alludes 
to  their  frequent  use  in  his  day : — 


624  ENGLISH   SONG  AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 

"  E'en  D'Urfey  himself,  and  such  merry  fellows, 
That  put  their  whole  trust  in  tunes  and  twangdillos, 
May  hang  up  themselves  and  their  harps  on  the  willows ; 
For,  if  poets  are  punished  for  libelling-trash, 
Jo.  Dryden,  at  sixty,  may  yet  fear  the  lash."        t 

Political  songs  were  mainly  kept  alive  by  the  mug-houses  in  London  and  West- 
minster, and  many  of  the  songs  sung  at  those  clubs  were  afterwards  collected  and 
published.  The  author  of  A  Journey  through  England  in  1724,"  says, — 

"In  the  city  of  London,  almost  every  parish  hath  its  separate  club,  where  the 
citizens,  after  the  fatigue  of  the  day  is  over  in  their  shops  and  on  the  Exchange,  un- 
bend their  thoughts  before  they  go  to  bed.  But  the  most  diverting  or  amusing  of  all 
were  the  mug-house  clubs  in  Long  Acre,  Cheapside,  &c.,  where  gentlemen,  lawyers, 
and  tradesmen,  used  to  meet  in  a  great  room,  seldom  under  a  hundred. 

"  They  had  a  president,  who  sate  in  an  armed  chair  some  steps  higher  than  the  rest 
of  the  company,  to  keep  the  whole  room  in  order.  A  harp  played  all  the  time  at  the 
lower  end  of  the  room ;  and  every  now  and  then  one  or  other  of  the  company  rose 
and  entertained  the  rest  with  a  song,  and  (by  the  by)  some  were  good  masters.  Here 
was  nothing  drank  but  ale,  and  every  gentleman  had  his  separate  mug,  which  he 
chalked  on  the  table  where  he  sate,  as  it  was  brought  in ;  and  every  one  retired  when 
he  pleased,  as  from  a  coffee-house. 

"  The  rooms  were  always  so  diverted  with  songs,  and  drinking  from  one  table  to 
another  to  one  another's  healths,  that  there  was  no  room  for  anything  that  could  sour 
conversation. 

"  One  was  obliged  to  be  there  by  seven  to  get  room,  and  after  ten  the  company 
were  for  the  most  part  gone. 

"  This  was  a  winter's  amusement,  agreeable  enough  to  a  stranger  for  once  or  twice, 
and  he  was  well  diverted  with  the  different  humours  when  the  mugs  overflow. 

"  On  King  George's  accession  to  the  throne,  the  Tories  had  so  much  the  better  of 
the  friends  to  the  Protestant  succession,  that  they  gained  the  mobs  on  all  public  days 
to  their  side.  This  induced  this  set  of  gentlemen  to  establish  mug-houses  in  all  the 
corners  of  this  great  city,  for  well-affected  tradesmen  to  meet  and  keep  up  the  spirit 
of  loyalty  to  the  Protestant  succession,  and  to  be  ready  upon  all  tumults  to  join  their 
forces  for  the  suppression  of  the  Tory  mobs.  Many  an  encounter  they  had,  and  many 
were  the  riots,  till  at  last  the  Parliament  was  obliged  by  a  law  to  put  an  end  to  this 
city  strife ;  which  had  this  good  effect,  that  upon  the  pulling  down  of  the  mug-house 
in  Salisbury  Court,  for  which  some  boys  were  hanged  on  this  Act,  the  city  has  not 
been  troubled  with  them  since."  (Malcolm's  Manners  and  Customs,  p.  532.) 

Political  songs  seem  to  have  been  the  only  kind  of  poetry  in  general  favour, 
after  the  reign  of  Queen  Anne.  Horace  Walpole  writes  to  Richard  West,  in 
1742,— 

"  'Tis  an  age  most  unpoetical ;  'tis  even  a  test  of  wit,  to  dislike  poetry  :  and  though 
Pope  has  half  a  dozen  old  friends  that  he  has  preserved,  from  the  taste  of  last 
century,  yet,  I  assure  you,  the  generality  of  readers  are  more  diverted  with  any 
paltry  prose  answer  to  old  Marlborough's  Secret  History  of  Queen  Mary's  Robes.  I  do 
not  think  an  author  would  be  universally  commended  for  any  production  in  verse 
unless  it  were  an  Ode  to  the  Secret  Committee,  with  rhymes  of '  liberty  and  property,' 
'  nation  and  administration.' "  (Correspondence,  i.  100.) 


REIGN   OF   QUEEN  ANNE  TO   GEORGE   II.  625 

The  cultivation  of  music  among  gentlemen  began  to  decline  in  the  reign  of 
Charles  II.,  slowly  but  progressively.  The  style  of  music  in  favour  in  his  day 
required  less  cultivation  than  the  contrapuntal  part-writing  of  earlier  times. 
Play  ford  remarks  that  "  of  late  years  all  solemn  and  grave  music  has  been  laid 
aside,  being  esteemed  too  heavy  and  dull  for  the  light  heels  and  brains  of  this 
nimble  and  wanton  age."  Salmon,  writing  in  1672,  attributes  its  decline  to 
the  intricate  and  troublesome  nature  of  the  clefs,  and  says,  that  "  for  ease  sake, 
many  gentlemen  gave  themselves  over  to  whistling  upon  the  flageolet,  and  fiddling 
upon  the  violin,  till  they  were  so  rivalled  by  their  lacquies  and  barbers'  boys  that 
they  were  forced  to  quit  them,  as  ladies  do  their  fashions  when  the  chambermaids 
have  inherited  their  old  clothes."  (Essay  to  the  Advancement  of  Music,  p.  36.) 

Among  ladies,  the  cultivation  seems  to  have  remained  in  nearly  the  same 
state  as  before.  In  "The  Levellers:  A  Dialogue  between  two  young  ladies 
concerning  Matrimony,"  (4to.,  1703),  Politica,  who  is  a  tradesman's  daughter ? 
describing  her  education  at  a  boarding  school,  says,  she  "  learned  to  sing,  to  play 
on  the  base-viol,  virginals,  spinnet,  and  guitair."  Here  we  find  the  base-viol 
still  in  use  by  ladies ;  and  again,  in  Vanbrugh's  play,  The  Relapse,  "  To  prevent 
all  misfortunes,  she  has  her  breeding  within  doors;  the  parson  of  the  parish 
teaches  her  to  play  on  the  base-viol,  the  clerk  to  sing,  her  nurse  to  dress,  and  her 
father  to  dance."  (Act  i.,  sc.  1.)  Nevertheless,  some  opposition  to  its  use  had 
existed  long  before,  for  Middle  ton,  in  his  Roaring  Girl,  says,  "  There  be  a 
thousand  close  dames  that  will  call  the  viol  an  unmannerly  instrument  for  a 


woman." 


The  dancing  schools  of  London  are  described  by  Count  Lorenzo  Magalotti, 
on  his  visit  to  England  with  Cosmo,  III.  Grand  Duke  of  Tuscany,  in  1669.  He 
says,  "  they  are  frequented  both  by  unmarried  and  married  ladies,  who  are 
instructed  by  the  master,  and  practise,  with  much  gracefulness  and  agility,  various 
dances  after  the  English  fashion.  Dancing  is  a  very  common  and  favorite  amuse- 
ment of  the  ladies  in  this  country ;  every  evening  there  are  entertainments  at 
different  places  in  the  city,  at  which  many  ladies  and  citizens'  wives  are  present, 
they  going  to  them  alone,  as  they  do  to  the  rooms  of  the  dancing  masters,  at  which 
there  are  frequently  upwards  of  forty  or  fifty  ladies.  His  Highness  had  an  op- 
portunity of  seeing  several  dances  in  the  English  style,  exceeding  well  regulated, 
and  executed  in  the  smartest  and  genteelest  manner  by  very  young  ladies,  whose 
beauty  and  gracefulness  were  shewn  off  to  perfection  in  this  exercise."  (p.  319.) 
And  again,  "  He  went  out  to  Highgate  to  see  a  children's  ball,  which,  being 
conducted  according  to  the  English  custom,  afforded  great  pleasure  to  his  High- 
ness, both  from  the  numbers,  the  manner,  and  the  gracefulness  of  the  dancers." 

The  English  had  long  been  celebrated  for  their  dancing.  "  In  saltatione  et 
arte  musica  excellunt,"  says  Hentzner,  describing  us  in  1598 ;  and  while  a  man 
mi^ht  hope  to  become  Lord  Chancellor  by  good  dancing,  without  being  bred  to 
the  law  (like  Sir  Christopher  Hatton) ,  it  was  certainly  worth  while  to  endeavour 
to  excel.  Fletcher,  in  the  opening  scene  of  his  Island  Princess,  to  depict  forcibly 
the  pleasure  that  a  certain  prince  took  in  the  management  of  a  sailing  boat, 


626  ENGLISH   SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 

likens  it  to  the  delight  which  the  Portuguese  or  Spaniards  have  in  riding  great 
horses,  the  French  in  courteous  behaviour,  or  "  the  dancing  English  in  carrying  a 
fair  presence."  In  1581,  according  to  Barnaby  Rich,  the  dances  in  vogue  were 
measures,a  galliards,  jigs,  brauls,  rounds,  and  hornpipes.  In  1602,  the  Earl  of 
Worcester  writes  to  the  Earl  of  Shrewsbury,  "  We  are  frolic  here  in  Court ;  much 
dancing  in  the  Privy  Chamber  of  country  dances  before  the  Queen's  Majesty,  who 
is  exceedingly  pleased  therewith."  (Lodge's  Illustrations  of  British  History, 
ii.  578.)  In  the  reign  of  James  I.,  Weldon,  sneering  at  Buckingham's  kindred, 
observes,  that  it  was  easier  to  put  on  fine  clothes  than  to  learn  the  French  dances, 
and  therefore  that  "  none  but  country  dances"  must  be  used  at  Court.  This  was 
not  quite  correct,  for  although  country  dances  were  most  in  fashion,  others  were 
not  excluded.  At  Christmas,  1622-3,  after  the  masque,  "the  Prince"  (after- 
wards Charles  I.)  "  did  lead  the  measures  with  the  French  Embassador's  wife. 
The  measures,  braules,  corrantos,  and  galliards,  being  ended,  the  masquers  with 
the  ladies  did  daunce  two  country  dances,  where  the  French  Embassador's  wife  and 
Mademoysal  St.  Luke  did  daunce."  (Malone,  from  a  MS.  in  Dulwich  College.) 
In  the  reigns  of  Charles  II.  and  James  II.,  country  dances  continued  in  much 
the  same  use.  They  were  the  merriment  after  the  first  formalities  of  the  evening 
had  worn  off.  In  The  Mysteries  of  Love  and  Eloquence,  or  The  Arte  of  Wooing 
and  Complimenting,  by  Edward  Philips  (Milton's  nephew),  there  is  a  chapter  on 
"  The  Mode  of  Balls,"  which  opens  with  the  following  speech  from  the  dancing 
master: — "  Come,  stir  yourselves,  maidens,  'twill  bring  a  fresh  colour  into  your 
cheeks ;  rub  hard,  and  let  the  ladies  see  their  faces  in  the  boards,"  &c. ;  to  which 
Bess,  who  has  not  yet  been  properly  tutored,  replies,  "  And,  by  the  mass,  that 
will  I  do,  and  make  such  fine  drops  and  curtsies  in  my  best  wastecoat,  that  they 
shall  not  chuse  but  take  notice  of  me ;  and  Sarah  shall  dance  a  North-country  jigg 
before  'em,  too:  I  warrant  it  will  please  the  ladies  better  than  all  your  French 
whisks  and  frisks.  I  had  rather  see  one  freak  of  jolly  milkmaids  than  all  that  will 
be  here  to-night."  After  some  directions  as  to  what  should  be  done,  the  dancing 
master  says,  "  Ladies,  will  you  be  pleased  to  dance  a  country  dance  or  two,  for 
'tis  that  which  makes  you  truly  sociable,  and  us  truly  happy;  being  like  the 
chorus  of  a  song,  where  all  the  parts  sing  together." 

I  have  mentioned  more  particularly  the  subject  of  country  dances,  because  the 
fashion  of  dancing  our  national  dance,  has  extended,  at  various  times,  to  every 
court  in  Europe.  Yet  we  English  have  so  great  a  mania  for  catching  at  the 
first  foreign  word  that  resembles  our  own,  and  immediately  settling  that  ours 
must  have  been  derived  from  it,  that,  let  but  one  person  propose  such  a  derivation, 
there  will  always  be  plenty  to  follow,  and  to  vouch  for  it  upon  their  own  responsi- 
bility. From  this  the  country  dance  has  not  escaped. 

I  cannot  tell  to  whom  the  brilliant  anachronism  of  deriving  it  from  "  Contre- 
danse  "  is  due,  for,  although  asserted  very  positively  by  three  contemporaneous 

»  The  measure  was  a  grave  and  solemn  dance,  with        John  Davies  says, — 

slow  and  measured  steps,  like  the  minuet.     To  tread  a  "Yet  all  the  feet  whereon  these  measures  go 

measure  was  the  usual  term,  like  to  walk  a  minuet.     Sir  Are  only  spondees,  solemn,  grave,  and  slow. 


REIGN   OF   QUEEN   ANNE   TO   GEORGE   II.  627 

modern  writers,  no  one  of  the  three  condescends  to  give  other  authority  than 
his  own. 

The  late  John  Wilson  Croker,  in  his  Memoirs  of  the  Embassy  of  Marshall  de 
Bassompierre  to  the  Court  of  England  in  1626,  says,  in  a  note :  "  Our  Country 
Dances  are  a  corruption  in  name,  and  a  simplification  in  figure,  of  the  French 
Cortredanse."  Mr.  De  Quincey,  in  his  Life  and  Manners,  and  the  late  Dr.  Busby, 
in  his  Dictionary  of  Music,  tell  us  the  same.  The  discovery  was  not  made  when 
Weaver  and  Essex  wrote  their  Histories  of  Dancing  f  in  1710,  and  1712,  nor 
when  Hawkins  published  his  History  of  Music,  in  1776.  French  etymologists  have 
been  equally  in  the  dark,  for  they  have  reversed  the  position.  "  Ce  mot  [Contre- 
danse]  paroit  venir  de  1'Anglois,  country-danse,  danse  de  campagne ;  en  effet,  c'est 
au  village  sur-tout  que  1'on  aime  a  se  reunir  et  que  1'on  prefere  les  plaisirs  par- 
tagos.  Le  grave  menuet,  qui  n'emploie  que  deux  personnes,  et  qui  ne  laisse  aux 
spectateurs  d'autre  occupation  que  celle  d' admirer,  n'a  pu  prendre  naissance  que 
dans  les  villes  ou  1'on  danse  pour  amour-propre.  Au  village  1'on  danse  pour  le 
seul  plaisir  de  danser,  pour  agiter  les  membres  accoutumes  a  un  violent  exercise  ; 
on  danse  pour  exhaler  un  sentiment  de  joie  qui  n'a  pas  besoin  de  spectateurs." 
(Encyclopedic  Methodique:  Musique,  i.  316,  4to.,  1791.) 

I  have  quoted  the  passage  from  the  Encyclopedic  at  length,  because 
M.  Framery's  reasons  are  exactly  those  which  account  for  the  long-enduring 
popularity  of  the  country-dance.  The  French  contredanse  (known  in  England 
by  die  name  of  quadrille)  cannot  be  traced  to  an  earlier  period  than  the  latter 
part  of  the  seventeenth  century,  and  it  seems  to  have  originated  in  the  first  quarter 
of  the  eighteenth.  It  is  not  described  by  Thoinot  Arbeau,  or  any  of  the  early 
French  writers  on  dancing.  J.  J.  Rousseau,  Compan  (author  of  the  Dictionnaire 
de  Danse),  and  other  writers  of  the  last  century,  if  they  do  not  give  the 
etymology,  either  say  that  it  was  danced  after  minuets,  or  with  gavotte  steps, 
therefore  subsequent  to  both.  The  first  French  dictionary  in  which  I  have  been 
enabled  to  trace  the  word,  is  that  of  P.  Richelet,  printed  at  Amsterdam  in  1732. 
It  is  not  contained  in  the  Geneva  edition  of  1680,  or  in  that  of  1694. 

"  Centre  "  certainly  means  "  opposite,"  and  men  stand  opposite  their  partners 
in  modern  country  dances,  but  this  was  by  no  means  a  rule  in  early  times. 
There  were  great  varieties  of  figure,  and  some  of  the  earliest  (such  as  Bellinger's 
Round)  were  danced  in  circles,  often  round  a  tree  or  maypole. 

la  The  English  Dancing  Master  of  1651,  besides  those  danced  in  the  modern 
way  (which  are  described  as  "Longways  for  as  many  as  will"),  there  are  the 
following  Rounds  "  for  as  many  as  will:" — The  chirping  of  the  Nightingale  ; 
Gathering  peascods ;  If  all  the  world  were  paper  (a  still-remembered  nursery 
son^-)  ;  Miflfield;  Pepper's  black;  and  Rose  is  white,  rose  is  red.  There  are  also 
rounds  for  four  and  for  eight. 

In  Dargason  (a  country  dance  older  than  the  Reformation)  men  and  women 

•  V  eaver  says,  "  Country-dances  are  a  dancing  the  pe-  preface  to  his  Trealiseon  Chorography,  or  the  art  of  dancing 

culiaj  growth  of  this  nation;  tho'  now  transplanted  into  Country  Dances,  1710,  says  "This  which  we  call  Country 

almost  all  the  Courts   of  Europe."    Essay  towards   the  Dancing  is  originally  the  product  of  this  nation."    Haw- 

History  of  Dancing,  8vo.,  1712,  p.  170.      Essex,  in  the  kins  quotes  Weaver. 

2  s 


628  ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD    MUSIC. 

stand  in  one  straight  line  at   the  commencement;   the  men  together  and  the 
women  together. 

Fain  I  would  is  "  a  Square  Dance  for  eight,"  and  men  and  women  stand  as  in 
a  quadrille,  except  that  the  man  is  on  the  right  of  his  partner. 

Dull  Sir  John  and  Hide  Parke  are  also  square  dances  for  eight ;  and  in  those 
the  couples  stand  exactly  as  in  the  modern  quadrille.  This  is  the  form  the 
French  copied,  and  with  it  some  of  the  country-dance  figures.  To  one  of  these 
they  gave  the  name  of  "  Chaine  Anglaise." 

Although  Playford  alludes,  in  his  preface,  to  the  dancing  of  the  ancient  Greeks, 
and  to  "  the  sweet  and  airy  activity  "  of  our  gentlemen  of  the  Inns  of  Court  (who 
were  no  doubt  looking  out  to  become  Lord  Chancellors)  ;  he  does  not  mention 
French  dancing,  neither  is  there  one  French  term  in  the  book. 

It  is  time  to  protest  against  Mr.  De  Quincey's  derivation  since  it  has  been 
quoted  in  a  work  of  such  authority  as  English,  Past  and  Present,  by  Richard 
Chevenix  Trench,  B.D.  (the  present  Dean  of  Westminster),  and  this  book  the 
substance  of  lectures  delivered  to  the  pupils  of  King's  College,  London.  I  would 
add  that,  to  this  day,  French  dances  have  made  no  way  in  English  villages.  The 
amusements  of  our  peasantry  are  the  hornpipe,  the  country-dance,  the  jig,  and 
occasionally  the  reel. 

I  have  no  doubt  that,  if  time  permitted  me  to  make  the  search,  I  should  find 
much  English  dance  music  in  early  French  collections,  as  well  as  in  those  of  other 
countries ;  for,  on  a  recent  visit  of  a  few  hours  to  the  Bibliotheque  Imperial,  in 
Paris,  three  books  of  lute  music  were  shown  to  me,a  and  among  the  contents 
I  observed,  "  Courante  d'Angleterre,"  "  Gigue  d'Angleterre,"  "Sarabande 
d'Angleterre,"  "Pavane  d'Angleterre"  (several),  "Galliarda  Joannis  Doolandi" 
(Dowland),  "  Chorea  Anglicana,"  &c.  One  of  these  was  a  manuscript  with  a 
printed  title-page  by  Robert  Ballard,  the  early  French  music  publisher 
(No.  2,660)  ;  a  second,  Le  Tresor  d'Orphee,  printed  by  his  widow  and  son 
in  1600.  In  the  preface  to  the  third,  I  read  "  Prout  sunt  illi  Anglicani  Concentus 
suavissimi  quiclem,  ac  elegantes,"  &c.  This  was  Thesaurus  Harmonious  divini 
Laurencini,  Romani.  Cologne,  1603.  fol. 

Playford  recommends  dancing  as  making  the  body  active  and  strong  and  the 
deportment  graceful ;  but  I  imagine  that  when  country-dances  were  danced  in 
the  country,  activity  and  lofty  springing  were  the  principal  tests  of  excellence. 

The  genuine  country  way  was  perhaps  as  described  in  Rastell's  interlude,  The 
Four  Elements,  where  one  of  the  characters  says, — 

"  I  shall  bryng  hydyr  another  sort  And  torne  clene  above  the  grounde 

Of  lusty  bhiddes,  to  make  dy sport,  With  fryscas  and  with  gambawdes  round, 

That  can  both  daunce  and  spryng,  That  all  the  hall  shall  ryng." 

It  may  have  been  otherwise  at  Court,  for,  as  the  son^  says, — 
"  There  they  did  dance 

As  in  France, 
Not  in  the  English  lofty  manner." 

•  I  am  indebted  to  the  courtesy  of  Mr.  Anders,  one  of  catalogues  of  the  library,  as  in  England  ;   so  that,  unless 

the  librarians,  for  shewing  me  these  books  of  lute  music,  a  book  has  been  quoted  before,  it  is  only  by  such  assist- 

and  for  assisting  me  in  the  search  after  the  origin  of  the  ance  that  it  can  be  discovered. 
Contredanse.       Readers   are  not    permitted   to  see   the 


REIGN   OF    QUEEN   ANNE   TO   GEORGE    II.  629 

Now  as  to  jigs  and  reels.  Jigs  seem  to  have  been  danced  at  Court  until  the 
crown  passed  to  the  house  of  Hanover.  There  are  jigs  named  after  every  king 
and  Queen  from  Charles  II.  to  Queen  Anne,  and  many  from  noblemen  of  the 
Court.  I  have  not  observed  them  enumerated  among  the  dances  on  state 
occasions,  and  imagine  therefore  that  they  were  only  used  for  relaxation.  Jigs 
were  also  danced  upon  the  stage,  for,  in  the  epilogue  to  The  Chances,  a  play  which 
the  Duke  of  Buckingham  altered  from  Beaumont  and  Fletcher,  he  speaks  of 
dramatists  appropriating  to  themselves  the  applause  intended  for  Nell  Gwynne, — 
"  Besides  the  author  dreads  the  strut  and  mien 

Of  new-prais'd  poets,  having  often  seen 

Some  of  his  fellows,  who  have  writ  before, 

When  Nell  has  danc'd  her  jig,  steal  to  the  door, 

Hear  the  pit  clap,  and  with  conceit  of  that, 

Swell,  and  believe  themselves  the  Lord  knows  what." 

In  speaking  of  the  reel  it  is  necessary  to  include  the  hay,  for  dancing  a  reel  is 
but  one  of  the  ways  of  dancing  the  hay. 

Strutt  describes  the  hay  as  "  a  rustic  dance,  where  they  lay  hold  of  hands  and 
dance  round  in  a  ring  ; "  but  I  think  this  a  very  imperfect,  if  not  an  incorrect 
delinition.  The  hay  was  danced  in  a  line  as  well  as  in  a  circle,  and  it  was  by 
no  means  a  rule  that  hands  should  be  given  in  passing.  To  dance  the  hey  or 
hay  became  a  proverbial  expression  signifying  to  twist  about,  or  wind  in  and 
out:  without  making  any  advance.  So  in  Hackluyt's  Voyages,  iii.  200,  "  Some  of 
tho  mariners  thought  we  were  in  the  Bristow  Channell,  and  other  in  Silly 
Channell;  so  that,  through  variety  of  judgements  and  evill  marinership,  we  were 
fame  to  dance  the  hay  foure  dayes  together,  sometimes  running  to  the  north-east, 
sometimes  to  the  south-east,  and  again  to  the  east,  and  east  north-east."  In  Sir 
John  Davies's  Orchestra,  "  He  taught  them  rounds  and  ivinding  heys  to  tread."* 
(In  the  margin  he  explains  "  rounds  and  winding  heys  "  to  be  country-dances.) 
In  The  Dancing  Master  the  hey  is  one  of  the  figures  of  most  frequent  occur- 
rence. In  one  country-dance, "  the  women  stand  still,  the  men  going  the  hey 
between  them."  This  is  evidently  winding  in  and  out.  In  another,  two  men 
and  one  woman  dance  the  hey, — like  a  reel.  In  a  third,  three  men  dance  this 
hey,  and  three  women  at  the  same  time — like  a  double  reel.  In  Dargason,  where 
many  stand  in  one  long  line,  the  direction  is  "  the  single  hey,  all  handing  as  you 
pass,  till  you  come  to  your  places."  When  the  hand  was  to  be  given  in  passing, 
it  was  always  so  directed ;  but  the  hey  was  more  frequently  danced  without 
"  handing."  In  "  the  square  dances,"  the  two  opposite  couples  dance  the  single 
hey  twice  to  their  places,  the  woman  standing  before  her  partner  at  starting. 
When  danced  by  many  in  a  circle,  if  hands  were  given,  it  was  like  the  "  grande 
cha  ine  "  of  a  quadrille. 

Old  dance  and  ballad  tunes  were  greatly  revived  at  the  commencement  of  the 

*  '  Thus,  when  at  first  Love  had  them  marshalled,  As  the  two  Bears,  whom  the  First  Mover  flings, 

As  erst  he  did  the  shapeless  mass  of  things,  With  a  short  turn,  about  Heaven's  axle-tree, 

He  taught  them  rounds  and  winding  heys  to  tread,  In  a  round  dance  for  ever  wheeling  be." 
And  about  trees  to  cast  themselves  in  rings  : 


630  ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 

reign  of  George  II.  through  the  medium  of  the  ballad-operas.  The  first  of  these 
was  The  Beggars^  Opera,  which  contained  the  necessary  amount  of  political 
satire  to  suit  the  taste  of  the  day  in  song,  and  was  a  caricature  of  Italian  operas, 
then  in  the  height  of  fashion.  It  was  first  offered  to  Gibber,  at  Drury  Lane,  and 
rejected  by  him,  but  accepted  by  Rich,  the  manager  of  the  Theatre  Royal  in 
Lincoln's  Inn  Fields,  and  produced  on  the  29th  of  January,  1727-8.  It  was 
written  by  Gay, — the  success  was  extraordinarily  great,  and  it  was  said,  by  one  of 
the  wits  of  the  day,  to  have  made  Gay  rich,  and  Rich  gay.  The  following  account 
of  it  is  from  the  notes  to  The  Dunciad: — "  This  piece  was  received  with  greater 
applause  than  was  ever  known.  Besides  being  acted  in  London  sixty- three  days 
without  intermission,  and  renewed  the  next  season  with  equal  applause,  it  spread 
into  all  the  great  towns  of  England ;  it  made  a  progress  into  Wales,  Scotland,  and 
Ireland ;  the  ladies  carried  about  with  them  the  favorite  songs  of  it,  on  fans ; 
houses  were  furnished  with  it  on  screens ;  furthermore,  it  drove  out  of  England, 
for  that  season,  the  Italian  opera,  which  had  carried  all  before  it  for  ten  years." 
Lavinia  Fenton,  who  acted  the  part  of  Polly,  became  the  toast  of  the  town,  and 
was  soon  after  married  by  Charles,  third  Duke  of  Bolton. 

One  of  the  Miscellaneous  Poems  by  several  Hands,    published  by  D.  Lewis 
(8vo.,  1730),  is  on  the  success  of  The  Beggars'  Opera.     It  is  "Old  England's 
Garland ;  or,  The  Italian  Opera's  Downfall.     An  excellent  new  ballad,  to  the 
tune  of  King  John  and  the  Allot  of  Canterbury"  and  commences  thus : — 
"  I  sing  of  sad  discords  that  happened  of  late, 
Of  strange  revolutions,  but  not  in  the  state  ; 
How  old  England  grew  fond  of  old  tunes  of  her  own, 
And  her  ballads  went  up  and  our  operas  down. 

Derry  down,  down,  hey  derry  down." 

It  is  again  alluded  .to  in  the  epilogue  to  Love  in  a  Riddle, — 
"Poor  English  mouths,  for  twenty  years,      Sweet  sound  on  languid  sense  bestow'd 

Have  been  shut  up  from  music ;  Is  like  a  beauty  married 

But,  thank  our  stars,  outlandish  airs  To  th'  empty  fop  who  talks  aloud, 

At  last  have  made  all  you  sick.  And  all  her  charms  are  buried. 

When  warbling  dames  were  all  in  flames,     But  late  experience  plainly  shews 

And  for  precedence  wrangled,  That  common  sense,  and  ditty, 

One  English  play  cut  short  the  fray,  Have  ravish'd  all  the  belles  and  beaux, 

And  home  again  they  dangled.  And  charmed  the  chaunting  city." 

For  the  six  years  that  ensued  after  the  production  of  the  Beggars'  Opera, 
scarcely  any  other  kind  of  drama  was  produced  on  the  stage.  Even  for  the 
booths  in  Bartholomew  Fair  new  ballad  operas  were  written,  and  subsequently 
published  with  the  tunes.  In  many  the  music  was  printed  in  type  with  the 
book ;  for  others  it  was  engraved  and  sold  separately. 

I  may  here  remark  that  the  engraving  of  music  on  metal  plates  seems  to  have 
been  practised  in  England  before  it  was  used  in  Italy,  or  any  other  country. 
In  England  it  commenced  in  the  reign  of  James  I.  Before  that  time  all  music 
had  been  printed  from  moveable  types,  except  perhaps  an  occasional  short  spe- 
pimen  from  a  wooden  block.  The  two  first  music  engravers  were  William  and 


REIGN   OF   QUEEN   ANNE    TO   GEORGE    II.  631 

Robert  Hole.  William  engraved  Parthenia,  a  collection  of  pieces  for  the  Vir- 
ginals, dedicated  to  the  Princess  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  James  I.  These  were 
"  composed  by  three  famous  masters,  William  Byrd,  Dr.  John  Bull,  and  Orlando 
Gibbons,  Gentlemen  of  His  Majesties  Most  Illustrious  Chappell,"  and  first  pub- 
lished in  1611.  Robert  Hole  engraved  a  work  of  similar  character  for  virginals 
and  base-viol,  under  the  title  of  Parthenia  inviolata,  which  was  published  without 
date. 

It  was,  no  doubt,  the  demand  for  instrumental  music,  that  first  suggested  the 
rosort  to  engraving,  and  instrumental  music  was  more  cultivated  in  England  than 
in  any  other  country.  Proofs  of  this  have  already  been  given,  but  it  does  not 
rt-st  wholly  upon  the  testimony  of  English  writers.  Many  allusions  to  the  ex- 
cellence of  our  instrumentalists  might  be  cited  from  foreigners,  like  that  of 
Giovanni  Battista  Doni,  in  his  De  Prcestantid  Musicce  veteris,  a  book  written  in 
dialogue,  and  printed  in  1647.  One  of  the  speakers  is  the  advocate  of  the  then 
modern  music,  the  other  of  that  of  the  ancients.  On  the  subject  of  the  tibiae 
or  pipes  of  the  Greeks,  the  latter  says  "  The  English  are  allowed  to  excel  on  the 
flute,  and  there  are  many  good  performers  on  the  cornet  in  that  kingdom,  but  I 
cannot  believe  them  equal  to  the  ancient  players  on  the  tibia,  such  as  Antigenides, 
Pronomus,  and  Timotheus."  No  mention  is  here  made  of  other  instruments  than 
the  flute  and  cornet,  because  the  discussion  is  confined  to  tibiae  and  their  modern 
representatives. 

The  cornet  was  an  extremely  difficult  instrument  to  play  well.  The  Lord 
Keeper  North  says  of  it,  "  Nothing  comes  so  near,  or  rather  imitates  so  much, 
an  excellent  voice,  as  a  cornet-pipe ;  but  the  labour  of  the  lips  is  too  great,  and 
it  is  seldom  well  sounded."  He  adds,  that  in  the  churches  of  York  and  Durham, 
cornets  and  other  wind  music  were  used  in  the  choirs  at  the  Restoration,  to 
supply  the  deficiency  of  voices  and  organs,  but  afterwards  disused. 

Instrumental  music  was  much  employed  at  our  theatres,  not  only  in  operas, 
but  also  when  tragedies  and  comedies  were  performed.  Orazio  Busino,  in  his 
account  of  the  Venetian  Embassy  to  the  Court  of  James  L,  says,  "We  saw  a 
tragedy  [at  the  Fortune  Theatre]  which  diverted  me  very  little,  especially  as 
I  cannot  understand  a  word  of  English,  though  some  little  amusement  may  be 
de  lived  from  gazing  at  the  very  costly  dresses  of  the  actors,  and  from  the  various 
interludes  of  instrumental  music,  and  dancing  and  singing ;  but  the  best  treat 
was  to  see  such  a  crowd  of  nobility,  so  very  well  arrayed  that  they  looked  like  so 
many  princes,  listening  as  silently  and  soberly  as  possible."  (Quarterly  Review, 
October,  1857.) 

Down  to  the  time  of  The  Beggars9  Opera,  it  had  been  the  custom  to  perform 
three  movements  of  instrumental  music,  termed  "  first,  second,  and  third  music," 
beibre  the  commencement  of  each  play.  A  story  is  told  of  Rich,  the  manager, 
who  when  the  customary  music  was  called  for  by  the  audience  at  the  first  performance 
of  The  Beggars'  Opera,  came  forward  and  said,  "  Ladies  and  gentlemen,  there  is 
no  music  to  an  opera"  (setting  the  house  in  a  roar  of  laughter), — "I  mean, 
ladies  and  gentlemen,  an  opera  is  all  music." 


632  ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 

Before  1690,  engraving  may  be  said  to  have  been  employed  only  for  instru- 
mental music.  There  were  a  few  exceptions,  such  as  Dr.  Child's  Psalms  for  three 
voices,  printed  in  1639,  and  reprinted  by  Playford  in  1650,  from  the  same  plates  ; 
but  types  were  greatly  preferred  for  vocal  music,  on  account  of  the  greater 
distinctness  of  the  words.  After  1690,  the  town  began  to  teem  with  single  songs, 
printed  on  one  side  of  the  paper,  from  engraved  plates.  Every  one  who  had  any 
knowledge  of  music,  however  slight,  seemed  ready  to  rush  into  print,  and  many 
wrote  songs  and  published  them  to  old  tunes, — a  class  that  old  John  Playford 
would  have  deemed  unworthy  of  his  press. 

Among  the  encomiastic  verses  prefixed  to  Dr.  Blow's  Amphion  Anglicus,  in 
1700,  are  the  following  allusions  to  these  publications : — 

"  The  mightiest  of  them  cry,  '  Let's  please  the  town ' 
(If  that  be  done,  they  value  not  the  gown) ; 
And  then,  to  let  you  see  'tis  good  and  taking, 
'Tis  soon  in  ballad  howl'd,  ere  mob  are  waking. 

0  happy  men,  who  thus  their  fames  can  raise, 
And  lose  not  e'en  one  inch  of  Kent  Street  praise  ! 
But  yet  the  greatest  scandal's  still  behind, — 

A  baser  dunce  among  the  crew  we  find ; 

A  wretch  bewitched  to  see  his  name  in  print, 

Will  own  a  song,  and  not  one  line  his  in't ! 

1  mean  of  the  foundation — sad's  the  case, 
He  treble  writes,  no  matter  who  the  bass ; 
Just  like  some  over-crafty  architect, 
Would  first  the  garret,  then  the  house  erect. 
Such  trash,  we  know,  has  pester'd  long  the  town, 
But  thou  appear,  and  they  as  soon  are  gone." 

Although  Dr.  Blow  did  appear,  these  would-be  composers  did  not  expire  quite 
so  soon  as  the  writer  expected.  Perhaps  there  remain  some  a  little  like  them 
even  at  the  present  day. 

Another  of  Dr.  Blow's  encomiasts  says, — 

"  Long  have  we  been  with  balladry  oppress'd ; 
Good  sense  lampoon'd,  and  harmony  burlesqu'd  : 
Music  of  many  parts  hath  now  no  force, 
Whole  reams  of  Single  Songs  become  our  curse, 
With  bases  wondrous  lewd,  and  trebles  worse. 
But  still  the  luscious  lore  goes  gliby  down, 
And  still  the  double  entendre  takes  the  town. 
They  print  the  names  of  those  who  set  and  wrote  'em, 
With  Lords  at  top  and  blockheads  at  the  bottom : 
While  at  the  shops  we  daily  dangling  view 
False  concords  by  Tom  Cross  engraven  true." 

The  following  are  specimens  of  the  popular  music  of  this  period. 


REIGN   OF   QUEEN   ANNE    TO    GEORGE    II.  633 

OLD  KING  COLE. 

The  first  question  that  may  be  asked  here,  is,  "  Who  was  old  King  Cole  ?  " 
I  should  say  that  he  was  "  old  Cole  "  the  famous  cloth  manufacturer,  of  Reading, 
one  of  "the  sixe  worthie  yeomen  of  the  West;" — that  his  name  became  pro- 
verbial through  an  extremely  popular  story-book  of  the  sixteenth  century ;  and 
that  he  acquired  his  kingship  much  in  the  same  manner  as  another  celebrated 
worthy,  "  Old  Sir  Simon  the  King." 

There  was  some  joke  or  conventional  meaning  among  Elizabethan  dramatists, 
wiien  they  gave  a  man  the  name  of  Old  Cole,  which  it  is  now  difficult  to  discover. 
Gifford  supposes  it  to  be  a  nickname  given  to  Ben  Jonson  by  Dekker,  because  in 
the  SatiromasttXj  where  Horace  says,  "  I'll  lay  my  hands  under  your  feet, 
Captain  Tucca,"  Tucca  answers,  "  Say'st  thou  to  me  so,  old  Cole  ?  come  do  it, 
then;"  but  Dekker  uses  it  elsewhere  when  there  can  be  no  allusion  to  Ben 
Jonson.  In  the  Second  part  of  The  Honest  Wliore,  Matheo  gives  the  name  to 
Orlando,  who  had  promised  to  assist  him:  "  Say  no  more,  old  Cole;  meet  me 
arion  at  the  sign  of  The  Shipwreck."  Marston,  too,  in  The  Malcontent,  makes 
Malevole  apply  it  to  a  woman, — 

"  Malevole  to  Maquarelle.     Ha,  Dipsas  !  how  dost  thou,  old  Cole  ? 

Maquarelle.     Old  Cole ! 

Malevole.  Ay,  old  Cole;  methinks  thou  liest  like  a  brand  under  billets  of 
gieen  wood." 

This  play  was  printed  in  1604,  and  dedicated  to  Ben  Jonson,  with  whom 
Marston  was  then  on  the  most  friendly  terms.  It  is  true  that  Ben  Jonson,  in 
Bartholomew  Fair,  gives  the  name  of  Old  Cole  to  the  sculler  in  the  puppet-show  of 
Hero  and  Leander;  but  this  was  first  acted  in  1614,  and  Dekker's  Satiromastix 
printed  in  1602. 

Perhaps  the  name  originated  in  the  ridicule  of  some  drama  upon  the  story  of 
The  Six  worthy  Yeomen  of  the  West.  "  Old  Cole "  is  thus  mentioned  by 
Doloney : — 

"  It  chanced  on  a  time,  as  he  [King  Henry  I.]  with  one  of  his  sonnes,  and  divers 
of  his  nobility,  rode  from  London  towards  Wales,  to  appease  the  fury  of  the  Welsh- 
man, which  then  began  to  raise  themselves  in  armes  against  his  authority,  that  he 
mat  with  a  number  of  waines  loaden  with  cloth,  comming  to  London;  and  seeing 
them  still  drive  one  after  another  so  many  together,  demanded  whose  they  were;  the 
w.  tine-men  answered  in  this  sort :  Cole's  of  Reading  (quoth  they).  Then  by  and  by 
tha  King  asked  another,  saying,  Whose  cloth  is  all  this?  Old  Cole's,  quoth  hee  : 
and  again  anon  after  he  asked  the  same  question  to  others,  and  still  they  answered, 
Old  Cole's.  And  it  is  to  be  remembered,  that  the  King  met  them  in  such  a  place, 
so  narrow  and  so  streight,  that  hee,  with  the  rest  of  his  traine,  were  faine  to  stand  as 
close  to  the  hedge,  whilest  the  carts  passed  by,  the  which  at  that  time  being  in 
m  mber  about  two  hundred,  was  neere  hand  an  houre  ere  the  King  could  get  rooine 
to  be  gone  :  so  that  by  his  long  stay  he  began  to  be  displeased,  although  the  ad- 
Hi  ration  of  that  sight  did  much  qualify  his  furie ;  .  .  . .  and  so,  soon  after,  the  last  wain 
pe  3sed  by,  which  gave  present  passage  unto  him  and  his  nobles  :  and  thereupon 
entring  into  communication  of  the  commoditie  of  cloathing,  the  King  gave  order  at 
hn  home  returne,  to  have  Old  Cole  brought  before  his  Majestic,  to  the  intent  he 


634 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND    BALLAD    MUSIC. 


might  have  conference  with  him,  noting  him  to  be  a  subject  of  great  ability,"  &c. 
From  The  Pleasant  Historie  of  Thomas  of  Reading :  or  the  Sixe  worthie  Yeomen 
of  the  West.  "  Now  the  sixth  time  corrected  and  enlarged."  London :  Printed 
by  Eliz.  Allde  for  Robert  Bird,  1632. 

Dr.  Win.  King,  a  humourous  writer,  who  was  born  in  1663,  quotes  some  of 
the  words  of  "  Old  King  Cole  "  in  No.  6  of  his  Useful  Transactions  ;  but  he  mixes 
them  up  with  those  of  "  Four-and- twenty  fiddlers  all  of  a  row." 

"  Good  King  Cole  And  twice  fiddle,  fiddle, 

And  he  called  for  his  bowl,  For  'twas  my  lady's  birthday  ; 

And  he  called  for  his  fiddlers  three  ;  Therefore  we  keep  holyday. 

And  there  was  fiddle,  fiddle,  And  come  to  be  merry." 

I  have  no  earlier  authority  for  the  tune  than  is  to  be  found  in  the  ballad- 
operas.    In  Gay's  Achilles,  published  in  1733  (after  the  death  of  the  author),  the 
song,  "  No  more  be  coy,  give  a  loose  to  joy,"  is  to  the  air  of  Old  King  Cole,  and 
it  differs  altogether  from  the  way  in  which  it  is  now  commonly  sung. 
The  following  version  of  the  air  is  from  Achilles  : — 

Boldly. 


j=^^ 

-• m     J    m 


! 


Old  King  Cole  was  a  merry  old  soul,  And  a  merry 


^.-^ 

old 


-- 

soul  was      he  ;    And  he 


1 


m 


^ 


call'd  for  his    pipe  And  he  call 'd  for  his  bowl,  Andhe  call'd  for  his  fid  -  dlers    three. 


3 


Then    twedle,  twedle,  twedle,  twedle,  twedle  went  the  fid-  dlers ;  Twedle,  twedle,  twedle,  twedle, 

a 


twedle,  twedle  twee,  There'snone  so    rare    as       can  compare  To  king  Cole  and  his  fiddlers  three. 


i 


=£ 


The  following    traditional    air  bears  a  slight  family  likeness  to  The  British 
Grenadiers,  although  the  one  is  major  and  the  other  minor. 


REIGN   OF   QUEEN  ANNE   TO   GEORGE   II. 


635 


•r                JDUiuty.                     ^ 

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Old  King  Cole  was  a   merry  old  soul,  And  a  merry  old  soul  was     he;         Andhe 

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tall'd  for  his  pipe  And  he  call'd   for  his  bowl,  Andhe  call'd  for  his   fid-dlers        three. 

-f  i. 

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Ev'-ry    fid-dlerhe  had  a     fine  fiddle,  A        ve-ry     fine     fiddle  had      he, 


Then 


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went  the  fiddler,  And  so     mer-ry 

we'll      all 

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^  —  ^^  —  '  :  j  • 

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m         9 

-^-B- 

Old  King  Cole  was  a  merry  old  soul,  Then  twang,  twang-a-twang,  twang-a-twang, 

And  a  merry  old  soul  was  he  ;  (imitating  the  harp)     [went  the  harper, 

He  call'd  for  his  pipe,  and  he  call'd  for  his     Twee,  tweedle  dee,   tweedle  dee,  went  the 
And  he  called  for  his  harpers  three,     [bowl,  fiddler, 

Ev'ry  harper  he  had  a  fine  harp,  And  so  merry  we'll  all  be. 

And  a  very  fine  harp  had  he ; 

In  the  second  and  subsequent  stanzas,  the  part  of  the  tune  which  goes  to  the 
line,  "  Then  twee,  tweedle  dee,"  &c.,  must  be  repeated  as  required  bj  the 
multiplication  of  words. 

In  the  third  verse,  Old  King  Cole  calls  for  his  pipers  three,  and  the  words  are 
the  same  as  before,  except  the  change  of  the  word  fiddle  or  harp  for  pipe, — 
Then  tootle,  tootle  too,  tootle  too,  went  the  piper  ; 
Twang,  twang-a-twang,  twang-a-twang,  w^ent  the  harper  ; 
Tweedle,  tweedle  dee,  tweedle  dee,  went  the  fiddler; 
And  so  merry  we'll  all  be. 

In  the  fourth  verse  he  calls  for  his  drummers  three, — 

"  Then  rub  a  dub,  a  dub.  rub  a  dub,  went  the  drummer,"  &c. 

And  thus  in  each  verse  the  strain,  with  the  line,  "  Twee,  tweedle  dee,"  &c.,  is 
repeated  as  the  imitation  of  the  different  instruments  may  require. 


636 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


THE  ROAST  BEEF  OF  OLD  ENGLAND. 

This  famous  old  song  has  been  admirably  illustrated  by  Hogarth,*  in  his  picture 
of  "  The  gate  of  Calais  "  :— 

"  With  lanthorn  jaws  and  meagre  cut,  But  soon  we'll  teach  these  bragging  foes 

See  how  the  half-starv'd  Frenchmen  strut,   That  Beef  and  Beer  give  heavier  blows 

And  call  us  English  dogs,  Than  soup  and  roasted  frogs." 

There  are  two  songs  on  this  subject :  the  one  by  Henry  Fielding,  in  his  comedy 
of  Don  Quixote  in  England ;  the  other  by  Richard  Leveridge,  the  composer  of 
the  tune. 

Fielding's  song  which  was  sung  to  the  air  of  The  Queen's  old  Courtier,  consists 
of  but  two  verses,  and  the  comedy  in  which  it  is  contained  was  published  in  1733. 
Leveridge's  song  is  printed  in  Walsh's  British  Musical  Miscellany,  and  in  The 
Universal  Musician,  both  undated. 


J 


4=*=i 


tzzft 


P 

When  mighty  roast  beef  was  the  Englishman's  food,  It  en  -  nobled  our  hearts,  and  en  - 


m 


m 


rich  -  ed      our  blood ;  Our     soldiers  were  brave  and  our   cour  -  tiers  were    good. 


m 


Oh,  the  roast  beef  of  old     Eng  -     land!   And      oh,  for  old  England's  roast      beef! 

£-, b£ 


f 


^t±^ 


H.  FIELDING'S  SONG. 

When  mighty  roast  beef  was  the  Englishman's  Then,  Britons,  from  all  the  nice  dainties  re- 

food,                                                       [blood  ;  frain, 

It   ennobled   our  hearts,    and   enriched   our  Of  effeminate  Italy,  France,  or  Spain  ; 

Our  soldiers  were  brave,  and  our  courtiers  And  mighty  roast  beef  shall  command  on  the 

were  good.  main. 

Oh,  the  roast  beef  of  old  England  !  Oh,  the  roast  beef  of  old  England  ! 

And  oh,  for  old  England's  roast  beef!  And  oh,  for  old  England's  roast  beef! 


»  Hogarth  was  very   inveterate  in  his  enmity  to  the        shot  as  a  spy,  while  sketching  the  gate  of  Calais. 
French,  having  been  seized,  and  narrowly  escaping  being 


REIGN    OF    QUEEN    ANNE    TO    GEORGE    II. 


637 


R.  LEVERIDGE'S  SONG. 


When  mighty  roast  beef  was  the  Englishman's 

food,  [blood  j 

It   ennobled   our  hearts,    and   enriched    our 

Our  soldiers  were  brave,  and  our   courtiers 

were  good. 

Oh,  the  roast  beef  of  old  England! 
And  oh,  for  old  England's  roast  beef! 

But  since  we  have   learn'd   from  effeminate 

France 

To  eat  their  ragouts,  as  well  as  to  dance, 
Wo  are  fed  up  with  nothing  but  vain  com- 
plaisance. 

Oh,  the  roast  beef,  &c. 

Our  fathers  of  old  were  robust,   stout,   and 

strong,  [long, 

And  kept  open  house,  with  good  cheer  all  day 

Which  made  their  plump  tenants  rejoice  in 

Oh,  the  roast  beef,  &c.  [this  song. 


When  good  Queen  Elizabeth  sat  on  the  throne, 
Ere  coffee  and  tea,  and  such  slip-slops  were 

known, 

The  world  was  in  terror  if  e'en  she  did  frown. 
Oh,  the  roast  beef,  &c. 

In  those  days,  if  fleets  did  presume  on  the 

main, 

They  seldom  or  never  return 'd  back  again  ; 
As  witness  the  vaunting  Armada  of  Spain. 
Oh,  the  roast  beef,  &c. 

Oh,  then  we  had  stomachs  to  eat  and  to  fight, 
And  when  wrongs  were  cooking,  to  set  our- 
selves right ; 

But  now  we're  a — hm  ! — I  could,  but  good 
night. 

Oh,  the  roast  beef  of  old  England  ! 
And  oh,  for  old  England's  roast  beef! 


Many  other  songs  have  been  written  to  this  tune,  one  in  praise  of  old  English 
brown  beer,  and  several  anti- Jacobite  songs ;  but  the  new  application  of  the 
fable  of  the  Frog  and  the  Ox,  written  by  Hogarth's  friend,  Theophilus  Forest,  as 
an  illustration  for  his  picture  of  "  The  Gate  of  Calais,"  must  not  be  omitted. 


THE    ROAST    BEEF    CANTATA. 


'Twas  at  the  gate  of  Calais,  Hogarth  tells, 

Where  sad  despair  and  famine  always 
dwells, 

A  meagre  Frenchman,  Madame  Grand- 
sire's  cook,  [took. 

A>s  home  he  steered,  his  carcase  that  way 

Bonding  beneath  the  weight  of  famed 
Sirloin,  [dine, 

On  whom  he'd  often  wish'd  in  vain  to 

Good  Father  Dominick  by  chance  came 
by,  [eye ; 

With  rosy  gills,  round  paunch,  and  greedy 

Who,  when   he  first  beheld  the  greasy 

load, 

H  is  benediction  on  it  he  bestowed ; 
And  as  the  solid  fat  his  fingers  press'd, 
He  lick'd  his  chaps,  and  thus  the  knight 

address'd : 

"  Oh,  rare  roast  beef,  lov'd  by  all  man- 

If  I  was  doom'd  to  have  thee,       [kind, 

When  dress'd  and  garnish1  d  to  my  mind, 


And  swimming  in  thy  gravy, 
Not  all  thy  country's  force  combin'd 
Should  from  my  fury  save  thee. 

Renown'd  sirloin,  ofttimes  decreed 

.  The  theme  of  English  ballad  ; 
On  thee  e'en  kings  have  deign'd  to  feed, 

Unknown  to  Frenchmen's  palate  : 
Then  how  much  more  thy  taste  exceeds 

Soup  meagre,  frogs,  and  sallad !  " 

A  half-starv'd  soldier,  shirtless,  pale,  and 

lean, 

Who  such  a  sight  before  had  never  seen, 
Like  Garrick's  frighted  Hamlet,  gaping 

stood,  [food. 

And  gazed  with  wonder  on  the  British 

His  morning's  mess  forsook  the  friendly 
bowl,  [stole ; 

And  in  small  streams  along  the  pavement 

He  heav'd  a  sigh  which  gave  his  heart 
relief,  [grief : 

And  then  in  plaintive  tone  declared  his 


638 


ENGLISH    SONG    AND    BALLAD    MUSIC. 


"  All !  sacre  Dieu !  vat  do  me  see  yonder, 

Dat  look  so  tempting  red  and  vite  ? 
Begar  it  is  de  roast  beef  from  Londre ; 

Oh,  grant  to  me  von  litel  bite ! 
But  to  my  pray'r  if  you  give  no  heeding, 

And  cruel  fate  dis  boon  denies, 
In  kind  compassion  unto  my  pleading, 

Return,  and  let  me  feast  mine  eyes !  " 

His  fellow  guard,  of  right  Hibernian  clay, 
Whose  brazen  front  his  country  did  betray, 
From  Tyburn's  fatal  tree  had  thither  fled, 
By  honest  means  to  gain  his  daily  bread, 
Soon  as  the  well-known  prospect  he  de- 

scry'd, 
In  blubb'ring  accents  dolefully  he  cried  : 

"  Sweet  beef,  that  now  causes  my  stomach 
So  taking  thy  sight  is,  [to  rise, 

My  joy  that  so  light  is,  [my  eyes. 

To  view  thee,  by  pailsfull,  tears  run  from 

While  here  I  remain,  my  life's  not  worth  a 
Ah,  hard-hearted  Lewy,  [farthing ; 
Why  did  I  come  to  ye  ? 

The  gallows,  more  kind  would  have  sav'd 
me  from  starving." 

Upon  the  ground,  hard  by,  poor  Sawney 

sate,  [pate ; 

Who  fed  his  nose,  and  scratch'd  his  ruddy 

But   when   old     England's    bulwark    he 

espy'd,  [aside : 

His  dear  lov'd  mull,  alas!     was  thrown 

With  lifted  hands  he  blest  his  native  place, 

Then  scrubb'd  himself,  and  thus  bewail'd 

his  case  : 

"  How  hard,  0  Sawney,  is  thy  lot, 

Who  was  so  blithe  of  late, 
To  see  such  meat  as  can't  be  got, 
WThen  hunger  is  so  great. 
Oh,  the  beef!  the  bonny,  bonny  beef! 

When  roasted  nice  and  brown ; 
I  wish  I  had  a  slice  of  thee, 

How  sweet  it  would  gang  down ! 

Ah,  Charley !  hadst  thou  not  been  seen, 
This  ne'er  had  happ'd  to  me : 


I  wou'd  the  de'il  had  pick'd  mine  ey'n, 
Ere  I  had  gang'd  with  thee. 
Oh,  the  beef,"  &c. 

But,  see  my  muse  to  England  takes  her 

flight ! 

Where  health  and  plenty  socially  unite  ; 
Where    smiling    freedom   guards    great 

George's  throne,  [not  known. 

And  whips,  and  chains,  and  tortures,  are 
That  Britain's    fame    in   loftiest   strains 

should  ring, 
In  rustic  fable  give  me  leave  to  sing. 

(Tune  of  "The  Roast  Beef  of  Old  England") 

As  once  on  a  time,  a  young  frog,  pert  and 

vain,  [plain, 

Beheld  a  large  ox  grazing  on  the  wide 

He   boasted  his   size   he  could   quickly 

attain. 

Oh,  the  roast  beef  of  old  England ! 
And  oh,  the  old  English  roast  beef ! 

Then  eagerly  stretching  his  weak  little 

frame,  [old  dame, 

Mamma,  who  stood   by,  like  a  knowing 

Cry'd,  Son,  to  attempt  it  you're  surely  to 

Oh,  the  roast  beef,  &c.  [blame. 

But  deaf  to  advice,  he  for  glory  did  thirst, 

An  effort  he  ventur'd  more  strong  than 

the  first,  [him  burst. 

Till  swelling  and  straining  too  hard,  made 

Oh,  the  roast  beef,  &c. 

Then,  Britons,  be  careful,  the  moral  is 
clear,  [sieur ; 

The  ox  is  old  England,  the  frog  is  Mon- 

WTiose  threats  and  bravadoes  we  never 
need  fear, 

While  we  have  roast  beef  in  old  England. 
Sing  oh,  for  old  England's  roast  beef ! 

For  while  by  our  commerce  and  arts  we 

are  able,  [table, 

To  see  the  sirloin  smoking  hot  on  our 

The  French  must  e'en  burst,  like  the  frog 

in  the  fable ! 

Oh,  the  roast  beef,  &c. 


REIGN  OF   QUEEN   ANNE  TO   GEORGE   II. 


639 


POOR  ROBIN'S  MAGGOT. 

This  tune  is  contained  in  the  second  volume  of  The  Dancing  Master ;  in 
Pills  to  purge  Melancholy,  i.  132,  1719;  in  The  Beggars'  Opera',  The  Grenerous 
Fnemason,  and  other  ballad- operas.  It  is  also  known  in  the  present  day  as  one 
of  •'  The  Lancers  Quadrilles." 

In  The  Dancing  Master  it  is  named  Poor  Robin's  Maggot ;  in  the  Pills  and 
ballad-operas,  "  Would  you  win  a  young  virgin  of  fifteen  years."  This  is  from 
a  song  by  D'Urfey,  in  his  play  of  Modern  Prophets,  4to.,  1709. 

The  words  in  The  Beggars'  Opera,  "  If  the  heart  of  a  man  is  deprest  with 
cares,"  are  still  occasionally  sung  to  the  air ;  but  I  have  here  adopted  the  song 
in  The  Grenerous  Freemason  (8vo.,  1731),  one  of  the  ballad-operas  performed  at 
Bartholomew  Fair. 

The  words  carry  out  the  adage  that  "  faint  heart  never  won  fair  lady." 

s  Lightly  and  Cheerfully. 


P 


m 


When  you  court  a  young  virgin  of  six-teen  years,  You  may  banish  your  sorrows,  your 


m 


33 


gri»fs  and  cares :  Your  whining  and  pining  will   ne  -  ver,  ne-ver,  Steer  you  to  harbour — Then 


=?: 


^rs?r 


ce;se  your  fears.     Pleasure  and  joy    let  our     face       a-dorn,  Be    live  -  ly  and  gay     as    a 


* 


£ 


summer's  morn,  Push  home  your  af-fairs  or  you  e-ver,  e -ver,  Justly  will  mer-itthe  fair  one's  scorn. 


iP^ 


640 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD    MUSIC. 


BLACK-EYED   SUSAN. 

This  still  popular  song  was  composed  by  Leveridge,  author  of  The  roast  beef 
of  Old  England,  and  of  several  other  favorite  songs.  He  was  a  bass  singer  at  the 
Theatre  in  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields ;  and,  when  more  than  sixty  years  of  age,  still 
thought  his  voice  so  good  that  he  offered  for  a  wager  of  a  hundred  guineas  to  sing 
a  bass  song  with  any  man  in  England.  The  tune  is  very  like  another  which  he 
composed  to  the  words,  "  Send  back  my  long-strayed  eyes ; "  and,  in  both,  he 
seems  to  have  drawn  more  on  memory  than  imagination.  One  of  the  snatches 
sung  by  Ophelia,  in  Hamlet,  and  several  other  old  songs  begin  in  the  same 
manner. 

The  words  of  "  Sweet  William's  farewell  to  black-ey'd  Susan  "  are  by  Gay, 
and  are  printed  in  his  Poems,  as  well  as  on  numerous  extant  broadsides  with 
music ;  in  Watts's  Musical  Miscellany,  iv.  148,  &c. 

The  tune  was  introduced  into  The  Devil  to  pay ;  The  Village  Opera ;  Robin 
Hood,\lW-,  The  Chambermaid ;  The  G-rub  Street  Opera ;  The  Welsh  Opera  ;  &c. 

The  same  words  were  set  by  Henry  Carey,  and  others;  but  Leveridge's 
became  the  popular  tune. 

The  following  version  is  as  it  is  now  sung : — 

Moderate  time. 


wav  -  ing  in  the   wind,     When  black-eyed   Su   -   san  came  on    board — "  O   where  shall 


.nr  i 


Frt^j^ 

H  —  J^f^S^ 

r""] 

*  •    .  '- 

I       my  true  love 

W^SF^^ 

find  ?  Tell  me,  ye  jo  -  vial  sai  -  lors,  t 

n-  =5  —  hr  ktr 

J—  "L- 

ell  me 

•—r- 

~J  —  ^~f^ 

true,  If  my  sweet 

-^  —  »*  —  r  —  r^= 

i^  —  t  1 

Wil   -    liam,  if 


Trf- 
my  sweet   Wil   - 


Ham 


sails      a    -    mong        your       crew. 


REIGN   OF   QUEEN   ANNE   TO   GEORGE   II.  641 

William,  who,  high  upon  the  yard,  Yes,  yes,  believe  them  when  they  tell  thee  so, 

llock'd  with  the  billows  to  and  fro,  For  thou  art  present  wheresoe'er  I  go. 

Soon  as  her  well-known  voice  he  heard, 

1T     .  ,     ,        ,        .,.  ,    ,          ru     j      If  to  fair  India  s  coast  we  sail, 

He  sighed,  and  cast  his  eyes  below  :  [hands,  ,    ,    .  , 

_,,  ,     ,.,  •  /.  i      i          T    i  •      i  Thy  eyes  are  seen  in  di  monds  bright : 

The  cord  slides  swiftly  through  his  glowing  /    * 

,L      .  ,       T  i  *  •      x       ,T_     i     i  u  -     Thy  breath  is  Afric  s  spicy  gale, 

And  (quick  as  lightning)  on  the  deck  he  stands.       *  v    *  & 

Thy  skin  is  ivory  so  white. 
So  the  sweet  lark,  high-pois'd  in  air,  Tlmg  eyery  beauteous  object  that  I  view, 

Shuts  close  his  pinions  to  his  breast,  Wakes  in  my  goul  some  charm  of  lovely  Sue. 

(If  chance,  his  mate's  shrill  voice  he  hear,) 

And  drops  at  once  into  her  nest.  Though  battle  call  me  from  thy  arms, 

The  noblest  captain  in  the  British  fleet  Let  not  my  pretty  Susan  mourn  ; 

Might  envy  William's  lip  those  kisses  sweet.     Though  cannons  roar,  yet  safe  from  harms, 

«  O  Susan,  Susan,  lovely  dear,  William  sha11  to  his  dear  return- 

My  vows  shall  ever  true  remain  :  Love  turns  aside  the  balls  that  round  me  %» 

Lee  me  kiss  off  that  falling  tear,  Lest  Precious  tears  should  drop  from  Susan's 

We  only  part  to  meet  again.  eve< 

Change  as  ye  list,  ye  winds  ;  my  heart  shall  be  The  boatswain  gave  the  dreadful  word, 

Th3  faithful  compass  that  still  points  to  thee.        The  gai]s  their  swelling  bosom  spread  . 

Believe  not  what  the  landmen  say,  No  longer  must  she  stay  on  board  : 

Who  tempt  with  doubts  thy  constant  mind  :       They  kiss'd,  she  sigh'd,  he  hung  his  head. 

They'll  tell  thee,  sailors,  when  away,  Her  less'ning  boat  unwilling  rows  to  land ; 

In  every  port  a  mistress  find.  Adieu  !  she  cries,  and  wav'd  her  lily  hand. 

ADMIRAL   BENBOW. 

The  subject  of  this  ballad  is  mentioned  in  Evelyn's  Diary,  under  the  date  of 
January,  1702-3.  "  News  of  Vice- Admiral  Benbow's  conflict  with  the  French 
fleet  in  the  West  Indies,  in  which  he  gallantly  behaved  himself,  and  was  wounded, 
and  would  have  had  extraordinary  success,  had  not  four  of  his  men-of-war  stood 
spectators  without  coming  to  his  assistance ;  for  this,  two  of  their  commanders 
were  tried  by  a  council  of  war  and  executed ;  a  third  was  condemned  to  perpetual 
imprisonment,  loss  of  pay,  and  incapacity  to  serve  in  future.  The  fourth  died." 

Admiral  Benbow  was  a  thoroughly  gallant  seaman.  He  received  his  com- 
mission in  the  navy  for  his  bravery  in  beating  off  a  corsair,  while  in  command  of 
a  merchant  vessel.  When  the  Moors  boarded  him,  they  were  driven  back, 
leaving  thirteen  of  their  number  dead  upon  his  deck.  He  was  twice  sent  to  the 
West  Indies  by  King  William.  On  the  second  occasion,  he  fell  in  with  the 
French  Admiral,  Du  Casse,  in  August,  1702,  near  the  Spanish  coast. 
A  skirmishing  action  continued  for  four  days,  but  on  the  last  the  Admiral  was 
left  alone  to  engage  the  French,  the  other  ships  having  fallen  astern.  Although 
thus  single-handed,  and  having  his  leg  shattered  by  a  chain-shot,  he  would  not 
sulFer  himself  to  be  removed  from  the  quarter-deck  (in  this  respect  the  ballad 
is  incorrect),  but  continued  fighting  until  the  following  morning,  when  the 
French  sheered  off.  The  Admiral  made  signal  for  his  ships  to  follow,  but  his 
orders  received  no  attention,  and  he  was  obliged  to  return  to  Jamaica,  where  he 
caused  the  officers  who  behaved  so  basely,  to  be  tried.  The  report  of  the  court- 
martial  will  be  found  in  The  Harleian  Miscellany,  vol.  i.,  4to.,  1744.  There  was 
a  treasonable  conspiracy  among  the  officers  of  his  fleet,  not  to  fight  the  French. 
Admiral  Benbow  did  not  long  survive  this  disappointment ;  it  aggravated  the 
effects  of  his  wound,  and  he  expired. 


642 


ENGLISH   SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUBIC. 


This  favorite  old  sea-song  is  in  a  collection  of  penny  song-books,  formerly 
belonging  to  Ritson ;  and,  with  music,  in  Dale's  Collection,  i.  68. 

The  Rev.  James  Plump tre  wrote  "  When  in  war,  on  the  ocean  we  meet  the 
proud  foe,"  to  the  tune.  It  is  published  in  his  collection  of  songs  with 
music,  8vo.,  1805. 

Another  song  on  the  death  of  Admiral  Benbow  is  contained  in  Halliwell's 
Early  Naval  Ballads  of  England.  It  commences, — 

"  Come,  all  you  sailors  bold,  lend  an  ear,  lend  an  ear, 

Come,  all  you  sailors  bold,  lend  an  ear  : 
'Tis  of  our  Admiral's  fame,  Brave  Benbow  call'd  by  name, 

How  he  fought  on  the  main  you  shall  hear,  you  shall  hear." 

The  tune  of  Admiral  Benbow  is  the  vehicle  of  several  country  songs  at  the 
present  time,  and  used  for  Christmas  carols.  In  the  month  of  January  last,  Mr. 
Samuel  Smith  noted  it  down  from  the  singing  of  some  carollers  at  Marden,  near 
Hereford,  to  the  words  commencing, — 

"  A  virgin  unspotted  the  prophets  foretold." 
i-"'     Rather  slowly. 


-  al,        Where  we      wa-ter'd     our         ship  -  ping      And       then      we       weigh 'd    all. 


Full  in     view  on       the          seas,    boys,    Se-ven     sail      we      did  es  -  py ;  Owe 


man-  ned       our  cap  -  stan,      And    weigh'd     speed  -     i 


f 


•: 


REIGN   OP   QUEEN   ANNE   TO  GEORGE   II.  643 

The  first  we  came  up  with  was  a  brigantine  sloop, 
And  we  ask'd  if  the  others  were  big  as  they  look'd ; 
But  turning  to  windward  as  near  as  we  could  lie, 
We  found  there  were  ten  men  of  war  cruizing  by. 

Oh  !  we  drew  up  our  squadron  in  very  nice  line, 
And  boldly  we  fought  them  for  full  four  hours'  time  ; 
But  the  day  being  spent,  boys,  and  the  night  coming  on, 
We  let  them  alone  till  the  very  next  morn. 

The  very  next  morning  the  engagement  prov'd  hot,      • 
And  brave  Admiral  Benbow  receiv'd  a  chain  shot; 
And  when  he  was  wounded,  to  his  merry  men  he  did  say, 
*'  Take  me  up  in  your  arms,  boys,  and  carry  me  away." 

Oh  the  guns  they  did  rattle,  and  the  bullets  did  fly, 
But  Admiral  Benbow  for  help  would  not  cry  ; 
Take  me  down  to  the  cockpit,  there  is  ease  for  my  smarts, 
If  my  merry  men  see  me  it  will  sure  break  their  hearts. 

The  very  next  morning,  by  break  of  the  day, 

They  hoisted  their  topsails,  and  so  bore  away  ; 

We  bore  to  Port  Royal,  where  the  people  flock'd  much 

To  see  Admiral  Benbow  carried  to  Kingston  Church. 

Come  all  you  brave  fellows,  wherever  you've  been, 
Let  us  drink  to  the  health  of  our  King  and  our  Queen, 
And  another  good  health  to  the  girls  that  we  know, 
And  a  third  in  remembrance  of  brave  Admiral  Benbow. 

i  suspect  that  this  was  originally  a  much  longer  ballad,  and  that  the  last 
stanza  was  substituted  for  the  remaining  verses  at  a  later  date.  The  story  is 
only  half  told,  all  notice  of  the  treachery  of  the  four  captains  is  omitted,  as  well 
as  of  their  trial,  and  the  death  of  the  Admiral.  Perhaps  the  ballad  was  thus 
curtailed  to  be  sung  upon  the  stage. 

DOWN  AMONG  THE  DEAD  MEN. 

This  tune  is  in  the  third  volume  of  The  Dancing  Master  printed  by  Pearson 
and  Young,  Play  ford's  successors,  and  in  the  third  volume  of  Walsh's  Dancing 
Master. 

There  are  many  half-sheet  copies  of  the  song  with  music ;  and  one  that  I  con- 
ceive to  be  the  earliest,  commences,  "Here's  a  health  to  the  Queen  and  a  lasting 
peace." 

In  one  of  the  volumes  of  half-sheet  songs  in  the  British  Museum  (H.  1601, 
p.  205),  is  "A  health  to  the  memory  of  Queen  Anne,"  to  the  tune  of  Down  among 
the  dead  men.  It  commences — 

"  Here's  a  health  to  the  mem'ry  of  Queen  Anne, 
Come  pledge  me  ev'ry  English  man, 
For,  though  her  body's  in  the  dust, 
Her  memory  shall  live,  and  must. 
And  they  that  Anna's  health  deny, 
Down  among  the  dead  men  let  them  lie,"  &c. 

In  the  same  volume  is  "  a  song  sung  by  Mr.  Dyer,  at  Mr.  Bullock's  booth  in 
Southwark  Fair."     This  is  a  George  I.  copy  of  "Down  among  the  dead  men;99 

2  T 


644 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND    BALLAD   MUSIC. 


therefore  commencing,  "Here's  a  health  to  the  King"  &c.  A  third  version 
gives  "  Mr.  Robert  Dyer's  additional  stanzas,  as  sung  by  him  at  Lincoln's 
Inn  Theatre." 

The  author  of  the  words,  whoever  he  may  have  been,  had  in  mind  the  drinking- 
song  in  Fletcher's  Bloody  Brothers,  from  which  he  borrowed  two  lines, — 
"  Best,  while  you  have  it,  use  your  breath, 
There  is  no  drinking  after  death." 

The  tune  of  Down  among  the  dead  men  was  a  great  favorite  with  the  late 
Samuel  Wesley,  who  used  constantly  to  fugue  upon  it. 


i 


ff 


Here's  a  health  to  the  Queen,  and  a    last-ing  peace,    To     ,.       .      an  end,  to 


@ 


m 


s 


•*•  tji-  p-J- 


Sf 


wealth  increase.      Come   let's  drink    it    while     we  have  breath,  For  there's  no    drinking 


:(t 


PP^ 


Pi 


• 

«     •  r,J       •       5S 

ii                                     m 

J               1              J           " 

• 

•                 a 

•       •      m         Q 

af   -    ter      death.          And         he         that    will      this      health          de  -  ny, 

J                  1                                                                 III 

m  »  *  44 

— 



—  *  s  ^  d  '  1 

—  »  i  r  —  H  —  * 

—  P 

;  P  1 



~T  •  1  ^  

i        r              ii 

1              *            I            !          1 

ki        y     j. 

:    .     it     -i 

-w-                                             __;-                               ^ 

own  a-mong  the  dead    men,    Down  a-mong  the   dead    men,     Down,      down 


y^F— + 


down,  down, 


Down  a-mong  the    dead   men        let       him       Ii 


P5 


REIGN   OF   QUEEN   ANNE   TO   GEORGE   II. 


645 


Let  charming  beauty's  health  go  round, 
In  whom  celestial  joys  are  found, 
And  may  confusion  still  pursue 
The  senseless  woman-hating  crew  ; 
And  they  that  woman's  health  deny, 
Down  among  the  dead  men  let  them  lie  ! 

[n  smiling  Bacchus' joys  I'll  roll, 

Deny  no  pleasure  to  my  soul ; 

Let  Bacchus'  health  round  briskly  move, 


For  Bacchus  is  a  friend  to  Love. 
And  he  that  will  this  health  deny, 
Down  among  the  dead  men  let  him  lie. 

May  love  and  wine  their  rites  maintain, 
And  their  united  pleasures  reign, 
While  Bacchus'  treasure  crowns  the  board, 
We'll  sing  the  joys  that  both  afford  ; 
And  they  that  won't  with  us  comply, 
Down  among  the  dead  men  let  them  lie. 


SALLY   IN   OUR  ALLEY. 

This  extremely  popular  ballad  was  written  and  composed  by  Henry  Carey. 

Carey's  tune  is  to  be  found  in  his  Musical  Century,  ii.  32  ;  in  Walsh's  Dancing 
Master,  vol.  ii.  1719;  in  TJie  Beggars'  Opera;  The  Devil  to  pay;  The  Fashion- 
able Lady ;  The  Merry  Collier ;  Love  in  a  Riddle ;  The  Rival  Milliners ;  and 
on  numerous  half-sheet  songs. 

The  following  is  the  author's  account  of  the  origin  of  the  ballad : — 

•'A  vulgar  error  having  prevailed  among  many  persons,  who  imagine  Sally 
Salisbury  the  subject  of  this  ballad,  the  author  begs  leave  to  undeceive  and  assure 
them  it  has  not  the  least  allusion  to  her,  he  being  a  stranger  to  her  very  name  at  the 
time  this  song  was  composed :  for,  as  innocence  and  virtue  were  ever  the  boundaries 
of  his  muse,  so,  in  this  little  poem,  lie  had  no  other  view  than  to  set  forth  the  beauty 
of  a  chaste  and  disinterested  passion,  even  in  the  lowest  class  of  human  life.  The 
real  occasion  was  this  :  a  shoemaker's  'prentice,  making  holiday  with  his  sweetheart, 
treated  her  with  a  sight  of  Bedlam,  the  puppet -showTs,  the  flying-chairs,  and  all  the 
elegancies  of  Moorfields,  from  whence  proceeding  to  the  farthing-pye-house,  he  gave 
her  a  collation  of  buns,  cheesecakes,  gammon  of  bacon,  stuffed  beef,  and  bottled  ale, 
through  all  which  scenes  the  author  dodged  them.  Charmed  with  the  simplicity  of 
their  courtship,  he  drew  from  what  he  had  witnessed  this  little  sketch  of.nature ;  but. 
being  then  young  and  obscure,  he  was  very  much  ridiculed  by  some  of  his  acquaint- 
ance for  this  performance,  which  nevertheless  made  its  way  into  the  polite  world,  and 
amply  recompensed  him  by  the  applause  of  the  divine  Addison,  who  was  pleased  more 
than  once  to  mention  it  with  approbation." 

.Among  the  songs  printed  to  Carey's  tune  are  the  following : — 

1.  "  Sally's  Lamentation;  or,  The  Answer  to  Sally  ;"  beginning — 

"  What  pity  'tis  so  bright  a  thought  I  little  thought,  when  you  began 

Should  e'er  become  so  common  ;  To  write  of  charming  Sally, 

At  ev'ry  corner  brought  to  naught  That  ev'ry  brat  w^ould  sing  so  soon, 

By  ev'ry  bawling  woman.  '  She  lives  in  our  alley.'  " 

2.  "  Sally  in  our  Alley  to  Billy  in  Piccadilly ;  with  proper  graces  to  the  tune." 
"Of  all  the  lads  that  are  so  smart  He  is  the  darling  of  my  heart, 

There's  none  I  love  like  Billy;  And  he  lives  in  Piccadilly,"  &c. 

8.  "  Sally  in  her  own  cloaths  ; "  beginning — 

"  Of  all  the  mauxes  in  the  land 

There's  none  I  hate  like  Sally." 

4.  "  Sally  rivall'd  by  Country  Molly ; "  commencing — 

"  Since  Sally's  charms  so  long  have  been     Pray  give  me  leave  to  raise  the  Bong 
The  theme  of  court  and  city,  And  praise  a  girl  more  pretty." 


646 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND    BALLAD    MUSIC. 


5.  "  Blowzabel.     A  Song ;"    commences — 

"  Of  Anna's  charms  let  others  tell,  My  song  shall  be  of  Blowzabel, 

Of  bright  Eliza's  beauty  ;  To  sing  of  her's  my  duty." 

6.  "  As  Damon  late  with  Chloe  sat." 

There  are  many  more  printed  to  Carey's  tune,  but  the  above  suffice  to  shew 
how  very  popular  it  was ;  and  yet,  about  1760,  it  was  discarded.  "  Sally  in  our 
Alley  "  is  now  only  sung  to  the  much  older  ballad- tune  of  The  Country  Lass.  It 
is  difficult  to  account  for  this,  except  from  the  extended  compass  of  voice  which 
Carey's  air  required.  The  two  ballads  were  concurrently  popular.  "  The  Vir- 
tuous Country  Lass  "  was  engraved,  as  a  single  song,  by  Cross,  as  well  as  printed 
in  The  Merry  Musician.  Both  tunes  were  introduced  in  The  Devil  to  pay,  &c. 

The  following  is  the  ballad  with  Carey's  music : — 

Slowly  and  gracefully. 


smart, 
heart, 


There's  none  like 
And     lives     in 


PM  p 

-f-r- 

-f  —  -  —  .  —  r—  f- 

l         .      r  -  .  r  •  •  r    i- 

3  ¥  —  r  —  *-4 

^ 

9B,  r  ^^-    ^              ^^         • 

^ 

pret 
our 


ty        Sal-ly; 
al  -  ley. 


There's  ne'er  a          la     -      -     dy     in    the 


r 


land 


that's  half  so         sweet 


as         Sal  -  ly,  She      is     the 


£ 


Y~*~ 

dar     -     ling  of  my     heart,          And  lives 


fT 


al  -  ley. 


REIGN   OF   QUEEN   ANNE   TO   QEOEQE   II. 


647 


The  following  is  the  tune  to  which  the  words  have  been  sung  for  nearly  a 
century.   By  comparing  it  with  the  older  version  of  The  Country  Lass,  at  p.  376, 
t  le  reader  will  see  what  variations  time  has  made. 
Slowly  and  gracefully. 


P}-&  —  1*  —  j—  -J- 

j'-^J—  r-*—  •- 

1    J        J        J 

—  -1  to  —  f*sH 

-4-/    j     * 

;  .  *  ;—  /  — 

g  —  H  —  5— 

-J-—  —  -TIP 

Of    all    the 
She     is     the 

ife-^a  a  i  

r     t>  ^ 

girls  .   .    that  are     so 
dar   -     -   ling    of    my 

»         •         4      m 

vZ? 

smart,     There's 
heart,        And 

—  e,  

-^           +  -3: 

none  like  pret-ty 
lives     in       our 

f  •  .  r^- 

P4  "1      ?  

r— 

\   i  *  j 

— 

=q  — 

^  

P^^I 

B  r^  f5*^^ 

j  

i 

Si 
a 

( 

tl-ly; 
I  -ley.    . 

• 

*  i 

-» 

There       is 

no 

la    -     -    dy        in    th6 

land                        Is 
—  1  f 

—  « 

N. 

r 

LJ  — 

J- 

y^^-E^ 

3 

^  F  —  •  —  p"^" 

,  —  m—  -—  | 

—  *—  —  5^  H5—  p- 

ttf—  i  —  -  —  ^—-^i^-tij:  —  ^J  —  L-j— 

half  so        sweet          as 

Sal-  ly  ;              SlTe       is    the        dar""^~  -    ling     of^  my 

—  =*-     N 

~$=  +—?=-- 

—  —  0  1  

—  8  9  IT*  i  — 

1  n  V-H  — 

-=P  if!  ^  L| 

— 

neart,    .    .            And        lii 

7es     in         our     al  -  ley. 

1  J  r^"  :m  

^                                                 -i 

Her  father  he  makes  cabhage-nets, 

And  through  the  streets  does  cry  them  ; 
Her  mother  she  sells  laces  long, 

To  such  as  please  to  buy  them  : 
But  sure  such  folks  could  ne'er  beget 

So  sweet  a  girl  as  Sally  ; 
She  is  the  darling  of  my  heart, 

And  lives  in  our  alley. 

When  she  is  by,  I  leave  my  work, 

I  love  her  so  sincerely ; 
My  master  comes,  like  any  Turk, 

And  bangs  me  most  severely  : 
But  let  him  bang,  long  as  he  will, 

I'll  bear  it  all  for  Sally; 
She  is  the  darling  of  my  heart, 

And  lives  in  our  alley. 


Of  all  the  days  are  in  the  week, 

1  dearly  love  but  one  day, 
And  that's  the  day  that  comes  betwixt 

A  Saturday  and  Monday  : 
For  then  I'm  dress'd  in  all  my  best, 

To  walk  abroad  with  Sally  ; 
She  is  the  darling  of  my  heart, 

And  lives  in  our  alley. 

My  master  carries  me  to  church, 

And  often  I  am  blamed, 
Because  I  leave  him  in  the  lurch, 

Soon  as  the  text  is  named  : 
I  leave  the  church  in  sermon  time, 

And  slink  away  to  Sally ; 
She  is  the  darling  of  my  heart, 

And  lives  in  our  alley. 


648 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


My  master  and  the  neighbours  all, 

Make  game  of  me  and  Sally, 
And  but  for  her  I'd  better  be 

A  slave,  and  row  a  galley  : 
But  when  my  sev'n  long  years  are  out, 

Oh,  then  I'll  marry  Sally, 
And  then  how  happily  we'll  live — 

But  not  in  our  alley. 


When  Christmas  comes  about  again, 

O  then  1  shall  have  money  ; 
I'll  hoard  it  up,  and  box  and  all, 

I'll  give  unto  my  honey  : 
I  would  it  were  ten  thousand  pounds, 

I'd  give  it  all  to  Sally  ; 
She  is  the  darling  of  my  heart, 

And  lives  in  our  alley. 
Incleclon  sang  only  the  first,  second,  fourth,  and  last  verses. 

AS  DOWN  IN  THE  MEADOWS. 

This  pretty  and  graceful  song  is  to  be  found  in  The  Merry  Musician,  or 
A  Cure  for  the  Spleen,  ii.  129 ;  in  Watts's  Musical  Miscellany,  i.  62  ;  and  on  many 
broadsides  with  music. 

The  tune  was  introduced  by  Gay  in  his  ballad-opera  of  Polly,  1729 ;  also  in 
The  Colliers'  Opera,  The  Court  Legacy,  The  Lovers'  Opera,  &c. 

The  same  words  were  afterwards  set  by  Oswald,  but  he  was  not  successful  in  his 
music.  A  copy  will  be  found  in  the  Burney  Collection. 

This  is  sometimes  entitled  "  Susan's  Complaint  and  Remedy." 
Gracefully ',  and  with  expression. 


As  down  in   the  mea-dows   I  chanc'd  for  to  pass,    O    there  I  be -held  a  young 
Her  age,    I    am  sure,    it    was  scarce-ly  fif-teen,  And  she    on  her  head  wore  a 


m 


r 


beau-ti  -  ful  lass,        ^.Her      lips  were  like   ru-bies,  and     as      for     her  eyes,      They 
gar- land  of  green..** 


sparkled  like  diamonds,  or    stars  in    the     skies ;     And     then,  O    her    voice,  it      was 


—  r* 

^f^\ 

§ 

charn 

—  *  —       —  *  —         -J  4  \~~*\  —  ;  —  pi  — 
ling    and  clear,      As        sad  -  ly    she  sung  (or   the 

1 
los 

s   of   her  dear. 

£  

^^f1^  —  E= 

j 

:=t 

i=p—  H—  - 

~x  J  "                                                                      * 

*  r 

c 

REIGN   OF   QUEEN   ANNE   TO   GEORGE   II.  649 

Why  does  my  love  Willy  prove  false  and  unkind,  But  if  she  believe  him,  the  false-hearted  swain 
O  why  does  he  change  like  the  wavering  wind,  Will  leave  her,  and  then  she  with  me  may  com- 
From  one  that  is  loyal  in  every  degree  ?  plain  : 

Ah  !  why  does  he  change  to  another  from  me?  For  naught  is  more  certain,  believe,  silly  Sue, 
In  the  meadows  as  we  were  a  making  of  hay,    Who  once  has  been  faithless  can  never  be  true. 
Oh  there  did  we  pass  the  soft  minutes  away  ;     ghe  finished  her  song>  ftnd  roge       to  be 
And  then  was  I  kiss'd  and  set  down  on  his  knee,  when  oyer  thg  meadow  came  jolly  young  John> 
No  man  in  the  world  was  so  loving  as  he.          who  told  her  that  she  wag  the  JQy  of  hig  ^ 

But  now  he  has  left  me,  and  Fanny  the  fair  And  if  she'd  consent,  he  would  make  her  his 
Employs  all  his  wishes,  his  thoughts  and  his  wife  :  [went} 

care ;  She  could  not  refuse  him,  to  church  so  they 

He  kisses  her  lip  as  she  sits  on  his  knee,  Young  Willy  'sforgot,and  young  Susan's  content. 

And  says  all  the  sweet  things  he  once  said  to  Most  men  are  like  Willy,  most  women  like  Sue, 

me  :  If  men  will  be  false,  why  should  women  be  true  ? 

O  MOTHER,  A  HOOP  ! 

To  this  tune  Gibber  wrote  the  song  "  What  woman  could  do,  I  have  tried,  to 
be  free,"  for  his  ballad-opera  of  Love  in  a  Riddle,  1729.  It  is  also  printed  in 
The  Merry  Musician,  ii.  7. 

In  The  Livery  Rake,  1733,  the  air  takes  the  name  of  Gibber's  song ;  but  in 
Damon  and  Phillida,  1734,  it  is  entitled  0  Mother,  a  hoop  ! 

There  are  two  versions  of  "  0  Mother,  a  hoop !  "  the  one  as  a  song,  the  other 
"  A  Dialogue  between  Miss  Molly  and  her  Mother  about  a  hoop."     A  copy  of 
the  latter  will  be  found  in  one  of  the  collections  in  the  British  Museum  (H.  1601, 
p.  532).     It  consists  of  ten  stanzas,  commencing  thus  : — 
Daughter. — "  What  a  fine  thing  have  I  seen  to-day, 

0  Mother,  a  hoop  : 
I  pray  let  me  have  one,  and  do  not  say  nay, 

O  Mother,  a  hoop." 
Mother. — "  You  must  not  have  one,  dear  Moll,  to  be  sure, 

For  hoops  do  men's  eyes  and  men's  hearts  so  allure, 
No,  Molly,  no  hoop,  no  hoop, 
No,  Molly,  no  hoop." 
Daughter. — "  Dear  Mother,  let  women  wear  what,  they  will,  0,  &c. 

Men's  eyes  and  men's  hearts  will  be  roving  still ;   0,  &c. 
Whether  decently  clothed  or  sluttishly  dress' d, 
Some  men  prefer  these  and  others  the  rest.  0,  &c. 

Men  wear  lac'd  hats  and  ladies  lac'd  shoes, 

Men  with  canvas  and  whalebone  do  stiffen  their  clothes, 

Then  why  should  the  men  the  ladies  abuse 

For  applying  the  same  things,  and  to  the  same  use. 

Pray  hear  me,  dear  Mother,  what  I  have  been  taught — 
Nine  men  and  nine  women  o'erset  in  a  boat, 
The  men  were  all  drown'd,  but  the  women  did  float, 
And  by  help  of  their  hoops  they  all  safely  got  out,"  &c. 

In  some  of  the  broadsides  with  music,  the  tune  is  attributed  to  Mr.  Brailford. 
The  following  is  the  first  stanza  of  the  song : — 


648 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


My  master  and  the  neighbours  all, 

Make  game  of  me  and  Sally, 
And  but  for  her  I'd  better  be 

A  slave,  and  row  a  galley  : 
But  when  my  sev'n  long  years  are  out, 

Oh,  then  I'll  marry  Sally, 
And  then  how  happily  we'll  live — 

But  not  in  our  alley. 


When  Christmas  comes  about  again, 

O  then  1  shall  have  money ; 
I'll  hoard  it  up,  and  box  and  all, 

I'll  give  unto  my  honey  : 
I  would  it  were  ten  thousand  pounds, 

I'd  give  it  all  to  Sally  ; 
She  is  the  darling  of  my  heart, 

And  lives  in  our  alley. 
Incledon  sang  only  the  first,  second,  fourth,  and  last  verses. 

AS  DOWN  IN  THE  MEADOWS. 

This  pretty  and  graceful  song  is  to  be  found  in  The  Merry  Musician,  or 
A  Cure  for  the  Spleen,  ii.  129 ;  in  Watts's  Musical  Miscellany,  i.  62  ;  and  on  many 
broadsides  with  music. 

The  tune  was  introduced  by  Gay  in  his  ballad-opera  of  Polly,  1729 ;  also  in 
The  Gobblers'  Opera,  The  Court  Legacy,  The  Lovers'  Opera,  &c. 

The  same  words  were  afterwards  set  by  Oswald,  but  he  was  not  successful  in  his 
music.  A  copy  will  be  found  in  the  Burney  Collection. 

This  is  sometimes  entitled  "  Susan's  Complaint  and  Remedy." 
Gracefully,  and  with  expression. 


As  down  in   the  mea-dows   I  chanc'd  for  to  pass,    O    there  I  be -held  a  young 
Her  age,    I    am  sure,    it    was  scarce-ly  fif-teen,  And  she    on  her  head  wore  a 


beau-ti  -  ful  lass,          .Her      lips  were  like   ru-bies,  and     as     for     her  eyes,      They 
gar- land  of  green..*" 


sparkled  like  diamonds,  or    stars  in    the     skies ;     And     then,  O    her    voice,  it 


—  p^ 

i    ,    ii 

charming    and  clear,      As       sad  -  ly    she  sung  for   the 

1 

-m^=i=i=*^- 

loss   of    her  dear. 

K 

i^       i 

i    f 

i       J 

1                '  J       4 

I    i 

••  ~m 

J       * 

L 

•    r 

REIGN   OF   QUEEN   ANNE   TO   GEORGE    II.  649 

Why  does  my  love  Willy  prove  false  and  unkind,  But  if  she  believe  him,  the  false-hearted  swain 
O  why  does  he  change  like  the  wavering  wind,  Will  leave  her,  and  then  she  with  me  may  com- 
From  one  that  is  loyal  in  every  degree?  plain  : 

Ah  I  why  does  he  change  to  another  from  me?  For  naught  is  more  certain,  believe,  silly  Sue, 
In  the  meadows  as  we  were  a  making  of  hay,    Who  once  has  been  faithless  can  never  be  true. 
Oh  there  did  we  pass  the  soft  minutes  away  ;     she  finighed  her  sQng>  ftnd  roge  up  to  fee  gone> 
And  then  was  I  kiss'd  and  set  down  on  his  knee,  when  oyer  fche  meadow  came  jolly  young  Jonn> 
No  man  in  the  world  was  so  loving  as  he.          who  told  her  thftt  ghe  wag  the  JQy  of  hig  ^ 

But  now  he  has  left  me,  and  Fanny  the  fair  And  if  she'd  consent,  he  would  make  her  his 
Employs  all  his  wishes,  his  thoughts  and  his  wife  :  [went, 

care ;  She  could  not  refuse  him,  to  church  so  they 

He  kisses  her  lip  as  she  sits  on  his  knee,  Young Willy'sforgot,andyoungSusan'scontent. 

And  says  all  the  sweet  things  he  once  said  to  Most  men  are  like  Willy,  most  women  like  Sue, 

me  :  If  men  will  be  false,  why  should  women  be  true  ? 

O  MOTHER,  A  HOOP  ! 

To  this  tune  Gibber  wrote  the  song  "  What  woman  could  do,  I  have  tried,  to 
be  free,"  for  his  ballad-opera  of  Love  in  a  Middle,  1729.  It  is  also  printed  in 
The  Merry  Musician,  ii.  7. 

In  The  Livery  Rake,  1733,  the  air  takes  the  name  of  Gibber's  song ;  but  in 
Damon  and  Phillida,  1734,  it  is  entitled  0  Mother,  a  hoop  ! 

There  are  two  versions  of  "  0  Mother,  a  hoop !  "  the  one  as  a  song,  the  other 
•'  A  Dialogue  between  Miss  Molly  and  her  Mother  about  a  hoop."     A  copy  of 
the  latter  will  be  found  in  one  of  the  collections  in  the  British  Museum  (H.  1601, 
p.  532).     It  consists  of  ten  stanzas,  commencing  thus  : — 
Daughter. — "  What  a  fine  thing  have  I  seen  to-day, 

O  Mother,  a  hoop  : 
I  pray  let  me  have  one,  and  do  not  say  nay, 

0  Mother,  a  hoop." 
Mother. — "  You  must  not  have  one,  dear  Moll,  to  be  sure, 

For  hoops  do  men's  eyes  and  men's  hearts  so  allure, 
No,  Molly,  no  hoop,  no  hoop, 
No,  Molly,  no  hoop." 
Daughter. — "  Dear  Mother,  let  women  wear  what,  they  will,  O,  &c. 

Men's  eyes  and  men's  hearts  will  be  roving  still ;   0,  &c. 
Whether  decently  clothed  or  sluttishly  dress' d, 
Some  men  prefer  these  and  others  the  rest.  O,  &c. 

Men  wear  lac'd  hats  and  ladies  lac'd  shoes, 

Men  with  canvas  and  whalebone  do  stiffen  their  clothes, 

Then  why  should  the  men  the  ladies  abuse 

For  applying  the  same  things,  and  to  the  same  use. 

Pray  hear  me,  dear  Mother,  what  I  have  been  taught — 
Nine  men  and  nine  women  o'erset  in  a  boat, 
The  men  were  all  drown'd,  but  the  women  did  float, 
And  by  help  of  their  hoops  they  all  safely  got  out,"  &c. 

In  some  of  the  broadsides  with  music,  the  tune  is  attributed  to  Mr.  Brailford. 
The  following  is  the  first  stanza  of  the  song : — 


652  ENGLISH    SONG  AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 

The  wife  around  her  husband  throws  Away  he  goes,  he  flies  the  rout, 

Her  arms,  and  begs  his  stay  ;  Their  steeds  all  spur  and  switch  ; 

My  dear,  it  rains,  it  hails  and  snows,  Some  are  thrown  in,  and  some  thrown  but, 

You  will  not  hunt  to-day.  And  some  thrown  in  the  ditch. 

But  a  hunting  we  will  go.  But  a  hunting  we  will  go. 

A  brushing  fox  in  yonder  wood,  At  length  his  strength  to  faintness  worn, 

Secure  to  find  we  seek  ;  Poor  reynard  ceases  flight ; 

For  why,  I  carried,  sound  and  good,  Then  hungry,  homeward  we  return, 

A  cartload  there  last  week.  To  feast  away  the  night. 

And  a  hunting  we  will  go.  Then  a  drinking  we  do  go. 

Instead  of  the  last  three  stanzas  of  the  above,  the  four  following  are 
usually  sung : — 

Th'  uncavern'd  fox,  like  lightning  flies,  Despairing,  mark  !  he  seeks  the  tide, 

His  cunning's  all  awake ;  His  heart  must  now  prevail  ; 

To  gain  the  race  he  eager  tries  ;  Hark  !  shout  the  hunters,  death  betide, 

His  forfeit  life  the  stake  !  His  speed,  his  cunning  fail. 

When  a  hunting  we  do  go,  &c.  When  a  hunting  we  do  go,  &c. 

Arous'd,  e'en  Echo  huntress  turns,  For  lo  !  his  strength  to  faintness  worn, 

And  madly  shouts  her  joy  ;  The  hounds  arrest  his  flight ; 

The  sportsman's  breast  enraptur'd  burns,  Then  hungry  homewards  we  return, 

The  chace  can  never  cloy.  To  feast  away  the  night. 

Then  a  hunting  we  will  go,  &c.  Then  a  drinking  we  do  go,  &c. 

THE  VICAR  OF  BRAY. 

Simon  Aleyn,  Canon  of  Windsor,  was  Vicar  of  Bray,  in  Berkshire,  from  1540 
to  1588.  "  He  was  a  Papist  under  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII. ,  and  a  Protestant 
under  Edward  VI. ;  he  was  a  Papist  again  under  Mary,  and  once  more  became 
a  Protestant  in  the  reign  of  Elizabeth.  When  this  scandal  to  the  gown  was  re- 
proached for  his  versatility  of  religious  creeds,  and  taxed  for  being  a  turncoat 
and  an  inconstant  changeling,  as  Fuller  expresses  it,  he  replied,  '  Not  so  neither ; 
for  if  I  changed  my  religion,  I  am  sure  I  kept  true  to  my  principle ;  which  is,  to 
live  and  die  the  Vicar  of  Bray.'  ' 

This  vivacious  and  reverend  hero  gave  birth  to  a  proverb,  "  The  Vicar  of  Bray 
will  be  Vicar  of  Bray  still."  In  a  sermon  preached  before  the  Lord  Mayor  and 
Aldermen  of  London,  by  John  Evans,  in  1682,  after  describing  the  common 
notion  of  a  Moderate  Minister  in  the  church,  as  one  who  would  comply  with  the 
humours  and  fancies  of  all  parties,  he  says,  "  And  if  this  be  moderation,  the  old 
Vicar  of  Bray  was  the  most  moderate  man  that  ever  breathed."  (Southey's 
Common  Place  Book,  p.  159.) 

Nichols  in  his  Select  Poems  says  that  the  song  of  the  Vicar  of  Bray  "  was 
written  by  a  soldier  in  Colonel  Fuller's  troop  of  Dragoons,  in  the  reign  of 
George  I." 

In  the  ballad  operas,  such  as  The  Quakers'  Opera,  1728,  and  The  Grul  Street 
Opera  and  the  Welsh  Opera,  both  1731,  the  original  name  of  the  tune  is  given  as 
The  Country  Garden. 

In  some  of  the  copies  the  tune  is  printed  in  £  time,  which  entirely  changes  its 
character ;  it  then  becomes  a  plaintive  love  ditty  instead  of  a  sturdy  and  bold 
air.  The  curious  will  find  the  J  version  in  National  English  Airs  (No.  26,  p.  14). 


REIGN   OF   QUEEN  ANNE   TO   GEORGE   II. 


653 


Boldly. 


m 


In    good  King  Charles's  gol-den  days,  When  loy  -  al  -  ty     no    harm      meant,  A 


N^ 


iH-J-Hr^ 


-^ — ?-    -*--*— if 

zeal -ous  high-churchman  was      I,      And     so        I       got     pre    -    fer     -    ment.    To 


is* 


•9 F- 


teach  my  flock    I       ne  -   ver  miss'd  Kings  were       by   God   ap   -   point     -     ed,     And 


~~t 


fppJ 


lost    are    those  that   dare      re  -  sist   Or   touch   the   Lord's  a    -    noint      -       ed.     And 


pizrr  .Li^-pp 


f=$ 


Mid 


—Jr-1-* 

his    is      law  that     I'll        main- tain  Un     -   til      my     dy  -  ing        day, 

g-f-rf- —  ii 


Sir,   That 


£ 


r 


^ 


r 


--* 


T 

e  -  ver    King  shall  reign,  Still    I'll    be  the  Vi-car  of      Bray, 

4-  ' 


what-so 


Sir. 


654                                        ENGLISH   SONG  AND   BALLAD    MUSIC. 

When  royal  James  possess'd  the  crown,  Occasional  conformists  base, 

And  popery  grew  in  fashion,  I  blam'd  their  moderation  ; 

The  penal  laws  I  hooted  down,  And  thought  the  church  in  danger  was. 

And  read  the  Declaration  :  By  such  prevarication. 

The  church  of  Rome  I  found  would  fit  And  this  is  law,  &c. 

Full  well  my  constitution  ;  Tir,        /-,            .          ,,. 

*  When  George  in  pudding-time  came  o  er, 

And  I  had  been  a  Jesuit,  A    j        ,                   ,     ,  ,,  ,  . 

And  moderate  men  look  d  big,  sir, 

But  for  the  Revolut.on.  M      rinci  ]es  l  ch       ,d  mee 

And  th,s  is  law,  &c. 


TTTI       WIT  v       j    i     »j  And  thus  preferment  I  procur'd 

When  William  was  our  King  declar  d, 

,  ...  From  our  new  faith  s-defender  ; 

To  ease  the  nation  s  grievance  ;  ,    . 

TTT.  .     ,  .  .    ,    ,  °     r          ,,  And  almost  ev  ry  day  abiur  d 

With  this  new  wind  about  I  steer'd,  J      y      J 

.    ,  .       ,,     .  The  Pope  and  the  Pretender. 

And  swore  to  him  allegiance  : 

~,,      .     .  ,       r  ,.,  And  this  is  law,  &c. 

Old  principles  I  did  revoke, 

Set  conscience  at  a  distance  ;  Th'  illustrious  house  of  Hanover, 

Passive  obedience  was  a  joke,  And  Protestant  succession, 

A  jest  was  non-resistance.  To  these  I  do  allegiance  swear  — 

And  this  is  law,  &c.  While  they  can  keep  possession  : 

For  in  my  faith  and  loyalty, 

When  royal  Anne  became  our  queen,  I  never  more  will  falter, 

The  church  of  England's  glory,  And  George  my  lawful  king  shall  be  — 

Another  face  of  things  was  seen,  Until  the  times  do  alter. 

And  I  became  a  tory  :  And  this  is  law,  &c. 

The  above  air  was  also  rendered  popular  by  the  song  of  "  The  Neglected 
Tar,"  commencing  — 

"  I  sing  the  British  seaman's  praise  ; 

A  theme  renown'd  in  story,"  &c. 

It  is  printed  in  the  Rev.  James  Plumptre's  dull,  but  highly  moral  collection, 
8vo.,  1805. 

THE  SPRING'S  A  COMING. 

This  tune  is  contained  in  the  third  volume  of  The  Dancing  Master,  and  in  the 
third  volume  of  "Walsh's  Dancing  Master,  under  the  name  of  Humours  of  the 
Bath,  It  was  introduced  in  many  ballad-operas,  such  as  The  Wedding,  The 
Beggars^  Wedding,  The  Lovers'  Opera,  The  Devil  to  pay,  and  A  Rehearsal  of  a 
new  Ballad-  Opera  Burlesqued,  and  generally  under  the  title  of  "The  Spring's 
a  coming,"  from  the  first  line  of  "  The  Bath  Medley,"  written  by  Tony  Aston. 

This  Tony  Aston  was  an  actor,  who,  in  1735,  petitioned  the  House  of 
Commons  to  be  heard  against  the  bill  then  pending  for  regulating  the  stage,  and 
was  permitted  to  deliver  a  ludicrous  speech,  which  was  afterwards  published. 
His  way  of  living  was  then  peculiar  to  himself;  resorting  to  the  principal  cities 
or  towns  in  England,  with  his  Medley,  as  he  termed  it,  which  was  composed  of 
some  scenes  of  humour  out  of  the  most  celebrated  plays,  and  filling  up  the  in- 
tervals between  the  scenes  by  a  song  or  dialogue  of  his  own  writing. 

"  The  Bath  Medley"  is  printed  with  the  tune,  in  Watts's  Musical  Miscellany, 
i,  161  (1729),  and  Cofiey's  song,  "  Young  Virgins  love  pleasure,"  to  the  same 
air,  in  the  fifth  volume  of  that  work.  Coffey  wrote  it  for  his  play,  The  Beggars' 
Wedding. 

The  words  here  adapted  were  written  to  the  air  by  the  late  George  Macfarren. 


REIGN  OF  QUEEN  ANNE  TO  GEORGE  II. 


655 


Gracefully,  and  rather  slowly. 


r         :* 

The  Spring  is    coming,  re  -  solv'd  to   banish  The  king  of    the   ice   with  his 


bid: 


turbulent  train,  With  her  fai  -  ry  wand  she  bids  them  all  vanish,  And  welcomes  the  sunshine  to 


^ 


earth       a  -  gain.         Then      maidens,  fore  -    go        the         win  -   fry    kir-  tie,  And 


-f •- 


r=^^—i  -H- 

1  P 

zi~ 

— 

1  —  J   ^  T^n 

^•ni  •  3  • 

lace  ev-  ry  bod  -  dice  with 

:-r  •  r  • 

^^—3= 

^_x 
bright  green     str 

/ 

ng,  An 

- 
d 

twine    each     lat-tice  with 

!  

\ 

! 

wreaths   of     myr-tle    To        honour    the      ad -vent   of         joy   -    ful   Spring. 


The  Spring  is  coming  to  waken  the  roses 
With  gay  serenades  from  her  chorister  birds, 
Ev'ry  breathing  flow'ret's  lip  discloses 
A  gratitude  sweeter  than  mortal  words. 
Shall  we  be  the  last  to  swell  the  measure 
That  all  nature's  children  in  harmony  sing  ? 
Ah  no  !  we'll  tune  with  a  holier  pleasure 
The  carol  of  welcome  to  joyful  Spring. 


656 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


SWEET  NELLY,  MY  HEART'S  DELIGHT. 

This  song  is  usually  entitled  The  Farmer's  Son  ;  it  was  extremely  popular  at 
the  commencement  of  the  last  century,  and  remains  so  to  the  present  day.  Mr. 
J.  H.  Dixon  informs  me  that  "  it  is  still  regularly  printed  in  Yorkshire,  and  that 
no  song  is  more  in  favour  with  the  small  farmers  and  the  peasantry." 

It  is  contained  in  The  Merry  Musician,  or  A  Cure  for  the  Spleen,  ii.  78 ;  in 
Watts's  Musical  Miscellany,  i.  130  (1729)  ;  in  The  British  Musical  Miscellany, 
or  The  Delightful  Grove,  published  by  Walsh,  and  there  are  numerous  extant 
copies  on  broadsides. 

The  air  was  introduced  in  many  ballad-operas,  such  as  The  Lovers'  Opera, 
The  Footman,  &c. ;  and  the  words  printed  in  many  song-books. 

Gracefully,  and  rather  slowly. 


ft 


Sweet  Nel-ly,  my  heart's  de  -   light, 


Be        lov-  ing  and   do 


not 


slight          The   prof-fer   I  make,  For  mo-des-ty's  sake ;  I        ho-nour  your  beau    -  ty 


& 


-    1             1      II 

I  j_.  .   H       -i          | 

—  is~~l  —     H     r 

J       J  i 

bright.                        For       love      I      pro  -  fess, 

r     -  —  P  —  H  —  ^  r-          —  J— 

^-^'  *- 

I          can     do    no 

i    '  i 

less,       Thou 
_j  ^a_| 

—  i  i  —  H—  -1— 

N 

1  —  •  ::  

—  Ed 

hast       my  fa  -    vour   won :  And     since        I     see    your    mo  -  des-ty,       I 


r^  ^k                  ^ 

=£= 

I  I--  —  '•  i  II 

pray  you  a  gree     And 

-i—  -  —  r  — 

—  -^-4-i  *- 
•f 

fan   -  cy  me,       Tho' 

-s—  —  ?-*  —  *- 

I'm  but   a     far   -  mer's 

E^E33 

son. 

-P  f  —  k-M-  _*- 

i  f- 

—  H 

REIGN   OF   QUEEN   ANNE    TO    GEORGE    II. 


657 


She.  No !  I  am  a  lady  gay, 

It  is  very  well  known  I  may 

Have  men  of  renown, 

In  country  or  town  ; 
So,  Roger,  without  delay, 

Court  Bridget  or  Sue, 

Kate,  Nancy,  or  Prne, 
Their  loves  will  soon  be  won  ; 

But  don't  you  dare 

To  speak  me  fair, 

As  if  I  were 

At  my  last  pray'r, 
To  marry  a  farmer's  son. 

He.  My  father  has  riches  in  store, 
Two  hundred  a  year,  and  more  ; 

Besides  sheep  and  cows, 

Carts,  harrows  and  ploughs  : 
His  age  is  above  three-score  ; 

And  when  he  does  die, 

Then  merrily  I 
Shall  have  what  he  has  won  ; 

Both  land  and  kine, 

All  shall  be  thine, 

If  thou'lt  incline 

And  wilt  be  mine, 
And  marry  a  farmer's  son. 

She.  A  fig  for  your  cattle  and  corn  ! 
Your  proffer'd  love  I  scorn.' 
'Tis  known  very  well 
My  name  it  is  Nell, 
And  you're  but  a  bumpkin  born. 
He.  Well,  since  it  is  so, 


And  I  hope  no  harm  is  done. 

Farewell !  adieu ! 

I  hope  to  woo 

As  good  as  you, 

And  win  her,  too, 
Though  I'm  but  farmer's  son. 

She.  Be  not  in  such  haste,  quoth  she, 
Perhaps  we  may  still  agree ; 

For,  man,  I  protest 

I  was  but  in  jest ; 
Come,  prythee,  sit  down  by  me  : 

For  thou  art  the  man 

That  verily  can 
Win  me,  if  e'er  I'm  won  : 

Both  straight  and  tall, 

Genteel  with  all, 

Therefore  I  shall 

Be  at  your  call, 
To  marry  a  farmer's  son. 

He.  Dear  Nelly,  believe  me,  now, 
I  solemnly  swear  and  vow, 

No  lords  in  their  lives 

Take  pleasure  in  wives 
Like  we  that  do  drive  the  plough : 

Whatever  we  gain 

With  labour  or  pain 
We  don't  after  harlots  run, 

As  courtiers  do ; 

And  I  never  knew 

A  London  beau 

That  could  out-do 
A  country  farmer's  son. 


Away  I  will  go, 

COME,  JOLLY  BACCHUS. 

En  the  second  volume  of  The  Dancing  Master,  this  tune  is  called  "  Frisky 
Jenny,  or  The  tenth  of  June  ; "  in  the  third  volume  it  is  again  printed  under  the 
title  of  "  The  Constant  Lover."  In  Walsh's  Lady's  Banquet  it  appears  as  "  The 
Swedes  Dance  at  the  new  Playhouse;"  in  The  Devil  to  pay,  and  The  Rival 
Milliners,  or  The  Humours  of  Covent  Garden,  as  "  Charles  of  Sweden ; "  and  in 
Tie  Beggar's  Wedding  as  "  Glorious  first  of  August."  The  song  of  Come,  jolly 
Bdjcchus,  by  the  name  of  which  it  is  now  best  known,  was  written  to  the  tune  in 
TJ/e  Devil  to  pay. 

The  following  ballads  and  songs  were  also  sung  to  it : — 

1.  On  the  taking  of  Portobello  in  1739,  entitled  "  English  Courage  display'd : 
Or  brave  news  from  Admiral  Vernon.  To  the  tune  of  Charles  of  Sweden" 
Contained  in  The  Careless  Batchelor's  Garland.  It  is  a  long  ballad  of  eleven 
st;mzas,  commencing  thus : — 

"  Come,  loyal  Britons,  all  rejoice,  with  joyful  acclamation, 
And  join  with  one  united  voice  upon  this  just  occasion. 
To  Admiral  Vernon  drink  a  health,  likewise  to  each  brave  fellow, 
Who  with  that  noble  Admiral  was  at  the  taking  of  Portobello." 


658 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


2.  "  A  song  to  the  tune  of  Come,  Jolly  Bacchus,  god  of  wine."     Two  stanzas. 

"  Come,  gallant  Vernon,  come,  and  prove 

How  firm  your  friends  are  here,  Sir ; 
Supported  by  the  Public  Love, 

You  will  have  nought  to  fear,  Sir. 
Soon  shall  mistaken  boasters  know 
That  we  can  still  some  virtue  shew, 
Resolved  to  ward  corruption's  blow, 

And  check  its  swift  career,  Sir." 

3.  "  A  new  song  made  on  board  the  Salamander,  Privateer." 

"  Come,  let's  drink  a  health  to  George  our  King, 

And  all  his  brave  Commanders  : 
Another  glass  let  us  then  toss  off, 
To  the  valiant  Salamander,"  &c, 

4.  "A  Jigg  danc'd  in  the  Schoole  of  Venus,  or  the  Three-penny  Hops, 
burlesqu'd  by  Mr.  John  Vernham ;"  commencing — 

"  0  how  I  doat  upon  that  lass." 
Jovially. 


A     L 

^\      \ 

f*«         U    1        | 

gfe^ 

fj  1  — 

i  —  a 

=4-^ 

1= 

~ 

J     9         m 

E§Ei 

8  —  *   3  —  Tl 

^—  J  9—1 

*-j  —  /v- 

-«  —  1 

^~~ 

— 

_j_«  1 

i  

h-g  —  -  —  ;H 

9J 

Q 

p 

Come,    jol-ly  Bac-chus, 
Let    none  at  cares  of 

god    of  wine, 
life    re  -  pine, 

Crown  this  night  with 
To     des  -  troy    our 

plea  -  sure  ; 
plea  -  sure  : 

j 

—  n  —  . 

t)l  \)  j 

•j  6»  p  

E 

—9— 

—  1  — 

E 

—9  p  f 

OJ 

b    I 

j      A           1 

\ 

!  m 

r    r  

I 

0 

-/ 

1 

1     ,          ...  ^  .1  _..,    n.  rru 

i  i 

-f- 

—  P—  j 

•  —  m  — 

-J— 

—  j— 

I    '  J  —  1  —  J~^"ni~*-T: 

'  —  ^~ 

1" 

la  — 

Lj 

—  P  —  f_jL 

•      H      J 

•  •        ^     •  -     2  '  j 

L 

r 

Fill 

» 

f      ^    '   ^            "it—       -^~ 
up  the  migh-ty    spark-  ling  bowl,    That       ev'  -  ry  true    and        loy  -  al 

i 

soul 

9 

1.  .j  .    _j 

—  F 

=3  

H— 

~T  —  i  

~^-iK 

—  f— 

-P  —  \- 

i 

_j  1  1 

• 

-1  —  -L 

^ 

^  i          n,  KJ 

—  1- 

p—  |  

^~ 

~1  1  

— 

—  F 

j  j    j 

—  i~^ri  —  m  —  3 

n- 

H- 

J 

J        J    _ 

J 

p  •  _  i 

•  v              o 

cL 

d        9          \ 

• 

a 

• 

H                —      1        ! 

II 

•         ^^        ~      ~      c? 
May  drink  and  sing     with  -  out   con-troul, 

-^                                                 -    9 

To  sup  -  port      our      plea    -    sure. 



l  ^ 

1  

~p  —  r  —  i  —  | 

— 

—  n 

e 

i  

~~tt 

>j 

Z 

r        '    * 



3            c- 

Let  lovers  whine,  and  statesmen  think, 

Always  void  of  pleasure ; 
And  let  the  miser  hug  his  chink, 

Destitute  of  pleasure  : 
But  we  like  sons  of  mirth  and  bliss, 
Obtain  the  height  of  happiness, 
Whilst  brimmers  flow  with  juice  like  this, 

In  the  midst  of  pleasure. 


Thus,  mighty  Bacchus,  shalt  thou  be 

Guardian  to  our  pleasure ; 
That  under  thy  protection  we 

May  enjoy  new  pleasure; 
And  as  the  hours  glide  away, 
We'll  in  thy  name  invoke  their  stay, 
And  sing  thy  praises,  that  we  may 
Live  and  die  in  pleasure  ! 


REIGN   OF   QUEEN  ANNE   TO   GEORGE   II. 


659 


COUNTRY   BUMPKIN. 

This  tune  is  found  in  many  of  the  ballad-operas  in  the  first  half  of  the  last 
century,  such  as  The  Cobbler's  Opera;  Robin  Hood ;  Momus  turned  Fabulist,  or 
V dean's  Wedding ;  Don  Quixote  in  England;  and  The  Welsh  Opera,  or  TJie 
Crrey  Mare  the  better  Horse. 

The  song  from  which  it  appears  to  derive  its  name  is  entitled  "  The  Politick 
Club,"  and  contained  in  Pills  to  purge  Melancholy,  ii.  277  (1700  and  1707)  ; 
but  there  printed  to  G-reen  Sleeves. 

The  tune  is  generally  known  at  the  present  time.  A  few  years  ago  it  was  the 
vehicle  of  a  song  commencing  — 

"  When  a  man's  a  little  bit  poorly, 

He  makes  a  fuss — wants  a  nurse, 
Thinks  he's  going  to  die  most  surely, 

Sends  for  a  doctor  and  soon  gets  worse." 
Cheerfully. 


A     coun  -  try  bumpkin  who      trees      did     grub,      A     vicar    that    us'd   the 

J-    •     J-    •  ^   i 


pulpit  to  drub,  And  twoor  three  more,  o'era  stoup  of  strong  bub,  Late  met  on  a  jolly  oc-  ca  -  sion 


J.  • 


THE  HATHERSAGE   COCKING. 

The  barbarous  amusement  which  is  the  subject  of  this  song,  was  with  the 
Athenians  at  first  partly  a  religious  and  partly  a  political  institution,  and  after- 
wards continued  for  improving  the  seeds  of  valour  in  the  minds  of  their  youth, 
but  eventually  perverted,  both  there  and  in  other  parts  of  Greece,  to  a  common 
pa;  time,  without  any  political  or  religious  intention.  It  was  afterwards  adopted 
by  the  Romans,  and  by  them  probably  introduced  into  England.  Cockfighting 
has  been  called  by  some  a  royal  diversion ;  and  the  Cockpit  at  Whitehall  was 
added  to  the  palace  by  Henry  the  Eighth,  and  enlarged  by  Charles  II. ,  for  the 
purpose  of  giving  greater  patronage  and  importance  to  the  amusement. 

This  tune  is  an  especial  favourite  in  Derbyshire  and  Warwickshire,  and  may 
frequently  be  heard  in  the  alehouses,  to  these  and  to  other  words.  It  was  con- 
tributed in  1835,  by  the  late  Mr.  Ward,  a  teacher  of  music  in  Manchester,  who 
used  occasionally  to  entertain  his  friends  by  singing  it  in  the  provincial  dialect. 
From  the  testimony  of  two  persons  he  then  traced  it  back  one  hundred  and 
twenty  years.  I  do  not,  however,  think  that  any  such  tracings  are  very  reliable 
as  to  the  integrity  of  a  tune,  and  beg  the  reader  to  compare  the  two  following. 

2  v 


660 


ENGLISH   SONG  AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


There  are  several  old  ballads  about  cockfighting  still  extant,  as  "  The  Wednes- 
bury  Cocking,"  in  the  Douce  Collection,  commencing — 
"  At  Wednesbury  there  was  a  cocking, 
A  match  between  Newton  and  Scrogging, 
The  colliers  and  nailers  left  their  work, 
And  all  to  Spittles  went  jogging, 

To  see  this  noble  sport. 
Many  noted  men  there  resorted, 

And  though  they'd  but  little  money, 
Yet  that  they  freely  sported,"  &c. 

Hathersage  is  situated  in  the  midst  of  a  mountainous  tract  of  country  near 
the  eastern  extremity  of  Hope  Dale.  The  churchyard  is  the  reputed  burial- 
place  of  Little  John,  the  companion  of  Robin  Hood. 

I  received  but  one  stanza  of  the  ballad  from  Mr.  Ward,  and  have  not  found  it 
in  print. 

Moderate  time. 


Then  great      Bill  Brown  came  swag  -  gering  down,  I'll    hold   you  a  gui  -    nea 


:4-J    [J     a.j       ~f=F=E 

J~3  -J-  tj  i  j^ 


a 


j 


to      a  crown    That,  let      the  black  cock  have    fair  play,  He'll  drive  the    sod   of  the 


PH 


bon-  ny  gray,  Singing  tol    de  rol    de    riddle  lol  de  ra,  Ri     tol  lol  de  riddle  lol  de    ra. 


^=J5 


2 


tt 


O   GOOD   ALE,    THOU  ART   MY   DARLING. 

This  tune  is  still  current  in  three  different  'shapes.  The  first  as  0  good  ale, 
ihou  art  my  darling ;  the  second  to  a  song  about  Turpin,  the  highwayman ;  and 
the  third  to  the  above  song  about  cock-fighting.  They  differ  so  much  at  the 
beginnings  and  endings  that  it  is  necessary  to  treat  them  as  separate  tunes. 

The  following  is  the  song  of  0  good  ale,  thou  art  my  darling,  from  a  broadside 
with  music.  The  first  part  of  this  version  resembles  John,  come  kiss  me  noio 
(ante  p.  148). 


REIGN  OP  QUEEN  ANNE   TO   GEORGE   II. 
Moderate  time. 


661 


—^  —  1  —  j  —  1_^ 

iyK'"1^  v-i  

"i  —  n~i  —  TT 

^_ 

"~1  TT~1  = 

r~J  —  i!~ihi 

iC\\    *  '       i 

j  j  j 

t 

«      j 

J   J 

i          ii    "F 

92 

.     J  m   9    «  J 

3       •     * 

J     4    !        «     , 

J                     III 

J        -J-       ->-/   '     >~r 

The  landlord,  he  looks 

ve-ry   big  With  his  high  cock  'd  hat  and  his   powder'dwig; 

00                   J                 1*                             P     I* 

T^^'fi  —  M  — 

JfcZH  —  •—  r  —  T~ 

-H  1  — 

i*      r*         P      f* 

-H  »—  IP—  • 

\  1    ' 

r   r         r 

q    P     P     ' 

-T  —  £  1    r 

-4-J  —  L—  ^~- 

~N                          V 

-4--T  i          v 

_L_-j_1  U 

Me-thinks  he  looks  hoth  fair     and  fat,  But    he  may  thank  you  and  me      for  that,  For 'tis 


3 


f 


!• 


4+* 
O,  good  ale,  thou       art       my     dar-ling     And    my  joy       both    night  and     morning 

3SJI-I    .u=o=fe 


a 


The  brewer  brew'd  thee  in  his  pan, 
The  tapster  draws  thee  in  his  can  ; 
Now  I  with  thee  will  play  my  part, 
And  lodge  thee  next  unto  my  heart. 
For  'tis  O,  good  ale,  &c. 


Thou  oft  hast  made  my  friends  my  foes, 
And  often  made  me  pawn  my  clothes ; 
But  since  thou  art  so  nigh  my  nose, 
Come  up,  my  friend, — and  down  he  goes. 
For  'tis  O,  good  ale,  &c. 


O  RARE  TURPIN,  HERO. 

This  is  one  of  several  ballads  about  Richard  Turpin,  the  highwayman,  exalting 
him  into  a  hero.  It  is  contained  in  a  pamphlet,  entitled  "  The  Dunghill  Cock ; 
or  Turpin's  valiant  exploits,"  &c.,  "entered  according  to  order"  at  Stationers' 
Hall,  but  undated.  It  is  entitled  "  Turpin's  valour :  to  its  own  proper  tune" 

Mr.  W.  Harrison  Ainsworth  makes  Turpin  one  of  the  characters  in  his  novel 
of  liookwood,  and  represents  him  as  singing  snatches  of  this  ballad.  It  was  evi- 
dently written  in  1739,  just  before  Turpin  was  executed ;  yet  is  commonly  known 
at  the  present  time.  Charles  Sloman,  the  comic  singer,  sang  the  ballad  to  me 
in  1840,  for  the  purpose  of  having  the  tune  noted  down. 

In  the  Kilkenny  Archaeological  Society's  publications  (new  series,  March,  1856, 
No.  2),  is  a  ballad  about  Captain  Freney,  an  Irish  highwayman,  which  was  evi- 
dently suggested  by,  and  partially  derived  from  this.  The  Kilkenny  ballad 
commences —  "One  morning,  being  free  from  care, 

I  rode  abroad  to  take  the  air ; 
'Twas  my  fortune  for  to  spy 
A  jolly  Quaker  riding  by : 

And  it's  0  bold  Captain  Freney, 
O  bold  Freney  O." 


662 


ENGLISH    SONG  AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


The  tune  is  printed  in  the  Kilkenny  Journal,  but  I  believe  it  to  have  been 
incorrectly  noted  down.  The  Irish  are  a  nation  possessed  of  great  musical  taste 
and  feeling,  and  I  cannot  imagine  that  any  one,  having  ears,  could  either  sing  or 
listen  to  so  barbarous  a  thing.  Still  there  are  traces  of  its  being  a  corruption  of 
0  rare  Turpin,  0. 

I  make  no  apology  to  my  readers  for  printing  one  highwayman's  ballad; 
after  all,  these  are  but  continuations  of  the  exploits  of  Robin  Hood.  Nor  need 
we  go  back  to  the  Robin  Hood  era  to  find  instances  of  the  greatest  ladies  of  the 
court  interceding  to  save  the  lives  of  highwaymen,  provided  they  were  brave  and 
handsome — witness  the  case  of  Claude  Duval. 

As  to  the  origin  of  the  tune,  see  "  0  good  ale,  thou  art  my  darling  "  (p.  660). 


-^         Moderate  time. 

>-1      1 

XI    .       /  *                            II                   1 

—  1  H  — 

S  —  j  (—  1  1  1  —  i  — 

—  J  a  N  1 

J—  •  —  1  —  hJ        J  J  J_ 

§*-  ~i  ±3~*- 

On      Hounslov 

J 

#1-          -3- 

r  heath    as         I         j 

rode     o'er,     I       spied     a       law  -  yer 

''  \  *4f                       * 

4                            \ 

*  EEHU       r         i*        r 

•             -                *        r        «        r 

-F-      —  P  —  ^ 

-s                      L4~        - 

-^              L—  ^i      i        _^**\ 

r      r  ' 

ill           i 

i                          t      i 

\         r\            r\ 

mm 

•   •    •     i*                  i 

J           _i 

J     J     5     i        J 

j     r      i           j    j 

J        J    •           J    • 

« 

-3                  '        3 

1              IX                                      • 

~i 

ri  -  ding  be-fore;  Kind 

«** 
sir,  said    I,  ar'n't  yo 

u      a  -  fraid      Of    Tur  -pin,  that  mis  - 

m>                  £                   m 

i*     r     t* 

_ 

r     r     r 

-  chie  -  vous    blade  ?     O       rare     Tur  -  pin,     he  -  ro, 


S 


^ 


Says  Turpin,  he'd  ne'er  find  me  out, 
I've  hid  my  money  in  my  boot. 
O,  says  the  lawyer,  there's  none  can  find 
My  gold,  for  its  stitched  in  my  cape  behind. 
O  rare  Turpin,  &c. 

As  they  rode  down  by  the  powder  mill, 
Turpin  commands  him  to  stand  still ; 
Said  he,  Your  cape  I  must  cut  off, 
For  my  mare  she  wants  a  saddle  cloth. 
O  rare  Turpin,  &c. 

This  caus'd  the  lawyer  much  to  fret, 
To  think  he  was  so  fairly  bit; 


And  Turpin  robb'd  him  of  his  store, 
Because  he  knew  he'd  lie  for  more. 
O  rare  Turpin,  &c. 

As  Turpin  rode  in  search  of  prey, 
He  met  an  exciseman  on  the  way ; 
Then  boldly  he  did  bid  him  stand ; 
Your  gold,  said  he,  I  do  demand. 
O  rare  Turpin,  &c. 

To  that  the  exciseman  did  reply, 
Your  proud  demands  I  must  deny  ; 
Before  my  money  you  receive, 
One  of  us  two  shall  cease  to  live. 
O  rare  Turpin,  &c. 


REIGN  OF   QUEEN   ANNE   TO   GEORGE   II. 


663 


Turpin  then,  without  remorse, 
Soon  knock'd  him  quite  from  off  his  horse, 
And  left  him  on  the  ground  to  sprawl, 
So  off  he  rode  with  his  gold  and  all. 
O  rare  Turpin,  &c. 

As  he  rode  over  Salisbury  Plain, 
He  met  Lord  Judge  with  all  his  train  ; 
Then,  hero-like,  he  did  approach, 
And  robb'd  the  judge  as  he  sat  in  his  coach. 
O  rare  Turpin,  &c. 

An  usurer,  as  I  am  told, 

Who  had  in  charge  a  sum  of  gold, 

With  a  cloak  was  clouted  from  side  to  side ; 

Just  like  a  palmer  he  did  ride. 

O  rare  Turpin,  &c. 

And  as  he  jogg'd  along  the  way, 
He  met  with  Turpin  that  same  day  : 
With  hat  in  hand,  most  courteously 
He  asked  him  for  charity. 

O  rare  Turpin,  &c. 

If  that  be  true  thou  tell'st  to  me, 
I'll  freely  give  thee  charity; 
But  I  made  a  vow,  and  that  I'll  keep, 
To  search  all  palmers  I  may  meet. 
O  rare  Turpin,  &c. 

He  searched  his  bags,'  wherein  he  found 
Upwards  of  eight  hundred  pound, 
In  ready  gold  and  white  money, 
Which  made  him  to  laugh  heartily. 
O  rare  Turpin,  &c. 


This  begging  is  a  curious  trade, 
For  in  thy  way  thou  hast  well  sped ; 
This  prize  I  count  as  found  money, 
Because  thou  told'st  me  an  arrant  lie. 
O  rare  Turpin,  &c. 

For  shooting  of  a  dunghill  cock, 
Poor  Turpin  now  at  last  is  took, 
And  carried  straight  unto  a  jail, 
Where  his  ill  luck  he  does  bewail. 
O  poor  Turpin,  &c. 

Now  some  do  say  that  he  will  hang, 
Turpin  the  last  of  all  the  gang : 
I  wish  this  cock  had  ne'er  been  hatch'd, 
For  like  a  fish  in  a  net  he's  catch'd. 
O  poor  Turpin,  &c. 

But  if  he  had  his  liberty, 
And  were  upon  yon  mountains  high, 
There's  not  a  man  in  old  England, 
Dare  bid  bold  Turpin  for  to  stand. 
O  poor  Turpin,  &c. 

He  ventur'd  bold  at  young  and  old, 
And  fairly  fought  them  for  their  gold ; 
Of  no  man  he  was  e'er  afraid, 
But  now,  alas !  he  is  betray'd. 

O  poor  Turpin,  &c. 

Now  Turpin  is  condem'd  to  die, 
To  hang  upon  yon  gallows  high : 
His  legacy  is  a  strong  rope, 
For  stealing  a  poor  dunghill  cock. 
O  poor  Turpin,  &c. 


THE  FKEEMASONS'  TUNE. 

This  tune  was  very  popular  at  the  time  of  the  ballad-operas,  and  I  am  in- 
formed that  the  same  words  are  still  sung  to  it  at  masonic  meetings. 

The  air  was  introduced  in  The  Village  Opera,  The  Chambermaid,  The  Lottery, 
The  Grub-Street  Opera,  and  The  Lover  his  own  Rival.  It  is  contained  in  the 
third  volume  of  The  Dancing  Master,  and  of  Walsh's  New  Country  Dancing 
Master. 

Words  and  music  are  included  in  Watts's  Musical  Miscellany,  iii.  72,  and  in 
British  Melody,  or  The  Musical  Magazine,  fol.  1739.  They  were  also  printed  on 
broadsides. 

In  The  Gentleman's  Magazine  for  October,  1731,  the  first  stanza  is  printed  as 
"  A.  Health,  by  Mr.  Birkhead."  It  seems  to  be  there  quoted  from  "  The  Con- 
stitutions of  the  Freemasons,  by  the  Rev.  James  Anderson,  A.M.,  one  of  the 
worshipful  Masters." 

There  are  several  versions  of  the  tune.  One  in  Pills  to  purge  Melancholy, 
ii.  230, 1719,  has  a  second  part,  but  that,  being  almost  a  repetition  of  the  first, 


664 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


taken  an  octave  higher,  is  out  of  the  compass  of  ordinary  voices,  and  has  there- 
fore been  generally  rejected. 

In  A  Complete  Collection  of  Old  and  New  English  and  Scotch  Songs,  ii.  172 
(1735),  the  name  is  given  as  "Ye  Commons  and  Peers,"  but  Leveridge  composed 
another  tune  to  those  words.  See  Pills. 

In  "  The  Musical  Mason,  or  Free  Mason's  Pocket  Companion,  being  a  Collec- 
tion of  Songs  used  in  all  Lodges :  to  which  are  added  The  Free  Mason's  March 
and  Ode,"  (8.vo.,  1790),  this  is  entitled  "  The  Enter'd  Apprentice's  Song." 

Many  stanzas  have  been  added  from  time  to  time,  and  others  have  been 
altered.  The  following  is  the  old  copy : — 


Cheerfully. 


Gome,  letus  pre-pare,  We  brothers  that  are  Met  to  -  gether  on  merry  oc  -  ca  -  sion,     Let  us 


i 


drink,  laugh,  and  sing,  Our  wine  has  a  spring, 'Tis  a  health  to  an    ac-cepted       Ma  -   son. 


i 


i  J 


The  world  is  in  pain 

Our  secret  to  gain, 
But  stiH  let  them  wonder  and  gaze  on, 

Till  they're  shewn  the  light 

They'll  ne'er  know  the  right 
Word  or  sign  of  an  accepted  Mason. 

'Tis  this,  and  'tis  that, 

They  cannot  tell  what, 
Why  so  many  great  men  of  the  nation 

Should  aprons  put  on, 

To  make  themselves  one 
With  a  free  and  an  accepted  Mason. 

Great  kings,  dukes,  and  lords, 
Have  laid  by  their  swords, 

This  our  myst'ry  to  put  a  good  grace  on, 
And  ne'er  been  asham'd 
To  hear  themselves  nam'd 

With  a  free  and  an  accepted  Mason. 


Antiquity's  pride 

We  have  on  our  side, 
It  makes  each  man  just  in  his  station; 

There's  nought  but  what's  good, 

To  be  understood 
By  a  free  and  an  accepted  Mason. 

We're  true  and  sincere, 

We're  just  to  the  fair, 
They'll  trust  us  on  ev'ry  occasion ; 

No  mortal  can  more 

The  ladies  adore 
Than  a  free  and  an  accepted  Mason. 

Then  join  hand  in  hand, 

To  each  other  firm  stand, 
Let's  be  merry  and  put  a  bright  face  on ; 

What  mortal  can  boast 

So  noble  a  toast 
As  a  free  and  an  accepted  Mason. 


CEASE  YOUR  FUNNING. 

This  and  You'll  think  ere  many  days  ensue  are  the  only  two  songs  in  The 
Beggars'  Opera  of  which  the  original,  or  at  least  earlier,  names  are  not  given  in 
the  first  edition.  You'll  think  ere  many  days  has  been  handed  down  through  the 


REIGN   OF   QUEEN  ANNE   TO   GEORGE   II.  605 

traditions  of  the  stage  as  one  of  the  snatches  of  old  songs  sung  by  Ophelia  in 
Hamlet;  but  we  have  now  no  sufficient  evidence  to  prove  the  origin  of  Cease  your 
fanning.  There  are  half-sheet  songs  to  the  same  tune,  such  as  "Charming Billy," 
ccmmencing,  "  When  the  hills  and  lofty  mountains ; "  but  it  is  not  certain  that  any 
are  of  earlier  date  than  The  Beggars'  Opera.  In  all  probability,  Gay  was  unable 
to  recollect  the  names  of  the  two  airs,  although  they  were  familiar  to  him. 

The  excessive  popularity  of  Gay's  song  caused  the  adoption  of  its  title  when 
the  tune  was  introduced  in  other  ballad-operas,  as,  for  instance,  in  The  Fashion- 
able Lady,  or  Harlequin's  Opera,  1730. 

In  the  year  1833,  the  late  John  Parry  published  "  The  Welsh  Melody,  sung 
with  such  distinguished  approbation  by  Miss  Kelly,  in  her  entertainment  called 
Dramatic  Recollections,  written  in  Welsh  and  English,  and  adapted  to  the 
favorite  air,  Llivyn  on,  or  The  Ash  Grove,  by  John  Parry,  editor  of  Welsh  and 
Scotch  Melodies."  To  this  he  added  the  following  note : — "  The  celebrated  song 
of  Cease  your  funning,  in  The  Beggars'  Opera,  is  this  beautiful  and  simple 
molody  ornamented."  The  air  of  Cease  your  funning  is  really  quite  as  simple  as 
the  Welsh  melody ;  and,  if  there  has  been  any  copying,  it  is  infinitely  more 
probable  that  the  Welsh  air  was  derived  from  Cease  your  funning,  than  that 
a  tune  noted  down  seventy  years  after  The  Beggars'  Opera  had  been  publicly 
performed  in  Wales,  should  prove  to  be  the  original  of  one  of  its  melodies. 
The  Welsh  air  which  resembles  Cease  your  funning  is  neither  to  be  found  in  the 
Ancient  British  Music,  collected  by  John  Parry  and  Evan  Williams  in  1742, 
nor  in  British  Harmony,  "  being  a  collection  of  ancient  Welsh  airs,"  by  John 
Parry  of  Ruabon  Denbighshire,  in  1781.  It  was  first  printed  by  Edward 
Jones,  in  his  Bardic  Museum,  1802,  and  the  resemblance  there  is  confined  to 
tho  first  part,  and  is  not  very  strong;  but  Parry  increased  it  by  slightly 
altering  the  first  and  entirely  changing  the  second  part  of  the  tune.  Again, 
who  can  say  that  this  Welsh  air  is  old  ?  Jones  entitles  it,  "  Llwynn-onn, 
the  name  of  Mr.  Jones's  mansion,  near  Wrexham,  in  Denbighshire."  I  do 
not  know  how  long  Mr.  Jones's  mansion  has  stood,  or  who  composed  the  Welsh 
air ;  but  it  is  not  improbably  the  production  of  some  grateful  bard  whom  Mr. 
Jones  entertained  there.  Let  it  be  remembered  that  the  succession  of  Welsh 
bards  continues  to  the  present  day,  and  that  some  of  their  compositions  are  in- 
corporated in  collections  of  Welsh  music,  without  any  marks  to  distinguish  the 
new  from  the  old.  Edward  Jones  was  Bard  to  George  IV. ;  the  late  John 
Parry,  "  Bardd  Alaw."  Parry  printed  "  A  Selection  of  Welsh  Melodies,"  in 
three  volumes  ;  and  in  the  first,  as  well  as  in  the  second,  included  an  air  named 
Cailer  Idris,  after  a  venerable  mountain  in  Merionethshire.  Some  years  after 
thi^  publication,  Mr.  Charles  Matthews  sang  the  air  on  the  stage,  with  great 
success,  and  Parry  then  claimed  it  as  his  own  composition.  He  was  too  honorable 
a  man  to  make  such  a  claim,  if  not  really  his  own,  but  Cader  Idris  (alias  Jenny 
Jones) ,  might  still  be  passing  for  an  ancient  Welsh  melody,  if  the  copyright  had 
not  become  thus  suddenly  and  unexpectedly  valuable.  These  matters  are  not 
always  revealed  to  the  public. 


666 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND   BALLAD   MUSIC. 


-^     Slowly  and  gracefully. 

(a)*7  ft  j 

*~A 

M     J-fH    P=l    - 

*  g  ,. 

_«              j_.,  .^  •[] 

Cease  your  funning, 
All  these  sal  -  lies 

•J-            ^              •  -j- 

Force    or     cun-ning    Ne  -  ver  shall  my 
Are    but    ma  -lice     To      se-ducemy 

n  ^-—  rj  '    *  • 

heart   tre-pan  ; 
con-stantman. 

"  1 

—  H  f  1  i 

9  i-  

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—  i  —  6  —  £  —  f»  — 

1  (•  f»  — 

H—  ,  r^r 

p     J  hj    j     •      1 

*    ^    k  i    -J    ix  ^  t==i—  b   ,^_d-+- 

'Tis    most   cer-tain,       By    their  flirt-ing,      Wo  -men      oft        have 
T     '        f  -     :        1      -         •      •        j            J" 

1  J^  qS  3  .  1 

en  -    vy  shown  ; 

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Pleas'd   to    ru  -  in 
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*                            -J-         04-                           V          y^4-               j;   . 
O  -  thers'  woo-ing  ;     Nev  -  er   hap  -  py           in       their  own. 

f—  =  f-^  J—  ,  J—  :  H- 

"SI 

i  1 

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r^   .    ^      .i 

H^  — 

• 

=dh 

THE  BUDGEON  IT  IS  A  DELICATE  TRADE. 

This  tune  is  now  familiarly  known  as  There  was  a  jolly  Miller  ;  it  is  also  the 
vehicle  of  a  harvest-supper  song,  "Here's  a  health  unto  our  Master;"  but  a 
still  earlier  name  (or  at  least  a  name  under  which  I  find  it  at  an  earlier  date)  is 
The  budgeon  it  is  a  delicate  trade. 

The  budgeon  it  is  a  delicate  trade,  is  contained  in  The  Triumph  of  Wit, 
or  Ingenuity  displayed,  and  in  A  new  Canting  Dictionary,  &c.,  "with  a  com- 
plete collection  of  Songs  in  the  canting  dialect,"  8vo.,  1725.  From  this  it 
appears  that  a  "  budge"  is  a  thief  who  slips  into  houses  in  the  dark,  to  steal 
cloaks  and  other  clothes.  The  dialect  of  the  song  might  be  intelligible  to  a 
police-officer,  but  would  not  be  so  to  the  general  reader,  as  the  following  sample 
will  shew : — 

But  if  the  cully  nab  us,  and 
The  lurries  from  us  take, 
O  then  he  rubs  us  to  the  whit, 

Though  we  are  not  worth  a  make." 

The  tune  was  introduced  into  several  of  the  ballad-operas  (The  Quaker's 
Opera,  1728 ;  The  Devil  to  pay  ;  The  Fashionable  Lady,  or  Harlequin's  Opera  ; 
&c.),  under  the  name  of  The  budgeon,  it  is  a  delicate  trade. 

One  stanza  of  There  was  a  jolly  Miller  was  sung  in  Love  in  a  Village,  1762 ; 
and  it  is  therefore  supposed  to  have  been  written  by  Bickerstaffe,  but  he  appro- 
priated so  many  songs  from  other  sources,  without  acknowledgement,  that  this 
may  also  have  been  introduced.  However,  I  have  not  seen  the  words  in  print 
before  1762, 


"  The  budgeon  it  is  a  delicate  trade, 

And  a  delicate  trade  of  fame, 
For  when  that  we  have  bit  the  blow, 
We  carry  away  the  game. 


REIGN   OF   QUEEN  ANNE   TO  GEOEGE   II. 


667 


The  following  version  is  from  The  Convivial  Songster,  1782  : — 
"  There  was  a  jolly  miller  once  liv'd  on  the  river  Dee ; 
He  danc'd  and  he  sang  from  morn  till  night,  no  lark  so  blithe  as  he. 
And  this  the  burden  of  his  song  for  ever  us'd  to  be — 
I  care  for  nobody,  no,  not  I,  if  nobody  cares  for  me. 
I  live  by  my  mill,  God  bless  her  !  she's  kindred,  child,  and  wife  ; 
I  would  not  change  my  station  for  any  other  in  life. 
No  lawyer,  surgeon,  or  doctor,  e'er  had  a  groat  from  me — 
I  care  for  nobody,  no,  not  I,  if  nobody  cares  for  me. 
When  Spring  begins  its  merry  career,  oh  I  how  his  heart  grows  gay ; 
No  summer  drought  alarms  his  fears,  nor  winter's  sad  decay ; 
No  foresight  mars  the  miller's  joy,  who's  wont  to  sing  and  say — 
Let  others  toil  from  year  to  year,  I  live  from  day  to  day. 
Thus  like  the  miller,  bold  and  free,  let  us  rejoice  and  sing ; 
The  days  of  youth  are  made  for  glee,  and  time  is  on  the  wing. 
This  song  shall  pass  from  me  to  thee,  along  this  jovial  ring — 
Let  heart  and  voice  and  all  agree  to  say  Long  live  the  King." 
About  two  years  ago,  the  following  stanzas  were  sent  to  the  editor  of  The 
Illustrated  London  News  to  be  printed  among  the  "  Memorabilia  "  in  that  journal. 
They  were  found  written  on  the  fly-leaf  of  a  volume  of  Dryden's  Miscellany 
Poems  (printed  in  1716),  and  the  finder  supposed  them  to  be  the  original  song  of 
The  jolly  Miller:— 
There  was  a  jolly  miller  once 

Lived  on  the  river  Dee ; 
He  work'd  and  sang  from  morn  till  night, 

No  lark  more  blithe  than  he. 
And  this  the  burden  of  his  song 

For  ever  used  to  be — 
I  care  for  nobody,  no,  not  I, 

If  nobody  cares  for  me. 
The  reason  why  he  was  so  blithe, 

He  once  did  thus  unfold — 
The  bread  I  eat  my  hands  have  earn'd ; 

I  covet  no  man's  gold  ; 
I  do  not  fear  next  quarter-day ; 
In  debt  to  none  I  be. 

I  care  for  nobody,  &c. 
When  the  harvest-supper  song  is  sung  to  this  tune,  it  is  generally  in  a  major 
key.  I  have  copies  so  noted  down  in  Kent,  in  Suffolk,  and  in  Wiltshire ;  and  it 
i^  printed  in  that  form  in  "  Old  English  Songs  as  now  sung  by  the  peasantry  of 
tlie  Weald  of  Surrey  and  Sussex"  (collected  by  the  Rev.  John  Broadwood), 
harmonized  by  G.  A.  Dusart. 

The  following  are  the  harvest-supper  words  as  commonly  sung : — 
"  Here's  a  health  unto  our  master,  the  founder  of  the  feast; 
I  hope  his  soul,  whenever  he  dies,  to  heav'n  may  go.  to  rest  ; 
That  all  his  works  may  prosper,  whatever  he  takes  in  hand ; 
For  we  are  all  his  servants,  and  all  at  his  command. 
Then,  drink — boys — drink — and  see  you  do  not  spill, 
For  if  you  do,  you  shall  drink  two,  it  is  our  master's  will. 


A  coin  or  two  I've  in  my  purse, 

To  help  a  needy  friend ; 
A  little  I  can  give  the  poor, 

And  still  have  some  to  spend. 
Though  I  may  fail,  yet  I  rejoice, 

Another's  good  hap  to  see. 
I  care  for  nobody,  &c. 
So  let  us  his  example  take, 

And  be  from  malice  free ; 
Let  every  one  his  neighbour  serve, 

As  served  he'd  like  to  be. 
And  merrily  push  the  can  about, 

And  drink  a.nd  sing  with  glee; 
If  nobody  cares  a  doit  for  us, 

Why  not  a  doit  care  we. 


668 


ENGLISH   SONG  AND  BALLAD   MUSIC. 


Now  harvest  it  is  ended,  and  supper  it  is  past, 
To  our  good  mistress'  health,  boys,  a  full  and  flowing  glass, 
For  she  is  a  good  woman,  and  makes  us  all  good  cheer  : 
Here's  to  our  mistress'  health,  boys,  so  all  drink  off  your  beer. 
Then  drink — boys — drink — and  see  you  do  not  spill, 
For  if  you  do,  you  shall  drink  two,  it  is  our  master's  will." 
Sometimes  the  following  verse  is  added,  or  the  song  commences  with  it : — 
"  Here's  a  health  unto  the  woodcutter,  that  lives  at  home  at  ease ; 
He  takes  his  work  so  light  in  hand,  can  leave  it  when  he  please ; 
He  takes  the  withe  and  winds  it,  and  lays  it  on  the  ground, 
And  round  the  faggot  he  binds  it, — so  let  his  health  go  round. 
Then  drink — boys — drink — and  pass  it  round  to  me, 
The  longer  we  sit  here  and  drink,  the  merrier  we  shall  be." 
The  tune  of  The  jolly  Miller  was  one  of  those  harmonized  by  Beethoven  for 
George  Thomson,  in  1824.      Thomson  included  it  in  his  collection  of  Scotch 
songs,  not  because  it  was  Scotch,  but  on  account  of  "  its  merited  popularity,  and 
the  great  additional  interest  which  Beethoven  has  conferred  upon  it  by  his  truly 
original  and  characteristic  accompaniments." 

The  following  are  the  words  now  usually  sung : — 


-^         Jovially. 

K                         '                  • 

1            IS 

Ii 

IS                     k_ 

1    !           1     *ll 

1 

J        J       -, 

m 

J                           "  ^ 

•II 

(\y  ft  J* 

-J  —  J—  #* 

3  ?  1 

—  C- 

-1  —  J  —  4  —  »*- 

j  •   J  -U- 

There  was      a      jol  -  ly    mil  -  ler  once,  Liv'd  on     the    riv  -  er 
He  work'd  and  sung  from  morn  till  night,    No  lark  more  blithe  than 

rr.-r/.-   —  "  '  —  *       "+  -    •!   -    '-•  •'  

Dee^ 
he. 

«  J.,  u  d     i 

2 

;  

"Tr  —  ^  —  : 



-d  :  d  ;  

i  a  r  :n 

b    u      1 

i 

r  i  • 

r  -                         h              r           n. 

—  1__  •  •  •  i  a  J  J  p  — 

d  —  K  J    f  ht 

___j  

133 

rt     £-S=— 

_f  1  —  J       • 

-i—j*  i    J  H-^—  v 

11/1                                   ? 

And  this    the  bur  -  then       of      his   song   For      ev  -   er  us'd      to          be,           I 

a 

~1  P  7-*l  

—  i  —  r  —  r  —  =i  — 

£  '-  H  -H- 

d—  S»-H 

i 

J       ^     '       .  L 

L      1  .. 

f 

^cz    * 

I  love  my  mill,  she  is  to  me  like  parent,  child,  and  wife ; 

I  would  not  change  my  station  for  any  other  in  life : 

Then  push,  push,  push  the  bowl,  my  boys,  and  pass  it  round  to  me ; 

The  longer  we  sit  here  and  drink,  the  merrier  we  shall  be. 


REIGN  OF  QUEEN  ANNE  TO  GEORGE  II. 


669 


HOW  STANDS  THE  GLASS  AROUND. 

This  is  commonly  called  General  Wolfe's  song,  and  is  said  to  have  been  written 
by  him  on  the  night  before  the  battle  of  Quebec ;  but  this  tradition  is  sufficiently 
disproved  by  a  copy  of  the  tune,  under  the  title  of  "Why,  soldiers,  why?" 
in  The  Patron,  or  The  Statesman's  Opera,  performed  at  the  little  theatre  in  the 
Haymarket,  in  1729.  Probably  General  Wolfe  sang  it  on  that  occasion. 

The  words  and  music  are  contained  in  Vocal  Music,  or  The  Songster's  Com- 
panion, ii.  49  (1775),  and  were  introduced  by  Shield  in  The  Siege  of  Gibraltar. 
In  Vocal  Music  they  are  entitled  "  A  Soldier's  Song." 


~s 

Hather  S/OM^  andjirmly. 

MViy(* 

-j  .  J  «  d 

J    t    J    J  L 

^  —  f-r-^H 

5-K- 

-^  —  V-  '  j-        -^5-       '-rgf  •         r$   ^.—  *—  J-^jr^ti^  ^  5T 

How  stands   the  glass  a  -  round  ?  For  shame,  ye  take  no     care,  my  boys!  Hov 

j+~ri  1  •  1  «  1  1  1  d  ^4- 

—  b- 

b 

a  — 

=F 

d   .   **+- 

-*-  -«- 

^_,  „- 

I  J 

stands  the  glass  a  -  round?  Let   mirth  and  wine   a  -  bound.     T 


ie     truin  -  pets 


f 


m& 


w* 


sound,  The      co-lours  they  are     flying,  boys,  To  fight,  kill,  or  wound  :  May    we      still  be 


- 


*    -g:  ^         -SC  • 

Con  -  tent  with  our  hard   fare,   my  boys,  On  the     cold,   cold       ground, 
r-J    "  I  II  =1=-  I       — 


Why,  soldiers,  why 
Should  we  be  melancholy,  boys? 

Why,  soldiers,  why  ? 

Whose  business  'tis  to  die ! 

What!  sighing?  fie! 
Damn  fear,  drink  on,  be  jolly  boys ! 

'Tis  he,  you,  or  I ; 

Cold,  hot,  wet,  or  dry, 
We're  always  bound  to  follow,  boys, 

And  scorn  to  fly. 


'Tis  but  in  vain, 
(I  mean  not  to  upbraid  you,  boys), 

'Tis  but  in  vain 

For  soldiers  to  complain  : 

Should  next  campaign 
Send  us  to  Him  who  made  us,  boys, 

We're  free  from  pain ; 

But  should  we  remain, 
A  bottle  and  kind  landlady 

Cures  all  again. 


670 


ENGLISH   SONG  AND   BALLAD  MUSIC. 


THE  JOLLY  FELLOW. 

This  convivial  song  is  still  popular,  and  there  are  several  extant  versions  of  the 
words.  They  are  founded  on  the  following,  from  Fletcher's  play,  The  Bloody 
Brother,  or  Hollo,  Duke  of  Normandy,  act  ii.,  sc.  2 : — 

"  Drink  to-day  and  drown  all  sorrow,  It  helps  the  head-ache,  cough,  and  tisic, 

You  shall,  perhaps,  not  do  it  to-morrow ;  And  is  for  all  diseases  physic. 
Best,  while  you  have  it,  use  your  breath,   Then  ,et  U3  8wm>  boyB>  for  our  health 
There  is  no  drinking  after  death.  who  drink8  weU  loyes  the  commonwealth. 

Wine  works  the  heart  up,  wakes  the  wit,  And  he  that  will  to  bed  go  sober, 
There  is  no  cure  'gainst  age  but  it;  Falls  with  the  leaf  still  in  October." 

One  of  the  current  versions  is  as  follows  : — 

"  Come,  landlord,  fill  a  flowing  bowl,  until  it  does  run  over ; 

To-night  we  all  will  merry  be,  to-morrow  we'll  get  sober. 

He  that  drinks  strong  beer,  and  goes  to  bed  mellow, 

Lives  as  he  ought  to  live,  and  dies  a  hearty  fellow. 

Punch  cures  the  gout,  the  colic,  and  the  tisic, 

And  is  to  all  men  the  very  best  of  physic. 

He  that  drinks  small  beer,  and  goes  to  bed  sober, 

Falls,  as  the  leaves  do,  that  die  in  October. 

He  that  courts  a  pretty  girl,  and  courts  her  for  his  pleasure, 

Is  a  fool  to  marry  her  without  store  of  treasure. 

Now  let  us  dance  and  sing,  and  drive  away  all  sorrow, 

For  perhaps  we  may  not  meet  again  to-morrow." 

Another  version  will  be  found  in  Vocal  Miscellany,  vol.  ii.,  1734.  It  is  more 
like  the  following,  which  is  from  a  half-sheet  copy  printed  with  the  music.  Owing 
to  the  numerous  repetitions  of  words,  only  two  lines  are  here  taken  up  by  the 
.tune ;  but  I  believe  it  is  more  frequently  sung  with  four  lines,  and  then  without 
repetitions. 

Cheerfully. 


iLj- j.-3+fc/-*- 

Come,  let    us  drink  a  bout,  Drive  a-way   all  sor-  row,     Forp'r'aps  we  may  not, 


J: 


±* 


i=2 


m 


m 


m 


f 


"Tr 


feB 


fc=*i 


Forp'r'aps  we      may  not,  Forp'r'aps  we      may    not     meet    a -gain  to  -mor-row. 


m 


s 


Wine  cures  the  gout,  the  cholic,  and  the  tisic, 
And  is  for  all  men  the  very  best  of  physic. 


REIGN   OF   QUEEN  ANNE   TO   GEOKGE   II. 


671 


He  that  drinks  small  beer,  and  goes  to  bed  sober, 
Falls,  as  the  leaves  do,  that  die  in  October. 

But  he  that  drinks  all  day,  and  goes  to  bed  mellow, 
Lives  as  he  ought  to  do,  and  dies  a  hearty  fellow. 

A  MAY-DAY   DANCE. 

From  the  second  volume  of  The  Dancing  Master. 

Aiter  the  year  1717,  the  celebrations  of  May-day  in  London  were  limited  to 
tho  dances  of  milkmaids  (described  ante  p.  282,  and  in  Hone's  Every-day  Book, 
i.  570),  and  to  the  Jack-in-the-green  of  the  sweeps. 

The  great  May-pole  in  the  Strand  (which  stood  close  to  the  site  of  the  church 
of  St.  Mary-le- Strand)  was  given  to  Sir  Isaac  Newton  in  1717,  and  removed 
to  Wanstead,  where  it  was  used  in  raising  the  largest  telescope  then  known. 
(Pennant's  London) 
Very  quick. 


fegEES 


,  I     IJ- 


-1  —  j  — 

1~ 

ik 

J-^=i-=— 

-1— 

—  i 



' 

-m- 

-J- 

9— 

H  —  H  

COUNTRY   COURTSHIP. 

The  tune  of  Country  Courtship  is  contained  in  the  third  volume  of  The 
Dancing  Master,  in  the  third  volume  of  Walsh's  New  Country  Dancing  Master, 
and  in  many  later  publications.  It  is  in  common  use  at  the  present  time. 

The  first  part  is  nearly  the  same  as  There  was  an  old  fellow  at  Waltham  Cross, 
which  was  sung  to  the  tune  of  In  Taunton  Dean  (see  p.  262).  It  is  also  curious 
that  the  words  of  In  Taunton  Dean,  being  in  eight  line  stanzas,  do  not  suit  the 
version  of  the  tune  In  Taunton  Dean  as  printed  in  the  ballad-operas  of  Elora 
and  The  Jovial  Crew  so  well  as  this,  because  they  require  the  repetition  of  the 
four  bars. 

Some  copies  of  Country  Courtship  differ  in  the  second  part.  Having  printed  it 
one  way  in  the  National  English  Airs,  I  now  adopt  the  other,  which  is  better 


672 


ENGLISH   SONG  AND  BALLAD   MUSIC. 


known  at  the  present  time.  The  "  song  entitled  The  Country  Courtship,  begin- 
ning, <  Honest  Sir,  give  me  thy  hand, '  "  was  entered  at  Stationers'  Hall,  to 
John  Back,  March  31,  1688.  I  have  not  discovered  the  words,  and  have  there- 
fore adapted  the  first  stanza  of  In  Taunton  Dean,  which  will  be  found  entire  in 
The  Merry  Musician,  or  a  Cure  for  the  Spleen,  i.  306. 
Quick. 


In        Taunton  Dean  che  were     bore      and     bred,      To    tell  you  the     truth,     my 


name's  a  cauld  Ned,  Cham  no  An  -  a-baptist,  for    Ich  caunt  abide  'em,  Cham  sure  che  receiv-  ed  his 


Chris  -  ten -dome.         Ich        put    on    my  boots  and    a     zourd  by    my      zide,      And 


I 


up    vor    to      Lun  -din   Ich  mean  for     to      ride ;  Ich  told      va  -  ther  and    ma  -ther  Ich'd 


zee  that  vine       town,   Che'd  stay  there  a    -     while     and    then  Ich  come  down. 

• it -2 . • ! ft 2 • •^"""^  . 


GOOD  MORROW,   GOSSIP  JOAN. 

This  tune  was  introduced  into  The  Beggars'  Opera,  The  Court  Legacy,  TJie 
Oxford  Act,  and  other  ballad-operas.  The  song,  Good  morrow,  Gossip  Joan,  is  in 
Pills  to  purge  Melancholy,  vi.  315 ;  and  "  Happy  Dick,"  to  the  same  tune,  in 
"Watts' s  Musical  Miscellany,  iv.  36,  and  in  Vocal  Miscellany,  vol.  i.,  1734.  The 
latter  commences  thus : — 


REIGN   OF   QUEEN   ANNE  TO   GEORGE  II. 


673 


"  Whence  comes  it,  neighbour  Dick, 

That  you,  with  youth  uncommon, 
Have  serv'd  the  girls  this  trick, 
And  wedded  an  old  woman  ? 

Happy  Dick.' 


i    |  J-  r-m 

1  

ifprfr  (/  —  ?  —  rfc  —  J  —  i 

_j    1  ^    •    *-3-U 

J    j_    j   1 

Good     mor-  row,  Gos 

-  sip         Joan,           Where     ha\ 

e   you    been      a 

<  7  •,!?/»           f*                                f*             f* 

—  —      —  1  CT—     —  h-p: 

j      |  H  

b  b  *  '                 \ 

•                       J                         1 

•                         1 

~N                                           J- 

> 
k^^^^^^ 

f^-   J  r  J  1  J   J_J 

—  ^-r-TlJ    Jiu 

T—^  —  i  —  rn 

-»  —  J—  F—  *  —  •  —  !  —  • 

i  —  *    J   Jj-l 

-J-     x 

w:ilk-ing?          I          have  for      yoi 

.  —  m  

i       at           home,    .    .         I      h( 

m    9     m  r— 

l        ^ 

ive    for     you     at 

—  P     ,        ._„_  —  .  ...  »  _    ,  .  .      ._..(*        _,.(*. 

.     I                 ^ 

r     i"*"r^~~^  —  *-*-- 

•     f«   .  ,-!--,,.  j- 

PP     3  C 

_S.        4       •        .                               X-—  -v     |                   '-S     | 

=n=n=q  —  *  i  i  *  j  —  P 

'  i  ;rf  .  J    iii 

1_  .  U_ 

^JJjUU±i4±=^=zgb± 

.  l=^£r  -f~N 

:4-U^-.  H 

^-j        •             ^               ^             ^ 
home     .   .       A      budget    full  of 

-    •„  .:   .:  T  -  £.      ^  —     .._x->^,...     ,_ 

a  a  F~*~l*  —  L  —  IF  —  L  —  F  —  L 

^         .3.    -g. 

talk     -     -    -    ing,    Gos  - 

—  «,  —  ,  •—  i  — 

CJ                    t*r     - 

sip       Joan. 

1  curt  r  trh-R 

—  3  —  •  J-h— 

-i  n     H" 

My  sparrow's  flown  away, 

And  will  no  more  come  to  me ; 

I've  broke  a  glass  to-day, 

The  price  will  quite  undo  me, 

Gossip  Joan. 


I've  lost  a  Harry  groat 

Was  left  me  by  my  granny,; 

I  cannot  find  it  out, 

I've  search'd  in  ev'ry  cranny, 

Gossip  Joan. 

I've  lost  my  wedding  ring, 

That  was  made  of  silver  gilded  ; 


I  had  drink  would  please  a  king, 
But  that  my  cat  has  spill'd  it, 

Gossip  Joan. 

My  pocket  is  cut  off, 

That  was  full  of  sugar-candy ; 

I  cannot  stop  my  cough 
Without  a  gill  of  brandy, 

Gossip  Joan. 

Let's  to  the  ale-house  go, 

And  wash  down  all  our  sorrow, 

My  griefs  you  there  shall  know, 
And  we'll  meet  again  to-morrow, 

Gossip  Joan. 

A  HEALTH  TO  ALL  HONEST  MEN. 


This  tune  is  contained  in  the  second  volume  of  The  Dancing  Master,  1718 
and  1728  ;  in  Watts's  Musical  Miscellany,  iii.  142,  1730 ;  in  the  ballad-opera  of 
The  Jovial  Crew;  in  The  Convivial  Songster,  1782;  &c. 

The  old  song  called  "  Love  and  Innocence,"  beginning,  "  My  days  have  been 
so  wondrous  free,"  is  apparently  the  same  air,  slightly  altered. 


/L_  —  U  |^j_ 

rr-^= 

=*=&=\ 

—  i  

i=r^P 

pd==^l  i  —  ^-[ 

Ev'ry  man  take  his  glass  in    his 
Many  years  may  he   rule  o'er  this 

,l.Lj                                  —  p*                       '                             f                    »—  , 

—  i  

hand, 
land, 

-*  —  feLJ 

-^---^^^ 

And     drink  to  the  health  of  our 
And  his    lau-relsfor      ev  -  er  fresh 

i        • 
~ 

P  

m  

o         1 

t 

!TB*                  0 

n 

E 

e 

i             /      i 

-x 

1             r      | 

King, 
spring.    • 


Let        wrangling  and     jang  -  ling      straight -way    cease,       Let 


•fa — I- 


IF 

ev'- ry  man  strive    for  his     Coun    -  try's  peace,    Neither   To  -  ry  nor   Whig,    With  your 


par-ties  look  big,    Here's  a  health        to    all  ho-nest  men 


-3-— T: 


When  neither  side  can  his  man  confute  I 
When  you've  said  what  you  dare, 
You're  but  just  where  you  were  : 
Here's  a  health  to  all  honest  men  I 

Then  agree,  ye  true  Britons,  agree  ; 
Never  quarrel  about  a  nickname  ; 
Let  your  enemies  tremblingly  see 

That  an  Englishman's  always  the  same. 
For  our  king  and  our  church,  our  laws  and 

right, 

Let's  lay  by  all  feuds,  and  straight  unite. 
O  then,  why  care  a  fig 
Who's  a  Tory  or  Whig  ? 
Here's  a  health  to  all  honest  men  I 


'Tis  not  owning  a  whimsical  name 

That  will  prove  a  man  loyal  or  just ; 
Let  him  fight  for  his  country's  fame, 

Be  impartial  at  home,  if  in  trust ; 
'Tis  this  that  proves  him  an  honest  soul ; 
His  health  we'll  drink  in  a  brimful  bowl 
Then  leave  off  all  debate, 
No  confusion  create : 
Here's  a  health  to  all  honest  men  1 

When  a  company's  honestly  met, 
With  intent  to  be  jolly  and  gay, 

Their  drooping  souls  for  to  whet, 
And  drown  the  fatigues  of  the  day, 

"What  madness  it  is  thus  to  dispute, 


REIGN   OF   QUEEN   ANNE   TO   GEORGE    II. 


675 


ONE   EVENING,   HAVING   LOST   MY   WAY. 

This  tune  is  contained  in  the  second  volume  of  The  Dancing  Master,  1718 
arid  1728 ;  in  Walsh's  Oompleat  Country  Dancing  Master,  i.  13 ;  and  in  the 
following  ballad-operas: — The  Beggars'*  Opera,  The  Grrub- Street  Opera,  and  The 
Welsh  Opera,  or  The  Grey  Mare  the  better  Horse.  There  are  also  numerous 
extant  half-sheet  copies  of  words  and  music. 

Sometimes  the  air  is  entitled  "  The  happy  Clown,"  and  sometimes  "  Walpole, 
or  the  happy  Clown;"  but  it  is  now  more  generally  known  by  the  words, 
"  I'm  like  a  skiff  on  ocean  toss'd,"  in  The  Beggars'1  Opera. 

The  song  of  "  The  happy  Clown,"  commencing,  u  One  evening,  having  lost  my 
way,"  was  written  by  Mr.  Burkhead.  In  The  Convivial  Songster,  "  As  one 
bright  sultry  summer's  day"  is  printed  to  the  tune,  and  those  words  may  be 
older  than  any  of  the  above. 


r—  

s  —  |  — 

H  —  T~~I  —  *— 

3  J—  J  —  -jM 

VM) 

§  P 

H—  J 

-i 

a  —  j  —  LJ 

-J  *-  •-    i  —  1 

i-K-r 

One          eve-  ning,  hav  - 

ing       lost     my  way,   By  chance      I     came      in    - 

:  —  i  m     ...     L      j  1 

tis^m 

n  —    r  - 

H  E  

__  j  —  .._ 

i-^ 

-d- 

1"  1  K  1 

—  ^  — 

r__^  i  —  ~M 

^   J  4   >: 

-  to        a   wood,  Sol 

•?      "*" 
had    been  ve  -   ry 

_8  —  ?  —  |  —  1*_ 

hot     that  day,      I 

un-der    a     cov  -  ert 

H     ,       l  :  — 

M     .      I           1 

j                   ' 

j 


T          r  ^ 

stood ;  .  .    .      Long      time     I      had    not       tar  -  ried  there,  Be   -   fore       I    heard    a 


F— 


— v-p— *— 


rust -ling  noise,  A        fe  -  male  voice  said  "  Stay, my  dear,"  The   man  cried  "Zoons,  not    I." 


=F=3 


E^E=^=g 

-i? — r~^~ 


2  w 


676 


ENGLISH    SONG   AND    BALLAD   MUSIC. 


PRETTY  POLLY  OLIVER. 

This  is  the  tune  of  an  old  ballad,  entitled  Polly  Oliver's  Ramble,  which  is  still 
in  print  in  Seven  Dials.     It  commences  thus : — 

V  As  pretty  Polly  Oliver  lay  musing  in  bed, 
A  comical  fancy  came  into  her  head  ; 
Nor  father  nor  mother  shall  make  me  false  prove, 
I'll  'list  for  a  soldier,  and  follow  my  love." 
The  old  song  on  the  Pretender,  beginning, 

"As  Perkin  one  morning  lay  musing  in  bed, 

The  thought  of  three  kingdoms  ran  much  in  his  head ; "" 
appears  to  be  a  parody  on  it. 

The  words  of  the  following  are  by  Lord  Cantalupe. 

Smoothly,  and  rather  slow. 


left  -with    a        cau- tious  de  -  sign,  Toes-cape  from  her 


apeirom  her 

£ijt 


,1-1      ,                    £-t 

fete 

-$-*  i  \  i  J^- 

—i  N-H 

f 

charms,  and  to     dr 

m       3: 

J_ft«  —  -I     1 

-S|  -.  L-^  g_J 

own  love     in     wine:     I 

zs^—  tlirjiti  rJ=t*H 

tried  it,    but  found,  when  I     came    to  de  - 

||  ^  ^  «|        i- 

—  1= 

1  ^  

^—  k= 

kf  —  !  —  ^F  —  ]  —  ^ 

1  —  !  1  —  1 

T=i 


*=*= 


^ 


-part,  The      wine     in      my .      head,    but  still       love     in       my       heart. 


I  repair'd  to  my  Reason,  entreating  her  aid, 
She  paus'd  on  my  case,  and  each  circumstance  weigh 'd ; 
Then  gravely  pronounc'd,  in  return  to  my  pray'r, 
That  Hebe  was  fairest  of  all  that  was  fair. 

Th